The twenty-four books of the Holy Scriptures: carefully translated according to the Massoretic text, on the basis of the English version, after the best Jewish authorities; and supplied with short explanatory notes.

This book has been photographed in its entirety. Images can be seen by clicking here. [Page i] THE TWENTY–FOUR BOOKS OF THE HOLY SCRIPTURES: CAREFULLY TRANSLATED ACCORDIN6 TO THE MASSORETIC TEXT, ON THE BASIS OF THE ENGLISH VERSION, After the best Authorities; AND SUPPLIED WITH SHORT EXPLANATORY NOTES. BY ISAAC LEESER. 'For it shall not be forgotten out of the mouth of his seed." — Deft. xxxi. 21. PHILADELPHIA: PUBLISHED AT 371 WALNUT STREET. 5614. [Page ii] ENTERED ACCORDIN6 TO ACT OF CONGRESS, IN THE YEAR 1853, BY ISAAC LEESER, IN THE CLERK'S OFFICE OF THE DISTRICT COURT OF THE UNITED STATES FOR THE EASTERN DISTRICT OF PENNSYLVANIA. STEROTYPED BY L. JOHNSON & CO. PHILADELPHIA. [Page iii] PREFACE. In presenting this work to the public, the translator would merely remark, that it is not a new notion by which he was seized of late years which impelled him to the task, but a desire entertained for more than a quarter of a century, since the day he quitted school in his native land to come to this country, to present to his fellow–Israelites an English version, made by one of themselves, of the Holy Word of God. From early infancy he was made conscious how much persons differing from us in rel16ious ideas make use of Scripture to assail Israefs hope and faith, by what he deems, in accordance with the well–settled opinions of sound critics, both Israelites and others, a perverted and hence erroneous rendering of the words of the original Bible. Therefore he always entertained the hope to be one day permitted to do for his fellow Hebrews who use the English as their vernacular, what had been done for the Germans by some of the most eminent minds whom the Almighty has endowed with the power of reanimating in us the al– most expiring desire for critical inquiry into the sacred text. So much had been done by these, that the translator's labours were rendered comparatively easy ; since he had before him the best results of the studies of modern German Israelites, carried on for the space of eighty years, commencing with Moses Mendelssohn, Herz Wesel, or, as he was called, Hartog Wessely, and Solomon of Dubno, down to Dr. L. Zunz,*of Berlin, whose work appeared in 1839, Dr. Solomon Herxheimer, Rabbi of Anhalt–Bernburg, whose work was completed five years ago, and of Dr. Lewis Philippson,† Rabbi of Magdeburg in Prussian Saxony, whose work is not yet quite completed‡ while writing this. In addition to these entire Bible trans– lations', the translator has had access to partial versions of separate books, by Ottensosser, Heinemann, Obernik, Hochstiitter, Wolfson, Lciwenthal, and some anonymous writers, referred to occasionally in the notes appended to this work ; besides which he has had the advantage of the copious notes of Dr. Philippson's and Dr. Herxheimer's Bibles, in which these learned men have collected the views of the invest16ators, both Israelites and others, in the path of biblical criticism. The ancient versions, also, of Onkelos, Jona– than, and the Jerusalem Targumist have been carefully consulted ; and, wherever accessible, the comments of the great expounders Rashi, (Rabbi Shelemoh Yizchaki,) Redak, (Rabbi David Kimchi,) Aben Ezra, (Rabbi Abraham ben Me'ir ben Ezra,) Rashbam, (Rabbi Shelemoh ben Me'ir, the grandson of Rashi,) Ralbag, (Rabbi Levi ben Gershom,) and Rabbenu Sa'adyah (Saadias) Gaon, as also the Michlol Yophi, and the modern JBiurim, have been sedulously compared, so as to insure the utmost accuracy of which the translator is capable. His library is not very extensive ; but he trusts that the foregoing catalogue of auxiliary works will prove that he has had at hand as good materials as can be obtained anywhere to do justice to his undertaking. It must be left to those acquainted with the subject, to decide whether he has taken due advantage of the materials in his hand ; but he trusts that the judgment will be in his favour, at least so far, that he has been honest and faithful. The translator is an Israelite in faith, in the full sense of the word : he believes in the Scriptures as they have been handed down to us ; in the truth and authenticity of prophecies and their ultimate literal fulfilment. He has always studied the Scriptures to find a confirmation for his faith and hope ; neverthe– less, he asserts fearlessly, that in his going through this work, he has thrown aside all bias, discarded every preconceived opinion, and translated the text before him without regard to the result thence arising for his creed. But no perversion or forced rendering of any text was needed to bear out his opinions or those of Israelites in general ; and he for one would place but little confidence in them, if he were com– pelled to change the evident meaning of the Bible to find a support for them. He trusts, therefore, that to those who agree with him in their rel16ious persuasion, he has rendered an acceptable service ; as they will now have an opportunity to study a version of the Bible which has not been made by the authority *Dr. Zunz, whose work is often quoted in the notes, only transhited the two books of Chronicles ; but he was aided bj– Rabbi Chayira Arnheim, of Glogau, with Genesis, PIxodus, Leviticus. Numbers, the Books of Kings, Ezekiel. Hosea, Obadiah, Jonah, Michn, Nahum, Zechariah, Proverbs, .Job, Ruth, Ecclesiastes, Esther, and Nehemiah ; by Dr. Michael .Sachs, then of Prague, but now of Berlin, with Deuteronomy, Joshua, Judges, the Books of Samuel, Isaiah, Joel, Amos, Ilabakkuk, Zephaniah, Haggai, Malachi, Psalms, the Song of Solomon, and Lamentations, (Jeremiah was translated by both conjointly;) and by Dr. Julius FUrst, of Leipz16, with Daniel and Ezra. Occasionally in the notes, "Zunz" is named; at other times, the special translators. † The merit of the later translators consists therein that thtly have adhered to the letter of the text, and not rendered it freely, to avoid difficulties and to improve the style, as was done by llendelssohn and his immediate followers. A close, literal rendering will be found to characterize this version also. ‡ Only to 1 Chronicles vi. 16. " [Page iv] iv PREFACE. of churches in which they can have no confidence ; and that to those also who are of a different persua– sion, his labours will not be unacceptable, as exhibiting, so far as he could do it, the progress of biblical criticism among ancient and modern Israelites— a task utterly beyond the power of any but a Jew by birth and conviction. As regards the style, it has been endeavoured to adhere closely to that of the ordinary Lnglish version, which for simplicitiy cannot be surpassed; though, upon a critical examination, it will readily be perceived that the various translators differed materially in their method, and frcfiuently rendered the same word in different wavs. In the present version, greiit care has been taken to avoid ¶iis fault ; but the translator does not mean" to assert that he has succeeded to as great an extent as he could have desired. lie will not enumerate what he has done; but let any one who is desirous to invest16ate this point compare the two translations, and he will readily convince himself that this may be called a new version, especially of the Prophets, Psalms, and Job ; and he confidently hopes that the meaning has been rendered more clear by the version itself, and, where this was not altogether practicable, by the notes appended at the foot of the page. He found great difficulty about coming to a satisfactory reso10tion with regard to the spelling of the proper nouns. Any one the least acipiainted with the manner they are presented in the common versions and the languages of Western Europe, must know that they are very much corrupted ; but they have in this shape become so much interwoven with the language of history and of daily conversation, that it would have produced endless confusion to spell them after the original manner. Hence the ordinary method had to be retained for words in constant use ; but where this ivas not the case, a spelling more in ac– cordance with the original has been resorted to. The¶ should always be pronounced as y, to accord with the Hebrew ; and ia as ya. A should be sounded as long ah ; e as long a ; i as long ec ; and n as oo. Ch stands for the Hebrew n; where ¶ occurs in the Hebrew, an apostrophe' has been used for the most part ; but there are no English letters to represent these sounds exactly. For instance, " Zecha– riah," pronounce Zecharyah ; "Jehu," as Yay–hoo, kc. The translator will not ask that his errors and misconceptions shall be excused ; but he trusts that any fault which may be discovered will be kindly pointed out to him, so that he may be able to make use of all such remarks to correct his work in a future edition ; and he for his own part will not be satisfied with what he has done, but endeavour to inii)rove liy future experience. Whenever words have been supplied which are not in the text, but requisite to make the sense clear, they have been placed in parentheses; for instance, 1 Chron. iii. 0, "(These were) all the sons of David," wliere there is no equivalent in Hebrew for ''these were," though no sense could be made of the phrase without supplying these two words. The parenthesis is also used occasionally, but very seldom, to denote a construction, where an actual parenthesis of a whole sentence, or of one or more verses, occurs. The whole work has been undertaken at the sole responsibility, both mercantile and literary, of the translator. No individual has iieen questioned respecting the meaning of a single sentence; and not an English book has been consulted, except Bagster's Bible, a few notes of which have been incorporated with this. The peculiarity of the style will readily indicate them. The author's name would have been appended, had it been known to the translator. Although about the sixth part of the contents of this vo10me are notes, still he did not mean to write a commentary on the Bible, nor must the notes be regarded as any thing else than a mere slight aid for the explanation of grammatical and other difficulties. For this they are probably ample enough; otherwise ihoy must appear very defective in quantity and manner. With these few remarks the translator surrenders a labour in which he has been engaged, occasionally, for more than fifteen years, to the kindness of the public, trusting that, by the blessing of the Father of all, it may be made instrumental in diffusing a taste for iScrijjture reading among the community of Is– raelites, and bo the means of a better appreciation of the great treasures of revelation to many who never have bad the opportunity of knowing what the Hebrews have done for mankind, not alone in preserving the sacred book.–, but by labouring to make them intell16ible to the world at large. Philadelphia | E10l 17th, 5613. Sept. 20th, 1853. [Page 1] THE HOLY SCRIPTURES: PART FIRST, CONTAININ6 THE PENTATEUCH; OR, THE FIVE BOOKS OF MOSES. GENESIS, n'B¶Nia EXODUS, niosr LEVITICUS, Nnp'l NUMBERS, –)m03 DEUTERONOMY, DniT– [Page 3] THE BOOK OF GENESIS, BERESHITHa, n¶tr'Nia, CONTAININ6 THE HISTORY OF THE CREATION AND PATRIARCHS. CHAPTER I. 1 In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth. 2 And the earth was without forrn, and void; and darkness was upon the face of the deep ; and the spirit of God was waving over the face of the waters. 3 And God said, Let there be light ; and there was light. 4 And God saw the light that it was good ; and God divided between the light and the darkness. 5 And God called the light Day, and the darkness he called Night. And it was even– ing and it was morning, the first day. 6 ¶ And God said, Let there be an expan– sionb in the midst of the waters, and let it divide between waters and waters. 7 And God made the expansion, and di– vided between the waters which were under the expansion and the waters which were above the expansion : and it was so. 8 And God called the expansion Hewen. And it was evening and it was morning, thec second day. 9 ¶ And God said, Let the waters under the heaven be gathered together unto one place, and let the dry land be visible : and it was so. 10 And God called the dry land Earth; and the gathering together of the waters he called Seas : and God saw that it was good. 11 And God said. Let the earth bring forth grass, herbs yielding seed, fruit–trees yielding fruit after theird kind, in which its seed is upon the earth : and it was so. 12 And the earth brought forth grass, herbs yielding seed after their kind, and trees yield– ing fruit, in which its seed is after their kind : and God saw that it was good. 13 And it was evening and it was morn– ing, the third day.*e 14 ¶ And God said. Let there be lights in the expansion of the heaven to divide be– tween the day and the night ; and let them be for signs, and for seasons, and for days, and years ; 15 And let them be for lights in the ex– pansion of the heaven, to give light upon the earth : and it was so. 16 And God made the two great lights ; the greater light tof rule the day, and the lesser light to rule the night ; and the stars. 17 And God set them in the expansion of the heaven to give light upon the earth, 18 And to rule by day and by night, and to divide between the light and the darkness : and God saw that it was good. 19 And it was evening and it was morn– ing, the fourth day. 20 ¶ And God said, Let the waters bring forth abundantly moving creatures that have life, and fowl that may lly above the earth in the open expansion of the heaven. 21 And God created the great sea–mon– a This word is the name of the first weekly section, also of the first book of Moses, from the first word thereof, which is Bereshith, i. e. "In the beginning." — It must be understood that the whole law is divided into fifty– four sections, appointed to be read during the course of the year, so that each Sabbath one or two conjointly are read. Each of these sections bears a name derived from the first distinctive word thereof, and this will be found indicated throughout the Pentateuch of this edition. a I have preferred this term to the usual translations, because it expresses more correctly the idea of the Hebrew word, from ;'pi to eoqmn ; therefore, the expansion of the atmosphere, not the fixed vault of the skies. c Properly, "a second day," the definite article being wanting; and so with all the others, up to the fifth day. d Properly, "its kind," referring to rP tree, collec– tive singular, rendered here with the p10ral trees. e The stars are used to denote the verses where the por– tions of the various sections end. eHeb. " for the rule of." 3 [Page 4] GENESIS I. II. BERESHITH. sters,a and every living creature that moveth, which the waters brought forth abundantly alter their kind, and every winged fowl after its kind : and God saw that it was good. 22 And God blessed them, saying, Be fruit– ful, and multiply, and fill the waters in the seas, and let the fowl multiply on the earth. 23 And it was evening and it was morn– ing, the fifth day.* 24 ¶ And God said, Let the earth bring forth living creatures after their kind, cattle, and creeping things, and beasts of the earth after their kind : and it was so. 25 And God made the beasts of the earth after their kind, and the cattle after their kind, and every thing that creepeth upon the earth after its kind: and God saw that it was good. 26 And God said, Let usb make man in our image, after our likeness ; and they shall have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the heaven, and over the cattle, and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth. 27 And God created man in his image, in the image of God created he him; male and female created he them. 28 And God blessed them, and God said unto them. Be fruitful and multiply, and fill the earth, and subdue it; .and have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the heaven, and over every living thing that moveth upon the earth. 29 And God said, Behold I have given unto you every herb bearing seed, which is upon the face of all the earth, and every tree on which is the fruit of a tree yielding seed ; to you it shall be for food. 30 And to every beast of the earth, and to every fowl of tiie heaven, and to every tiling that creepeth upon the earth, wherein there is life, (I have given) every green herb for food : and it was so. 31 And God sawc every thing that he a Meaning, all the greater animals that inhabit the seas, in contradistinction to tbo smaller creatures afterwards described. b This phrase is employed here, as in other places, to express the purpose of the Deity to effect will. This construction is called " the p10ral of majesty." c Looked over;" meaning, that when all had been completed, the Creator, so to say, cast his view over all, and then saw that there was nothing defective in the whole 4 had made, and behold, it was very good. And it was evening and it was morning, the sixth day. CHAPTER II. 1 ¶ Thus were finished the heavens and the earth, and all their host. 2 And God had finished on the seventh day his work which he had made, and he rested on the seventh day from all his work which he had made. 3 And God blessed the seventh day, and sanctified it ; because thereon he had rested from all his work which God had created in making it.*d 4 ¶ These are the generationse of the hea– vens and of the earth when they were created, on the day that the Lordf God made earth and heaven. 5 And every plant of the field was not yet on the earth, and every herb of the field had not yet grown; for the Lord God had not caused it to rain upon the earth, and man was not yet there to till the ground. 6 But there went up a mist from the earth, and watered the whole face of the ground. 7 And the Lord God formed the man of dust from the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life ; and the man be– came a living being. 8 And the Lord God planted a garden in Eden to the eastward, and he put there the man whom he had formed. 9 And the Lord God caused to grow out of the ground every tree that is pleasant to the sight and good for food ; and the tree of life in the midst of the garden, and the tree of the knowledge of good and evil. 10 And a river went out of Eden to water the garden, and from there it was parted, and became four principal streams. 11 The name of the first is Pishon, the same whicii compasseth the whole land of Havilah, where there is gold. system of outward nature, produced by his creative power. dAfter Philippson. e"The history of the creation." — Mendelssohn. fThe proper signification of this word is the Eternal, which term will he used when abso10tely required, but generally the usual word will be employed; but its proper sense will be indicated, as is customary in all the English Bibles, by printing it in what is technically called SMALL CAPITALS. [Page 5] GENESIS II. III. BERESHITH. 12 And the gold of that land is good ; there is the bdellium and the onyx stone. 13 And the name of the second river is Gihon, the same which compasseth the whole land of Cush. 14 And the name of the third river is Hid– dekel, the same which floweth towards the east of Assyria ; and the fourth river is the Euphrates. 15 And the Lord God took the man, and put him into the garden of Eden, to till it, and to keep it. 16 And the Lord God commanded the man, saying. Of every tree of the garden thou mayest freely eat; 17 But of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, thou shalt not eat of it ; for on the day that thou eatest thereof thou shalt surely die. 18 And the Lord God said. It is not good that the man should be alone ; I will make him a help suitable for him.* 19 And the Lord God had formed out of the ground every beast of the field, and every fowl of the heaven, and he brought them unto the man to see what he would call them ; and whatsoever the man would call every living creature, that should be its name. 20 And the man gave names to all cattle, and to the fowl of the heaven, and to every beast of the field ; but for man there was not found a help suitable for him. 21 And the Lord God caused a deep sleep to fall upon the man, and he slept ; and he took one of his ribs, and closed up the flesh instead thereof. 22 And the Lord God formeda the rib which he had taken from the man into a wo– man, and brought her unto the man. 23 And the man said. This timeb it is bone of my bones, and flesh of my flesh ; this shall be called Woman, (Ishah,) because out of Man (Ish) was this one taken. 24 Therefore dothc a man leave his father and his mother, and cleave unto his wife, and they become one flesh. aAfter the Hebrew, "built." bIn opposition to the other animals named before, they being unlike man, consequently not like the woman, bone of his bone, and flesh of his flesh. — Philippson gives it : " This one, at this time, is," &c. cThe Hebrew future employed in the test represents not a command, but the habit; and, in this manner, the future tense is frequently used, where a constant practice or habit is al10ded to– 25 And they were both naked, the man and his wife, and were not ashamed. CHAPTER III. 1 Now the serpent was more subtle than any beast of the field which the Lord God had made, and he said unto the woman, Hath God indeed said. Ye shall not eat of every tree of the garden ? 2 And the woman said unto the serpent. We may eat of the fruit of the trees of the garden ; 3 But of the fruit of the tree which is in the midst of the garden, God hath said. Ye shall not eat of it, neither shall ye touchd it, lest ye die. 4 And the serpent said unto the woman. Ye will surely not die ; 5 For God doth know, that, on the day ye eat thereof, your eyes will be opened, and ye will be as God, knowing good and evil. 6 And when the woman saw that the tree was good for food, and that it was pleasant to the eyes, and the tree was desirable to make one wise,e she took of its fruit, and did eat, and gave also unto her husband with her, and he did eat. 7 And the eyes of both of them were opened, and they felt that they were naked ; and they sewed f16–leaves together, and made themselves aprons. 8 And they heard the voice of the Lord God walking in the garden in the cool of the day ; and the man and his wife hid themselvesf from the presence of the Lord God amongst the trees of the garden. 9 And the Lord God called unto the man, and said unto him. Where art thou ? 10 And he said. Thy voice I heard in the garden; and I was afraid, because I am naked; and I hid myself. 11 And he said. Who told thee that thou art naked? Hast thou eaten of the tree, whereof I comman–ded thee that thou shouldest not eat ? 12 And the man said. The woman whom d Here is shown the danger of adding to the command– ment; God had not ordained them not to touch the tree, only not to eat of the fruit; hence she was less able to withstand the cunning of the serpent. e To contemplate." — Mendelssohn. f In the text the verb is used in the singular, and ought therefore to be properly given, "and the man hid himself with his wife." This construction is very frequent in Hebrew. 5 [Page 6] GENESIS III. IV. BERESHITH. thou gavest to be with me, she gave me of the tree, and I did cat. 13 And the Lord God said unto the woman, What is this that thou hast done? And the woman said, The serpent beguiled me, and I did eat. 14 And the Lord God said unto the ser– pent, Because thou hast done this, be thou cursed above all the cattle, and above every beast of the field ; upon thy belly shalt thou go, and dust shalt thou eat all the days of thy life : 15 And I will put enmity between thee and the woman, and between thy seed and her seed ; he shall bruise thy head, and thou shalt wound his heel. 16 ¶ Unto the woman he said, I will greatly multiply thy pain and (the suffering of) thy conception ; in pain thou shalt bring forth children ; and for thy husband shall be thy desire, but he shall rule over thee. 17 ¶ And unto Adama he said, Because thou hast hearkened unto the voice of thy. wife, and hast eaten of the tree of which I commanded thee, saying, Thou shalt not eat of it: cursed be the ground for thy sake; in pain shalt thou eat of it all the days of thy life. 18 And thorns and thistles shall it bring forth to thee ; and thou shalt eat the herbs of the field.b 19 In the sweat of thy face shalt thou eat bread, till thou return unto the ground, for out of it wast thou taken ; for dust thou art, and unto dust shalt thou return. 20 And the man called his wife's name Evec (Chavvah); because she was the mother of all living (Chay). 21 And the Lord God made unto Adam and to his wife coats of skins, and clothed them.* 22 ¶ And the Lord God said. Behold, the man is become as one of us, to know good and evil ; and now, lest he put forth his hand, and take also of the tree of life, and eat, and live for ever.d 23 Therefore the Lord God sent him forth from the garden of Eden, to till the ground from which he was taken. 24 So he drove out the man ; and he placed at the east of the garden of Eden the Cheru– bim, and the flaminge sword which revolveth, to guard the way to the tree of life. CHAPTER IV. 1 ¶ And the man knew Eve his wife ; and she conceived, and bore Cain, and said, I have gottenf a man from the Lord. 2 And she bore again, his brother, Abel ;g and Abel was a keeper of sheep, but Cain was a tiller of the ground. 3 And it came to pass in process of time, that Cain brought of the fruit of the ground an offering unto the Lord. 4 And Abel — he also brought of the first– lings of his flock, and of the fattesth thereof; and the Lord had respect unto Abel and to his offering; 5 But unto Cain and to his offering he had not respect ; and it was very displeasing to Cain, and his countenance fell. 6 And the Lord said unto Cain, Why art thou wroth ? and why is thy countenance fallen? 7 If thou doest well, shalt thou not be ac– cepted ? and if thou doest not well, sin lieth at the door ; and unto thee is its desire, but thou canst rule over it. 8 And Cain talked with Abel his brother: and it came to pass when they were in the field, that Cain rose up against Abel his brother, and slew him. 9 And the Lord said unto Cain, Where is Abel thy brother? And he said, I know not; am I my brother's keeper ? 10 And he said, What hast thou done ? the voice of thy brother's blood crieth unto me from the ground. 11 And now be thou cursed fromi the ground, which hath opened its mouth to receive thy brother's blood from thy hand: 12 When thou tillest the ground, it shall a Adam signifies "man," as one taken from the prouiiJ; lie remain in Ellen, it waif the intention of the Deity to Adam, man, being derived from Adamah, ground. b The curse was directed to Adam, that he should be compelled to obtain his food by constant toil, whereas be– fore sinning, only slight exertions were required to gather what grew spontaneously from the ground. cS16nifying " living." d Evidently an elliptical sentence; meaning, that since man might partake of the fruit of the tree of life should he remain in Eden, it was the intention of the Deity to banish him, which banishment is then recorded in the next verses. eLiterally, " the flame of the sword," itc. fpp A'. Kayin, from Kanah. Philippson, after Ra– shi, renders pk by " with," i. e. " the aid of." g Correctly, " Habel." h Eng. ver. and others, " the fat," &o. i" More than the ground." — Salomon. [Page 7] GENESIS IV. V. BERESHITH. not henceforth yield its strength unto thee ; fugitive and vagabond shalt thou be on the earth. 13 And Cain said unto the Lord, My punishment is greater than I can bear. 14 Behold, thou hast driven me out this day from the face of the ground ; and from thy facea shall I be hid ; and if I shall be a fugitive and vagabond on the earth, it will come to pass, that every one that findeth me will slay me. 15 And the Lord said unto him. Therefore whosoever slayeth Cain, vengeance shall be taken on him seven–fold. And the Lord set a sign unto Cain, that any one finding him should not kill him. 16 And Cain went out from the presence of the Lord, and dwelt in the land of Nod, on the east of Eden. 17 And Cain knew his wife, and she con– ceived, and bore Enoch ;*b and he built a city, and called the name of the city after the name of his son Enoch. 18 And unto Enoch was born Irad; and Irad begat Mehujael; and Mehijael begat Methushael ; and Methushael begat Lemech.* 19 And Lemech took unto himself two wives, the name of the one was Adah, and the name of the other Zillah. 20 And Adah bore Jabal; he was the father of such as dwell in tents, and have cattle. 21 And his brother's name was Jubal ; he was the father of all such as play on the harp and guitar.c 22 And Zillah, she also bore Tubal–cain, an artificer in every article of copper and iron ; and the sister of Tubal–cain was Naamah. 23 And Lemech said unto his wives, Adah and Zillah, hear my voice ; ye wives of Le– mech, hearken unto my speech; for I have slain a man to my own wounding, and a young man to my hurt. 24 If Cain shall be wenged seven–fold, truly Lemech seventy and seven–fold. a i. e. Thy protection will be withdrawn. b Correctly, " Chanoch." c Others render this with " pipe," making Jubal the the inventor of stringed and wind instruments in their simplest forms. d From Shath, " he bestowed." e Rashi renders " by," and explains, " to call men and idols by the name of God, to convert them into deities for worship;" and he would thus place the commencement of idolatrous worship as early as the time of the grandson of 25 And Adam knew his wife again, and she bore a son, and called his name Shethd (Seth) ; for God (said she) hath appointed me another seed instead of Abel, whom Cain slew. 26 And to Sheth, to him also there was born a son ; and he called his name Enosh : then began men to call upone the name of the Lord.* CHAPTER V. 1 ¶ This is the book of the generations of Adam. On the day that God created man, in the likeness of God made he him : 2 Male and female created he them ; f and blessed them, and called their name Adam, on the day when they were created. 3 And Adam lived a hundred and thirty years, and begat a son in his likeness, after his image ; and called his name Sheth. 4 And the days of Adam after he had be– gotten Sheth were eight hundred years ; and he begat sons and daughters. 5 And all the days that Adam lived were nine hundred and thirty years; and he died. 6 ¶ And Sheth lived a hundred and five years, and begat Enosh. 7 And Sheth lived after he had begotten Enosh eight hundred and seven years ; and he begat sons and daughters. 8 And all the days of Sheth were nine hundred and twelve years ; and he died. 9 ¶ And Enosh lived ninety years, and begat Kenan. 10 And Enosh lived after he had begotten Kenan eight hundred and fifteen years ; and he begat sons and daughters. 11 And all the dajs of Enosh were nine hundred and five years ; and he died. 12 ¶ And Kenan lived seventy years, and begat Mahalalel. 13 And Kenan lived after he had begotten Mahalalel eight hundred and forty years; and he begat sons and daughters. Adam : others explain simply, " then men began to pray to God;" others again, " to teach in the name of God;" whilst others would understand that the name of God was used in denominating persons — perhaps, by attaching the syllable el (God) to names. f In the sacred writing, the change of persons from second to third, and from singular to p10ral, and vice versa, is by no means a rare construction ; but as there is always some reason easily apparent for this change, it will be pre– served for the most part in this version. 7 [Page 8] GENESIS V. VI. BERESHITH. 14 And all the days of Kenan were nine 10iiidred and ten years; and he died. 15 ¶ And Mahalalel lived sixty and five years, and begat Tared. 16 And Mahalalel lived after he had be– gotten Jared eight hundred and thirty years ; and he begat sons and daughters. 17 And all the days of Mahalalel were eight hundred ninety and five years ; and he died. 18 ¶ And Jared lived a hundred sixty and two years, and begat Enoch. a 19 And Jared lived after he had begotten Enoch eight hundred years; and he begat sons and daughters. 20 And all the days of Jared were nine hundred sixty and two years; and he died. 21 ¶ And Enoch lived sixty and five years, and begat Methushelah. 22 And Enoch walkedb with God after he had begotten Methushelah three hundred years; and begat sons and daughters. 23 And all the days of Enoch were three hundred sixty and five years. 24 And Enoch walked with God, and he was no more ; for God had takenc him.* 25 ¶ And Methushelah lived a hundred eighty and seven years, and begat Lemech. 26 And Methushelah lived after he had be– gotten Lemech seven hundred eighty and two years ; and he begat sons and daughters. 27 And all the days of Methushelah were nine hundred sixty and nine years ; and he died. 28 ¶ And Lemech lived a hundred eighty and two years, and begat a son. 29 And he called his name Noach, (Noah,) a Correctly, "Chanoch." b The term " walking with God" is employed to ex– press a righteous course of life, as though the man of whom it is said, walked with and was accompanied by the presence of his Maker. So is it said of Noah, "Noah walked with God." In other places it is called walking in the presence of God, as we read in the history of Abra– ham: "Walk before me and be perfect." So, on the other hand, to act wickedly is termed " throwing God behind one's back." All these, and many others, are f16urative phrases used by the Hebrews to give a lively idea of what simple words fail to express as strongly and beauti– fully. c Evident reference to a life after death: the decease of the righteous is thus termed against died used elsewhere, probably to indicate that they are to dwell with their God whom they have worshipped. (Compare with Psalm xlix. 10.) d RASHI renders, "shall give us rest," nj, from ny, he 8 saying, This one shall comfortd us concerning our work and the toil of our hands, because of the ground which the Lord hath cursed. 30 And Lemech lived after he had begotten Noah five hundred ninety and five years ; and begat sons and daughters. 31 And all the days of Lemech were seven hundred seventy and seven years; and he died. 32 ¶ And Noah was five hundred years old, and Noah begat Shem, Ham, and Japheth. CHAPTER VI. 1 And it came to pass, when men began to multiply on the face of the earth, and daughters were bom unto them, 2 That the sons of Gode saw the daughters of men, that they were fair ; and they took themselves wives of all whom they chose. 3 And the Lord said, My Spiritf shall not always strive for the sake of man, for that he is but flesh ; yet his days shall be a hundred and twenty years. 4 The giants were on the earth in those days ; and also after that, when the sons of God came in unto the daughters of men, and they bore children to them ; these became the mighty men, who were of old the men of renown.* 5 ¶ And God saw that the wickedness of man was great on the earth, and that every imagination of the thoughts of his heart was only evil continually. 6 And it repentedg the Lord that he had made man on the earth, and it grieved him at his heart. 7 And the Lord said, I will destroy the shall give rest, from the root ni: — referring to the invention of the plough, which is assigned to Noah, by which humau labour was much abridged. e " Sons of the chiefs." — Onkelos. Daughters of men, those of the common people. f " My Spirit cannot always rule in man, — in the strife of his passions he remains flesh, — and therefore shall his days be," &c. This is the new and bold version of Arn– heim. Rashi, Aben Ezra, Onkelos, and Mendelssohn give " his days" the addition " of grace," meaning the punish– ment of the intended flood should be delayed one hun– dred and twenty years, in hopes of man's repentance. Philippson renders, " My Spirit shall not for ever succumb in man, since he is but flesh." g This expression, otherwise not applicable to the Deity, who is no man that he lie should repent, is employed merely to convey to us, in human language, the action of God; for it is man's custom to repent of what he has made when he finds himself compelled to destroy it. [Page 9] GENESIS VI. VII. NOACH. man whom I have created from the face of the earth ; both man and beast, and the creep– ing things and the fowls of the heaven ; for it repenteth me that I have made them. 8 But Noah found grace in the eyes of the Lord. Haphtorah in Isaiah xlii. 5–21 ; the Germans read to xliii. 11. SECTION II. NOACH, n:. 9 ¶ These are the generations of Noah: Noah was a just, perfect man in his genera– tions; Noah walked with God. 10 And Noah begat three sons, Shem, Ham, and Japheth. 11 And the earth was corrupt before God ; and the earth was filled with violence. 12 And God looked upon the earth, and behold, it was corrupt, for all flesh had cor– rupted his waya upon the earth. 13 ¶ And God said unto Noah, The end of all flesh is come before me ; for the earth is filled with violence through them, and I will destroy them withb the earth. 14 Make thee an ark of gopher–wood, rooms shalt thou make in the ark, and shalt pitch it within and without with pitch . 15 And this is the manner in which thou shalt make it : The length of the ark shall be three hundred cubits, the breadth of it fifty cubits, and the height of it thirty cubits. 16 A windowc shalt thou make to the ark, and thou shalt finish it above, to be one cubit broad, and the door of the ark shalt thou set in the side thereof; with lower, second, and third stories shalt thou make it. 17 And as regards myself, behold, I will bring a flood of waters upon the earth, to de– stroy all flesh, wherein is the breath of life, from under the heavens ; every thing that is on the earthd shall perish. 18 But I will establish my covenant with thee ; and thou shalt come into the ark, thou, and thy sons, and thy wife, and thy sons' wives with thee. 19 And of every living thing, of all flesh, two of every sort shalt thou bring into the ark, to keep them alive with thee : male and female shall they be. a Since to please God is called " walking" with him, a corruption of morals is properly termed " corrupting one's way." b Philippson, "from." Idem, "openings for light." c "On the earth," — this would except the animals in– B 20 Of the fowls after their kind, and of the cattle after their kind, of every creeping thing of the earth after its kind, two of every sort shall come unto thee, to keep them alive. 21 And thou, for thy part, take unto thee of all food that is eaten, and thou shalt gather it to thee ; and it shall be unto thee, and unto them for food. 22 Thus did Noah ; according to all that God commanded him, so he did.* CHAPTER VII. 1 And the Lord said unto Noah, Come thou and all thy household into the ark ; for thee have I seen righteous before me in this generation. 2 Of every clean beast thou shalt take to thee seven pair of each, the male and his fe– male ; and of beasts that are not clean two pair, the male and his female. 3 Also of the fowls of the heaven, seven pair of each, the male and the female ; to keep seed alive upon the face of all the earth. 4 For after only seven days more, I will cause it to rain upon the earth forty days and forty nights : and I will blot out every living substance that I have made from off the face of the earth. 5 And Noah did all just as the Lord com– manded him. 6 And Noah was six hundred years old when the flood of waters was upon the earth. 7 And Noah went in, and his sons, and his wife, and his sons' wives with him, into the ark, because of the waters of the flood. 8 Of the clean beasts, and of the beasts that are not clean, and of the fowls, and of every thing that creepethe upon the earth, 9 Two pair of each went in unto Noah into the ark, the male and the female, as God had commanded Noah. 10 And it came to pass, after the seven days, that the waters of the flood were upon the earth. 11 In the six hundreth year of Noah's life, in the second month, on the seventeenth day of the month, on this same day, were all the fountains of the great deep broken up, and the windowsf of heaven were opened. habiting the waters, and they would thus seem not to have been destroyed by the flood. e Philippson renders hero and elsewhere, " which moveth :" the same version is also used here, ver. 21. f Figurative expression to denote the immense mass of 9 [Page 10] GENESIS VII. VIII. NOACH. 12 And the rain fell upon the earth forty days and forty nights. 13 On that self–same day entered Noah, and Shem, and Ham, and Japheth, the sons of Noah, and Noah's wife, and the three wives of his sons with them, into the ark ; 14 They, and every beast after his kind, and all the cattle after their kind, and every creeping thing that crecpeth upon the earth after its kind, and every fowl after his kind, every bird, every thing that hath wings. 15 And they went in unto Noah into the ark, twoa pair of each, of all flesh, wherein is the breath of life. 16 And they that went in, went in male and female of all flesh, as God had com– manded him : and then the Lord shut him in.* 17 And the flood was forty days upon the earth ; and the waters increased, and bore up the ark, and it was lifted up above the earth. 18 And the waters prevailed,b and were in– creased greatly upon the earth : and the ark floated along upon the face of the waters. 19 And the waters prevailed exceedingly upon the earth ; and all the high mountains that are under the wdiole heavens were covered. 20 Fifteen cubits above them did the waters prevail ; and the mountains were (thus) covered. 21 And all flesh perished that moved upon the earth, both of fowl, and of cattle, and of beast, and of every creeping thing that creep– eth upon the earth, and every man. 22 All in whose nostrils was the breath of life, of all that were on the dry land, died. 23 And itc swept off" every living substance which was upon the face of the ground, both man, and cattle, and creeping things, and fowls of the heaven; and they were swept from the earth; and Noah only was left, together with those that were with him in the ark. 24 And the waters prevailed upon the earth one hundred and fifty days. water which poured down upon the earth, which appeared an though windows had been opened in the body of the atmosphere, from which the flood issued forth constantly in resis¶ess strength. a Meaning " at liuist two," not exc10ding the remainder of the seven ordered of certain kinds. b That is, " they increased in mass, covering the earth." c The flood, referring thus to the nominative mentioned in verse 17. 10 CHAPTER VIII. 1 And God remembered Noah, and every living thing,d and all the cattle that were with him in thoark : and God caused a wind to pass over the earth, and the waters were assuaged ; 2 The fountains also of the deep, and the windows of heaven were stopped; and the rain from heaven was restrained. 3 And the waters returned from off the earth, gradually returning ; and the waters were abated after the end of the hundred and fifty days. 4 And the ark rested in the seventh month, on the seventeenth day of the month, upon the mountains of Ararat. 5 And the waters decreased continually until the tenth month ; in the tenth month, on the first day of the month, were the tops of the mountains seen ; 6 And it came to pass at the end of forty days, that Noah opened the window of the ark which he had made ; 7 And he sent forthe af rwen which went forth to and fro, until the waters were dried up from ofi" the earth. 8 He then sent forth af dove from him, to see if the waters were abated from off the face of the ground. 9 But the dove found no resting–place for the sole of her foot, and she returned unto him unto the ark ; for there was water on the face of the whole earth ; then he put forth his hand, and took her, and brought her in unto him into the ark. 10 And he stayed yet other seven days, and again he sent forth the dove out of the ark. 11 And the dove came in to him at the time of the evening; and, lo, an olive–leaf plucked off was in her mouth ; so Noah knew that the waters were abated from off the earth. 12 And he stayed yet other seven days, d After Aben Ezra, who inc10des under the term rrn the birds and creeping things likewise. e The non–return of the birds was to be a sure sign of their finding the earth again fit for their habitation. f Heb. " The," moaning the birds known as rwen and dove : the definite article is often so used in Scripture, to denote a nunknown individual of a known species. [Page 11] GENESIS VIII. IX. NOACH. and sent forth the dove ; but she returned not again unto him any more. 13 And it came to pass in the six hun– dredth and first year, in the first month, on the first day of the month, that the waters were dried up from off the earth ; and Noah re– moved the covering of the ark, and looked, and, behold, the face of the ground was dry. 14: And in the second month, on the seven and twentieth day of the month, was the earth perfectly dried up.* 15 ¶ And God spoke unto Noah, saying, 16 Go forth from the ark, thou, and thy wife, and thy sons, and thy sons' wives with thee. 17 Every living thing that is with thee, of all flesh, both of fowl, and of cattle, and of every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth, bring forth with thee ; that they may breed abundantly on the earth, and be fruit– ful, and multiply upon the earth. 18 And Noah went forth, and his sons, and his wife, and his sons' wives with him. 19 Every beast, every creeping thing, and every fowl, whatsoever creepeth upon the earth, after their families, went forth out of the ark. 20 And Noah built an altar unto the Lord, and he took of every clean cattle, and of every clean fowl, and offered burnt–offerings on the altar. 21 And the Lord smelled the sweet savour ; and the Lord said in his heart, I will not again curse the ground any more for the sake of man; althougha the imagination of man's heart is evil from his youth : neither will I again smite any more every thing living, as I have done. 22 All the while the earth remaineth, seed–time and harvest, and cold and heat, and summer and winter, and day and night, shall not cease. CHAPTER IX. 1 And God blessed Noah and his sons, and a This is Arnheim's version : others have it " because," which then conveys the idea that since man is so consti– tuted, it would be unjust to punish all, as had been done. b That is, "your power," or "your disposal." c Our tradition says, that this prohibits the eating of any part of a living animal, 'nn ]a l¶N : this barbarous custom is not yet extinct in some parts of the East. d The Noachitic commandments are, according to the Talmud: 1. The exercise of justice ; 2. The worship of God, or the prohibition of blasphemy ; 3. The prohibition said unto them. Be fruitful, and multiply, and replenish the earth. 2 And the fear of you, and the dread of you, shall be upon every beast of the earth, and upon every fowl of the heaven ; whatever is that moveth upon the earth, and all the fishes of the sea, are delivered into your hand.b 3 Every moving thing that liveth shall be yours for food ; even as the green herbs have I given you all things. 4 But flesh in which its life is,c which is its blood, shall ye not eat. 5 Your blood, however, on which your lives depend, will I require : at the hand of every beast will I require it ; and at the hand of man, at the hand of every man's brother will I require the life of man. 6 Whoso sheddeth man's blood, by man shall his blood be shedd for in the image of God made he man. 7 And you, be be fruitful, and multiply ; bring forth abundantly on the earth, and multiply thereon.* 8 ¶ And God spoke unto Noah, and to his sons with him, saying, 9 And I, behold, I establish my covenant with you, and with your seed after you ; 10 And with every living creature that is with you, of the fowl, of the cattle, and of every beast of the earth with you, from all those that go out of the ark, for every beast of the earth. 11 And I will establish my covenant with you; and all flesh shall not be cut off any more by the waters of ae flood ; neither shall there be any more a flood to destroy the earth. 12 And God said, This is the token of the covenant which I makef between me and you, and every living creature that is with you, for perpetual generations. 13 My bow I dog set in the cloud, and it shall be for a token of the covenant between me and the earth. of idolatry; 4. The prohibition of incest; 5. The prohibi– tion of murder; 6. The prohibition of theft; 7. The pro– hibition of eating the flesh of a live animal. e Properly, " the flood," meaning that well–known quantity of water which constitutes a flood. See above, note to viii. 7. f Heb. "place," or "set." g Heb. " I have set," indicating that the rainbow previously existing was appointed the sign of the new covenant. 11 [Page 12] GENESIS IX. X. NOACH. 14 And it shall come to pass, that, when I bring; a cloud over the earth, and the bow shall be seen in the cloud, 10 I will remember my covenant, which is between me and you and every living creature of all flesh ; and the waters shall no more become a flood to destroy all flesh. 10 And the bow shall be in the cloud ; and I will look upon it, that I may remember the everlasting covenant between God and every living creature, of all flesh, that is upon the earth. 17 And God said unto Noah, This is the! token of the covenant which I have esta– blished between me and all flesh that is upon the earth.* 18 ¶ And the sons of Noah that went forth I from the ark, were Shem, and Ham, and Japhcth ; and Ham was the father of Canaan. 19 These three were the sons of Noah, and of them was the whole earth overspread. 20 And Noah, who was a husbandman, began his work, and he planted a vineyard. 21 And he drank of the wine, and became drunken ; and he uncovered himself within his tent. 22 And Ham, the father of Canaan, saw the nakedness of his father, and told it his two brothers without. 23 And Shem and Japheth took a garment, and laid it upon botha their shoulders, and went backward, and covered the nakedness of their father; and their faces were turned backward, and they saw not their father's nakedness. 24 And Noah awoke from his wine, and discovered what his younger son had done unto him. 25 And he said. Cursed be Canaan ; a ser– vant of servants shall he be unto his brethren. 26 And he said, Blessed be the Loiin, the God of Shem ; and Canaan shall be a servant unto them. 27 May God enlarge the boundaries of Japhcth, and may he dwell in the tents of Shem ; and Canaan .thall be a servant unto them. 28 And Noah lived after the flood three hundred and fifty years. 29 And all the days of Noah were nine hundred and fifty years ; and he died. CHAPTER X. 1 ¶ Now these are the generations of the sons of Noah : Shem, Ham, and Japheth ; and unto them were sons born after the flood. 2 The sons of Japheth : Gomer, and Magog, and Madai, and Javan, and Tubal, and Meshech, and Tiras. 3 And the sons of Gomer : Ashkenaz, and Riphath, and Togarmah. 4 And the sons of Javan: Elishah, and Tarshish, Kittim, and Dodanim. 5 From these were separated the islesb of the nations in their lands, every one after his tongue ; after their families, in their na– tions. 6 And the sons of Ham: Cush, and Miz– rayim, and Put, and Canaan. 7 And the sons of Cush : Seba, and Havi– lah, and Sabtah, and Raamah, and Sabtecha; and the sons of Raamah : Sheba, and Dedan. 8 And Cush begat Nimrod ; he began to be a mightyc man on the earth. 9 He was a mighty hunter before the Lord; wherefore it is said, Even as Nimrod, a mighty hunter before the Lord. 10 And the beginningd of his kingdom was Babel, and Erech, and Accad, and Calneh, in the land of Shinar. 11 Out of that land went forth Asshur,e and built Nineveh, and the city Rechoboth, and Calach, 12 And Ressen between Nineveh and Ca– lach ; the same is the great city. 13 And Mizrayim begat the 10dim, and Anamim, and Lehabim, and Naphtuchim, 14 And the Pathrussim, and Cas10chim, (out of whom came the Pelishtim,) and the Caphtorim. 15 And Canaaia begat Sidon his first–born, and Heth, 16 And the Jebusite, and the Emorite, and the Girgashite, a " And they both placed it on their shoulder." — Aben b Philippson and others render thisi "country," or ft dis– trict with defined limits, as the island is defined by the sea. c Philippiion, "ruler," and supposes him to have been the first king. 12 d " The chief town " — Onkelos e Medelssohn and others, " He (Nimrod) went forth to Asshur ;" but the version in the text is according to the ancients, namely, that Asshur am16rated from Babel, &, and built Nineveh, &c. [Page 13] GENESIS X. XL NOACH. 17 And the Hivite, and the Arkite, and the Sinite, 18 And the Arvadite, and the Zemarite, and the Hamathite ; and afterward were the families of the Canaanites spread abroad. 19 And the border of the Canaanites was from Sidon, as thou comest to Gerar, unto Gaz– zah ; as thou goest unto Sodom and Gomorrah, and Admah, and Zeboyim, even unto Lesha. 20 These are the sons of Ham, after their families, after their tongues, in their countries, in their nations. 21 ¶ But unto Shem also, the father of all the children of Eber,a the brother of Japheth the elder, were children born. 22 The sons of Shem : Elam, and Asshur, and Arpachshad, and 10d, and Aram. 23 And the children of Aram : Uz, and Hul, and Gether, and Mash. 24 And Arpachshad begat Shelach; and Shelach begat Eber. 25 And unto Eber were born two sons; the name of one was Peleg, for in his days was the earth divided; and his brother's name was Joktan. 26 And Joktan begat Almodad, and She– leph, and Hazarmweth, and Jerach, 27 And Hadoram, and Uzal, and Diklah, 28 And Obal, and Abimael, and Sheba, 29 And Ophir, and Havilah, and Jobab ; all these were the sons of Joktan. 30 And their dwelling was from Mesha, as thou goest unto Sephar, the mount of the east. 31 These are the sons of Shem, after their families, after their tongues, ia their lands, after their nations. 32 These are the families of the sons of Noah, after their generations, in their nations; and from these were the nations separated on the earth after the flood.* CHAPTER XI. 1 ¶ And the whole earth was of one lan– guage, and of one kind of words. a No doubt derived from the root 1¶}f 'Abar, " to pass over," whence Q–¶zy 'Ibriyim, Ibrews, or those who came from over Euphrates to enter Palestine; and hence Abraham the Hebrew, who was so called because he came from Mesopotamia, or perhaps, because of his descent from 'Eber. The H is not in the original, which is only 'Ibri, and would require it to be written Ebrew. The term, however, in its primitive meaning, was applied to the sons of Joktan, besides the Israelites, who have been thus de– noted exc10sively ever since the time of Moses. b After Arnheim, who takes mpo as simply denoting 2 And it came to pass, as they journeyed towardb the east, that they foimd a plain in the land of Shinar, and they dwelt there. 3 And they said one to another. Go to, let us make bricks, and burn them thoroughly. And thus the brick served them for stone, and slimec served them for mortar. 4 And they said. Go to, let us build our– selves a city, and a tower, the top of which may reach unto heaven ; and let us make ourselves a name, lest we be scattered abroad upon the face of the whole earth. 5 And the Lord came down to see the city and the tower, which the children of man were building. 6 And the Lord said. Behold, it is one people, and they have all one language, and this is the first thing they undertake to do; and now shall they not be restrained in all which they have imagined to do? 7 Go to, let us go down, and confound there their language, that they may not understand one another's speech. 8 So the Lord scattered them abroad from there over the face of all the earth ; and they left off to build the city. 9 Therefore is the name of it called Babel," because the Lord did there confound the lan– guage of all the earth ; and from there did the Lord scatter them abroad over the face of all the earth. 10 ¶ These are the generations of Shem: Shem, when a hundred years old, begat Arpachshad, two years after the flood. 11 And Shem lived after he had begotten Arpachshad five hundred years; and begat sons and daughters. 12 ¶ And Arpachshad lived five and thirty years, and begat Shelach. 13 And Arpachshad lived after he had be– gotten Shelach four hundred and three" years; and begat sons and daughters. 14 ¶ And Shelach lived thirty years, and begat Eber. " from Ararat," which, though properly to the north–west of Shinar, yet was to the east of Palestine and Egypt, where the Israelites, and consequently Moses the writer of the books of the law, lived. Others again imagine that an em16ration to the east proper may have taken place before, and they were then journeying back to Shinar. c A peculiar earthy adhesive substance of that country. d From BahlalSSa " to mingle." e Remarkable decrease of the length of human life. When before the flood the age of man reached to near a thousand years, as was the case also with Noah : Shem [Page 14] GENESIS XL XII. LECH LECHA. 15 And Shclacli lived after he had begotten Eber four hundred and three years; and begat sons and daughters. 16 ¶ And Eber lived four and thirty years, and begat Peleg. 17 And Eber lived after he had begotten Peleg four hundred and thirty years; and begat sons and daughters. 18 ¶ And Peleg lived thirty years, and begat Reii. 19 And Peleg lived after he had begotten Reii two hundred and nine years; and begat sons and daughters. 20 ¶ And Reii lived two and thirty years, and begat Serug. 21 And Reii lived after he had begotten Serug two hundred and seven years ; and be– gat sons and daughters. 22 ¶ And Serug lived thirty years, and begat Nachor. 23 And Serug lived after he had begotten Nachor two hundred years; and begat sons and daughters. 24 ¶ And Nachor lived nine and twenty years, and begat Terach. 25 And Nachor lived after he had begotten Terach a hundred and nineteen years ; and begat sons and daughters. 26 ¶ And Terach lived seventy years, and begat Abram, Nachor, and Harau. 27 Now these are the generations of Te– rach : Terach begat Abram, Nachor, and Haran ; and Harau begat Lot. 28 And Haran died before his father Te– rach in the land of his nativity, in Ur of the Chaldees.* 29 And Abram and Nachor took themselves wives; the name of Abram's wife was Sarai; and the name of Nachor's wife was Milcah, the daughter of Haran, the father of Milcah, and the father of Yiscah. 30 But Sarai was barren; she had no child. 31 And Terach took Abram his son, and lived only six hundred years, and his son four hundred and thirty–eight, till Abraham reached but one hundred and sevcnty–tive years, and in Moses's time the years of man were reduced to mere " threescore and ten." May we not discover in this circumstance a wise Providence ? If the people before the flood, trusting in their long stay on earth, forgot their Maker, the speedy accounta– bility in those of later times was well calculated to make them reflect on their conduct. Besides this, the decrease of human life was gradual, which would seem to be owing to the necessity of leaving, in the first ages, life sufficiently long to enable mankind to people the earth by degrees. Lot, the son of Haran, his son's son, and Sarai his daughter–in–law, the wife of his son Abram ; and they went forth with them from Ur of the Chaldees, to go into the land of Canaan ; and they came unto Charan, and dwelt there. 32 And the days of Terach were two hun– dred and five years; and Terach died in Charan. Haphtorah in Isaiah liv. 1–10 ; the Germans read to Iv. 5. SECTION III LECH LECHA, –f¶ ']h. CHAPTER XII 1 ¶ Now the Lord had said unto Abram, Get thee out of thy country, and out thy birthplace, and from thy father's house, unto the land that I will show thee. 2 And I will make of thee a great nation, aud I wall bless thee, and make thy name great ; and thou shalt be a blessing :a 3 And I will bless those that bless thee, and himb that curseth thee, will I curse ; and in theec shall all families of the earth be blessed. 4 So Abram departed, as the Lord had spoken unto him, and Lot went with him; and Abram was seventy aud five years old at his departure out of Charan. 5 And Abram took Sarai his wife, and Lot his brother's son, and all their substance that they had acquired, and the personsd that they had obtained in Charan; aud they went forth to go into the land of Canaan ; and they came into the land of Canaan. 6 And Abram passed through the land unto the placee of Shechem, unto the plain of Moreh; and the Cauaanite was then in the land. 7 And the Lord appeared unto Abram, aud said, Unto thy seed will I give this land. And he built there an altar unto the Lord, who had appeared unto him. a " So great shall be thy blessing and prosperity, that thou shall become a blessing to others ; for when a man shall bless his son, he will say to him, May the Lord blosa thee with Abraham's blessing." — Dubno. b " In the singular ; for few would curse Abraham, whilst many would bless him." — Idkm. c "Through thee, for thy sake and thy merit." — Idem. d English ver.–iion, " souls." " And the souls whom they had subjected to the Law." — Onkelos. But the simple aud evident meaniug is, '' the servants and follow– ers whom they have obtained control of." e That is, " where Shechem was afterward built." [Page 15] GENESIS XII. XIII. LECH LECHA. 8 And he removed from there unto the mountain on the east of Beth–el, and pitched his tent, having Beth–el on the west, and 'Ai on the east ; and he built there an altar unto the Lord, and called upon the namea of the Lord. 9 And Abram journeyed farther, still go– ing on toward the south. 10 ¶ And there arose a famine in the land : and Abram went down into Egyptb to sojourn there; for the famine was grievous in the land. 11 And it came to pass, when he was come near to enter into Egypt, that he said unto Sarai his wife, Behold now, I know that thou art a woman of handsome appearance : 12 And it may come to pass, when the Egyptians shall see thee, that they will say. This is his wife; and they may kill me, but thee they will swe alive. 13 Say then, I pray thee, thou art my sister, that it may go well with me for thy sake, and my soul live because of thee.* 14 And it came to pass, when Abram was come into Egypt, that the Egyptians beheld the woman that she was very fair. 15 The princes also of Pharaoh saw her, and commended her to Pharaoh; and the woman was taken into Pharaoh's house. 16 And he did well to Abram for her sake; and he received sheep, and oxen, and he–asses, and men–servants, and maid–servants, and she–asses, and camels. 17 But the Lord plagued Pharaoh and his house with great plagues because of Sarai, Abram's wife. 18 And Pharaoh calledc Abram, and said. What is this that thou hast done unto me ? Why didst thou not tell me that she is thy wife? 19 Why saidst thou, She is my sister? and so I took her to me for a wife ; now there– fore, behold, here is thy wife, take her, and go thy way. 20 And Pharaoh commanded some men a Aben Ezra, "or, called the people together to serve the Lord." b Because Egypt was better cultivated than Canaan, which was generally inhabited by the nomadic tribes in the days of the patriarchs. c That is, "had him called." d The south of Palestine ; for, correctly speaking, Abra– ham trwelled northward from Egypt, but still the first part of Palestine he reached on his return was "the south" thereof. concerning him, who accompanied him and his wife, and all that he had. CHAPTER XIIL 1 And Abram went up out of Egypt, he, and his wife, and all that he had, and Lot with him. into the south.d 2 And Abram was very rich in cattle, in silver, and in gold. 3 And he went on his journeys from the south even to Beth–el, unto the place where his tent had been at the beginning, between Beth–el and 'Ai ; 4 Unto the place of the altar, which he had made there at the first ; and Abram called there on the name of the Lord.* 5 And Lot also, who went with Abram, had flocks, and herds, and tents. 6 And the land was not able to bear them, that they might dwell together ; for their sub– stance was great, so that they could not dwell together. 7 And there arose a strife between the herdmen of Abram's cattle, and the herdmen of Lot's cattle : and the Canaanite and the Perizzite dwelled then in the land. 8 And Abram said unto Lot, Let there be no strife, I pray thee, between me and thee, and between my herdmen and thy herdmen ; for we are near relatives. 9 Is not the whole land before thee ? Sepa– rate thyself, I pray thee, from me : if thou wilt take the left hand, then I will go to the right ; or if thou depart to the right, then I will go to the left. 10 And Lot lifted up his eyes, and beheld all the plain of Jordan, that it was well watered everywhere; beforee the Lord destroyed So– dom and Gomorrah, (it was) like the garden of the Lord, like the land of Egypt, till thou comest unto Zoar. 11 Then Lot chose himself all the plain of Jordan ; and Lot journeyed east: f and they separated themselves the one from the other. e This version, somewhat differing from the English Bible, is according to Rashi and others, .ind removes the obscurity which otherwise exists. The second part of this verse must thus be regarded as a parathesis explaining the character of the plain of the Jordan, which Lot chose for his habitation. f The same construction again as above, xi. 2, Dipo, " to the cast," instead of "from." [Page 16] GENESIS XIII. XIV. LECH LECHA. 12 Abram dwelt in the land of Canaan; and Lot dwelt in the cities of the plain, and pitched his tents, till close to Sodom. 13 But the men of Sodom were wicked and sinners before the Lord exceedingly. 14 And the Lord said unto Abram, after Lot was separated from him, Lift up now thy eyes, and look from the place where thou art, nor¶iward, and southward, and eastward, and westward ; 15 For all the land which thou seest, to thee will I give it, and to thy seed for ever. 16 And I will make thy seed as the dust of the earth ; so that if a man can number the dust of the earth, then shall thy seed also be numbered. 17 Arise, walk through the land in the length of it and in the breadth of it ; for unto thee will I give it. 18 Then Abram pitched his tent, and came and dwelt in the grovea of Mamre, which is in Hebron ; and he built there an altar unto the Lord. * CHAPTER XIV. 1 ¶ And it came to pass, in the days of Am– raphel king of Shinar, Arioch king of Ellasar, Kedorlaomer king of Elam, and Tidal king of Goyim ; 2 That these made war with Bera king of Sodom, and with Birsha king of Gomorrah, Shinab king of Admah, and Shemeber king of Zeboyim, and the king of Bela, which is Zoar. 3 All these joined together in the vale of Siddim, which is now the salt sea. 4 Twelve years had they served Kedor– laomer, but in the thirteenth year they re– belled. 5 And in the fourteenth year came Kedor– laomer, and the kings that were with him, and they smote the Repha'im in Ashteroth– karnayim, and the Zuzim in Ham, and the Emim in Shaveh–kiriathayim, 6 And the Horites in their mountain a Mendelssohn, after Aben Ezra, translates the word (iSk in this manner, since it is used to express " tree" in many places. Onkelos, however, calls it " plain." b The pits. Compare with Kxod. xxi. 33, whcrt nat?, like here, refers to the pit into which the animal falls; not "there," as in the Ki16lisli version. c Brother, in Hebrew, denotes frequently a near rela– 16 Seir, unto El–paran, which is by the wilder– ness. 7 And they returned, and came to En– mishpat, which is Kadesh, and smote all the country of the Amalekites, and also the Emor– ites, that dwelt in Hazezon–tamar. 8 And then went out the king of Sodom, and the king of Gomorrah, and the king of Admah, and the king of Zeboyim, and the king of Bela, (the same is Zoar ;) and they joined battle with them in the vale of Siddim ; 9 With Kedorlaomer king of Elam, and with Tidal king of Goyim, and Amraphel king of Shinar, and Arioch king of Ellasar; four kings with five. 10 And the vale of Siddim was full of slime–pits; and the kings of Sodom and Go– morrah fled, and fell therein ;b and they that remained fled to the mountain. 11 And they took all the goods of Sodom and Gomorrah, and all their victuals, and went their way. 12 And they took Lot, Abram's brother's son, who dwelt in Sodom, and his goods, and departed. 13 And there came one that had escaped, and told it to Abram the Hebrew; but he dwelt in the grove of Mamre the Emorite, brother of Eshcol, and brother of Aner, and these were confederates of Abram. 14 And when Abram heard that his brotherc was taken captive, he armed his trained servants, born in his own house, three hundred and eighteen, and pursued them unto Dan.d 15 And he divided himself against them, he and his servants, by night, and smote them, and pursued them unto Hobah, which is on the left hand of Damascus. 16 And he brought back all the goods; and he also brought again his brother Lot, and his goods, and also the women, and the people. 17 And the king of Sodom went out to meet him (after his return from smiting Ke– dorlaomer, and the kings that were with him) tive, for above he is called, as he was, Abram's brother's son. d Perhaps another city than the ancient Laish, though evidently in the same neighbourhood. If a eonjeeture may be hazarded, it may have been a place of resort for judgment, from n loii, in the north, as 'En–mishpat, i.e. "the spring of judgment," was at the south of Palestine [Page 17] GENESIS XIV. XV, LECH LECHA. at the valley of Shaveli, which is the kings' dale. 18 And Malkizedek king of Salem brought forth bread and wine ; and he was a priest of the most high God. 19 And he blessed him, and said, Blessed be Abram of the most high God, the possessor of heaven and earth. 20 And blessed be the most high God, who hath delivered thy enemies into thy hand. And he gave him tithes of all.* 21 And the king of Sodom said unto Abram, Give me the persons, and the goods take to thyself. 22 And Abram said to the king of Sodom, I have lifted up my hand unto the Lord, the most high God, the possessor of heaven and earth, 23 That I will nota take from a thread even to a shoe–latchet, and that I will not take any thing that is thine ; lest thou shouldst say, I have made Abram rich: 24 Swe only that which the young men have eaten, and the portion of the men who went with me, Aner, Eshcol, and Mamre — these may take their portion. CHAPTER XV. 1 ¶ After these things the word of the Lord came unto Abram in a vision, saying, Fear not, Abram; I am thy shield, thy reward shall be exceedingly great. 2 And Abram said. Lord God, what wilt thou give me, seeing I go childless, and the steward of my house is Eliezer of Damascus ? 3 And Abram said, Behold to me thou hast given no seed ; and lo, one born in my house will be my heir. 4 And behold, the word of the Lord came unto him, saying. This one shall not be thy heir ; but he that shall come forth out of thy own bowels shall be thy heir. 5 And he brought him forth abroad, and said, Look now toward the heaven, and count the stars, if thou be able to count them ; and he said unto him, So shall thy seed be. a Abraham's disinterestedness and true faith. God had promised to make him great ; and hence, though he had expended time and treasure, and exposed his life in the assault he made upon the conquerors of many nations, he refused to be benefited through the munificent oflFer of the king of Sodom. b Onkelos and Rashi render, "three heifers," &c. c The inhabitants of the land wherein the seed of Abra– ham was to dwell : see next verse. C 6 And he believed in the Lord; and he accounted it to him for righteousness.* 7 And he said unto him, I am the Lord that brought thee out of Ur of the Chaldees, to give unto thee this land, to inherit it. 8 And he said, Lord God, whereby shall I know that I shall inherit it ? 9 And he said unto him. Take me a heiler of threeb years old, and a she–goat of three years old, and a ram of three years old, and a turtle–dove, and a young p16eon. 10 And he took unto him all these, and divided them in the midst, and laid each piece one opposite the other; but the birds he did not divide. 11 And the birds of prey came down upon the carcasses ; but Abram drove them away. 12 And when the sun was about going down, a deep sleep fell upon Abram ; and lo, a horror, dark and great, fell upon him. 13 And he said unto Abram, Know of a surety that thy seed shall be a stranger in a land which is not theirs, and theyc will make them serve, and they will afflict them four hundred years. 14 And also that nation whom they shall serve, will I judge; and afterward shall they go out with great substance. 15 But thou shalt come to thy fathers in peace ; thou shalt be buried in a good old age. 16 Yet the fourthd generation shall come hither again ; for the iniquity of the Emorites will not be full until then. 17 And it came to pass, when the sun had gone down, and it was dark, that behold a smoking furnace, and a burning flame,e which passed between those pieces. 18 On the same day the Lord made a covenant with Abram, saying. Unto thy seed have I given this land, from the river of Egypt unto the great river, the river Euphrates; 19 The Kenites, and the Kenizzites, and the Kadmonites, 20 And the Hittites, and the Perizzites, and the Eepha'im, d The fourth generation of those who go down to that land, which was Egypt. — R.\shi. e It was customary in olden times, for contracting par– ties to cut up animals and pass alternately through the pieces, (Jer. xsxiv. 18;) therefore was the fire seen passing through the members of the animals which Abra– ham had placed, as the evident representative of the Lord who that day made " the covenant between the pieces" with the patriarch. 17 [Page 18] GENESIS XVI. XVII. LECH LECHA. 21 And the Emorites, and the Canaanites, and the Girgashites, and the Jebiisites. CHAPTER XVI. 1 ¶ Now Sarai, Abrara's wife, bore him no children; and she had an Egyptian handmaid, whose name was Hagar. 2 And Sarai said unto Abram, Behold now, the Lord hath restrained me from bear– ing : go in, I pray thee, unto my maid ; it may be that I may obtaina children by her. And Abram hearkened to the voice of Sarai. 3 And Sarai, Abram's wife, took Hagar, the Egyptian, her maid, after Abram had dwelt ten years in the landb of Canaan, and gave her to her husband Abram to be his wife. 4 And he went in unto Hagar, and she conceived; and when she saw that she had conceived, her mistress became of little esteem in her eyes. 5 And Sarai said unto Abram, I sufferc wrong through thee; I have placed my maid into thy bosom ; and when she saw that she had conceived, I became of little esteem in her eyes: may the Lord judge between me and thee. 6 But Abram said unto Sarai, Behold, thy maid is in thy hand; do to her as it pleaseth thee. And when Sarai dealt hardly with her, she fled from her face. 7 And an angel of the Lord found her by a fountain of water in the wilderness, by the fountain on the way to Shur. 8 And he said, Hagar, Sarai's maid, whence camest thou? and whither wilt thou go? And she said, From the face of my mistress Sarai I am fleeing. 9 And the angel of the Lord said unto her, Return to thy mistress, and submit thyself under her hands. 10 And the angel of the Lord said unto a Heb. "Bo built up from her." b Literally, "at the end of ten years of Abram's resi– dence in," &c. c Others render, " My wrong be upon thee." d Yiahniang–el, " God will hear." e This version is according to Onkelos. Mendelssohn's version is : " Thou art a visible God ; for she said, have I then seen any thing after he that saw me had departed ?" Arriheim again is very bold : " Thou art the God of the appearance (of propliccy) ; for she said, Do I now see here ¶io least, after I have seen (clearly)?" A. distin– guishes between Roi of Marali, >xi or TMtio, "appearance, indistinct vision," and Horh or Marrh, ns"i, ns"t:3, "dis– 18 her, I will multiply thy seed exceedingly, that it shall not be numbered for multi– tude. 11 And the angel of the Lord said unto her, Behold, thou art with child, and wilt bear a son, and thou shalt call his name Ishmael;d because the Lord hath heard thy affliction. 12 And he will be a wild man; his hand will be against every man, and every man's hand against him; and in the presence of all his brethren shall he dwell. 13 And she called the name of the Lord that spoke unto her. Thou art an all–seeing God ; for she said. have I not also seen here a vision after he appeared to me? e 14 Wherefore the well was called Beer– lachai–roi:f behold, it is between Kadesh and Bered. 15 And Hagar bore Abram a son ; and Abram called the name of his son, whom Ha– gar bore, Ishmael. 16 And Abram was eighty and six years old, when Hagar bore Ishmael to Abram. CHAPTER XVII. 1 And when Abram was ninety and nine years old, the Lord appeared to Abram, and said unto him, I am the Almightyg God; walk before me, and be thou perfect. 2 And I will make my covenant between me and thee, and I will multiply thee exceed– ingly. 3 And Abram fell on his face, and God spoke with him, saying, 4 As for me, behold my covenant is with thee, and thou shalt become the father of a multitude of nations. 5 Neither shall thy name any more be called Abram, but thy name shall be Abra– ham; for the father of a multitude of nations have I made thee. 6 And I will make thee exceedingly fruit– tinct seeing and clear vision." (See also Numb, xii, 6, 8.) Hagar then meant that God w.is merely such a one as ap– pears to man in an indistinct, shadowy vision or image, not a substantial bodily being ; since she saw nothing any more after she had had the object speaking before her. — It is a difficult verse, and (,)nkolos seems to me to be nearer ¶io truth than the later authorities. f " The well where the angel of the Living One was made manifest." — Onkelos. g This, Kl–Shadi).\i, is the first appellation which we find God to have assumed : the other terms were merely applied to him by mankind. The second revelation of his name is in E.xodus vi. 2, 3. [Page 19] GENESIS XVII. XVIII. VAYERA. ful, and I will cause thee to become nations ; and kings shall come out of thee.* 7 And I will establish my covenant be– tween me and thee and between thy seed after thee in their generations for an everlasting covenant ; to be a God unto thee, and to thy seed after thee. 8 And I will give unto thee, and to thy seed after thee, the land wherein thou so– journest, all the land of Canaan, for an ever– lasting possession ; and I will be their God. 9 And God said unto Abraham, But thou, for thy part, shalt keep my covenant, thou, and thy seed after thee, in their generations. 10 This is my covenant, which ye shall keep, between me and between you, and be– tween thy seed after thee : Every man–child among you shall be circumcised. 11 And ye shall circumcise the flesh of your foreskin ; and this shall serve as the token of the covenant between me and you. 12 And at eight days old shall every man– child in your generations be circumcised among you, he that is born in the house, or bought with money of any stranger, who is not of thy seed. 13 He that is bom in thy house, and he that is bought with thy money, must needs be circumcised ; and my covenant shall be in your flesh for an everlasting covenant. 14 And any uncircumcised male,a who cir– cumciseth not the flesh of his foreskin, that soul shall be cut ofi" from his people ; he hath broken my covenant. 15 ¶ And God said unto Abraham, As for Sarai thy wife, thou shalt not call her name Sarai, but Sarahb shall her name be. 16 And I will bless her, and give thee also a son of her; yea I will bless her, and she shall become a mother of nations; kings of people shall spring from her. 17 Then Abraham fell upon his face, and Laughed ; and he said in his heart. Shall a child be born unto him that is a hundred years old? and shall Sarah, who is ninety years old, bear ? 18 And Abraham said unto God, that Ishmael might live before thee !c 19 And God said, Truly, Sarah thy wife a " When a person has reached the age of thirteen." — Eashi. b " Princess." So Abraham signifies Abir–hamone, a chief of a multitude ; or, Ab–hamone, the father of a multi– shall bear thee a son ; and thou shalt call his name Isaacd and I will establish my cove– nant with hira for an everlasting covenant, for his seed after him. 20 And as for Ishmael, I have heard thee : behold, I have blessed him, and will make him fruitful, and will multiply him exceed– ingly; twelve princes shall he beget, and I will make of him a great nation. 21 But my covenant will I establish with Isaac, whom Sarah shall bear unto thee at this set time in the next year. 22 And when he had left off" talking with him, God went up from Abraham. 23 And Abraham now took Ishmael his son, and all that were born in his house, and all that were bought with his money, every male among the men of Abraham's house ; and he circumcised the flesh of their foreskin on the self–same day, as God bad spoken unto him.* 24 And Abraham was ninety and nine years old, when he was circumcised in the flesh of his foreskin. 25 And Ishmael his son was thirteen years old, when he was circumcised in the flesh of his foreskin. 26 On the self–same day was Abraham cir– cumcised, with Ishmael his son. 27 And all the men of his house, born in the house, and bought with money of the stranger, were circumcised with him. Haphtorah in Isaiah, xl. 27 to xli. 16. SECTION IV. VAYERA, Nin. CHAPTER XVIII. 1 And the Lord appeared unto him in the grove of Mamre ; while he was sitting at the door of the tent in the heat of the day. 2 And he lifted up his eyes and looked, and lo, three men stood near him ; and when he saw them, he ran to meet them from the door of the tent, and bowed himself to the ground ; 3 And he said , My Lord, if now I have found favour in thy eyes, pass not away, I pray thee, from thy servant. 4 Let a little water, I pray you, be fetched, tude : the first is from Dubno's Commentary, the second from Rashi. c That is, " to please thee." d Yitzchak, from pns tzachok, " to laugh." [Page 20] GENESIS XVIII. VAYERA. and wash your feet, and rest yourselves under the tree. 5 And I will fetch a morsel of bread, and comfort ye your heart, after that ye may pass on ; since ye have once passed by your servant. And they said, So do, as thou hast spoken. 6 And Abraham hastened into the tent unto Sarah, and said. Make ready quickly three measures of fine meal, knead it, and make cakes. 7 And Abraham ran unto the herd, and fetched a calf tender and good, and gave it unto a young man, and he hastened to dress it. 8 And he took cream and milk, and the calf which he had dressed, and set it before them ; and he stood by them under the tree, and they did eat. 9 And they said unto him, Where is Sarah thy wife ? And he said. Behold, in the tent. 10 And he said, I will certainly return unto thee at this time next year ;a and lo, Sarah thy wife shall have a son. And Sarah heard it at the door of the tent, which was behind him. 11 Now Abraham and Sarah were old and well stricken in years; it had ceased to be with Sarah after the manner of women. 12 Therefore Sarah laughed within herself, saying. After I am waxed old shall I have pleasure, my lord also being old ? 13 And the Lord said unto Abraham, Wherefore did Sarah laugh, saying, Shall I of a surety bear a child, since I am old ? 14 Is any thing too hard for the Lord ? At the time appointed I will return unto thee, at this time next year, and Sarah shall have a son.* 15 Then Sarah denied, saying, I laughed not; for she was afraid; but he said, Nay; indeed thou didst laugh. 16 And the men rose up from there and a Ra–shi. Arnhcira very ingeniously renders it, " at the time of the recovery," i. e. of Sarah, after the birth of the promised child, taking irn for recovery. b " Love him, because he," &c. — 10sui. " It is revealed before me that." — O.nkelos. c "I will spare them." — AnEN Ezka and Mendelssohn. Onkclos agrees with this, but adds, " if they repent," against the previous complete destruction " if they do not repent." Rashi explains, " I will visit thera with suffer– ings, but not make an end of them." d Others render, " Pardon the place." 20 looked toward Sodom; and Abraham went with them to bring them on the way. 17 And the Lord said. Shall I hide from Abraham what I am about doing ? 18 Seeing that Abraham shall surely be– come a great and mighty nation, and all the nations of the earth shall be blessed in him ? 19 For I knowb him, that he will command his children and his household after him, that they shall keep the way of the Lord, to do righteousness and justice ; in order that the Lord may bring upon Abraham that which he hath spoken concerning him. 20 And the Lord said, Because the cry against Sodom and Gomorrah is great, and because their sin is very grievous : 21 I will go down now, and see, if they have done according to the cry against them, which is come unto me, destruction (shall come upon them) ; and if not, I will knowc it. 22 And the men turned their faces from there, and went toward Sodom ; but Abraham stood yet before the Lord. 23 And Abraham drew near, and said. Wilt thou then destroy the righteous also with the wicked ? 24 Peradventure there are fifty righteous within the city ; wilt thou then also destroy and not spared the place for the sake of the fifty righteous that are therein ? 25 Far be it from thee to do after this manner, to slay the righteous with the wicked, and that the righteous should be as the wicked ;e far be this from thee ; shall the Judge of all the earth not exercise justice? 20 And the Lord said. If I tuid in Sodom fifty righteous within the city, then will I spare all the place for their sake. 27 And Abraham answered and said, Be– hold now, I have taken upon me to spealv unto the Lord, although I am but dust and ashes : 28 Peradventure there shall lack five of the fifty righteous; wilt thou then destroy all the e For in case an indiscriminate destruction of the cities should take place, all the inhabitants, whether good or wicked, would necessarily have to share the same fate ; Abraham therefore asked that the mercy which the right– eous deserved, might, in order to swe them, st.iy the doom which was impending over the cities in which they dwelt ; and being at once assured that divine justice would dis– criminate, he grew bolder in his prayer, till at length he was certified that even ten should cause the suspension of the punishment. [Page 21] GENESIS XVIII. XIX. VAYERA. city for the (lack of) these five ? And he said, I will not destroy, if I find there forty and five. 29 And he spoke yet again unto him, and i said, Peradventure there shall he found there forty. And he said, I will not do it for the sake of the forty. 30 And he said. Oh, let not the Lord be angry, and I will speak : Peradventure there shall be found there thirty. And he said, I will not do it, if I find there thirty. 31 And he said, Behold now, I have taken upon me to speak unto the Lord : Peradven– ture there shall be found there twenty. And he said, I will not destroy, for the sake of the twenty. 32 And he said. Oh, let not the Lord be angry, and I will speak yet but this once : Peradventure there shall be found there ten. And he said, I will not destroy, for the sake of the ten. 33 And the Lord went away, when he had finished speaking with Abraham ; and Abra– ham returned unto his place.* CHAPTER XIX. 1 And the two angels came to Sodom in the evening, and Lot was sitting in the gate of Sodom ; and when Lot saw them he rose up to meet them, and he bowed himself with his face to the ground. 2 And he said. Behold now, my lords, turn in, I pray you, into your servant's house, and tarry all night, and wash your feet, and ye can rise up early, and go on your way. And they said, Nay ; but we will abide in the street all night. 3 And he pressed upon them greatly, and they turned in unto him, and entered into his house ; and he made them a feast, and baked unleavened bread, and they did eat. 4 But before they had lain down, the men of the city, even the men of Sodom, compassed the house round, both old and young, all the people from every quarter : 5 And they called unto Lot, and said unto him. Where are the men who came in to thee this night? bring them out unto us, that we may know them. a " Cry" means that the greatness of the sin has be– come so apparent as to demand, " cry out for," vengeance against the transgressors. See above, iv. 10; xviii. 20,21 b Mendelssohn, who understands the participle in the 6 And Lot went out unto them, at the entrance (of the house), and shut the door after him, 7 And he said, I pray you, my brethren, do not act wickedly. 8 Behold now, I have two daughters who have not known man ; let me, I pray you, bring them out unto you, and do ye to them as is good in your eyes ; only unto these men do nothing, since they have once come under the shadow of my roof 9 And they said, Stand back. And they said, This one man came in to sojourn, and he will needs be a judge ; now will we deal worse with thee than with them. And they pressed sore upon the man Lot, and they came near to break the door. 10 But the men put forth their hand, and pulled¶ Lot to them into the house, and the door they locked. 11 And the men that were at the entrance of the house they smote with blindness, both small and great, so that they wearied them– selves to find the entrance. 12 And the men said unto Lot, Hast thou here any besides ? a son–in–law, and thy sons, and thy daughters, and whatsoever thou hast in the city, bring out of this place. 13 For we will destroy this place, because the crya against them is waxed great before the face of the Lord ; and the Lord hath sent us to destroy it. 14 And Lot went out and spoke unto his sons–in–law, who were to marryb his daughters, and said. Arise, get yourselves out of this place, for the Lord will destroy this city ; but he seemed as one that jesteth in the eyes of his sons–in–law. 15 And as the morning dawn arose, the angels urged Lot, saying. Arise, take thy wife, and thy two daughters that are here, lest thou be consumed for the iniquity of the city. 16 And while he yet lingered, the men laid hold of his hand, and of the hand of his wife, and of the hand of his two daughters, because the Lord desired to spare him; and they brought him forth, and set him without the city. 17 And it came to pass, when they had text as "about to take;" but Rashi divides the words so, " His sons–in law, — he had two daughters married in the city; the takers of his daughters, — those to whom those at home were betrothed." Aben Ezra also coincides with this. [Page 22] GENESIS XIX. XX. VAYERA. brought them forth abroad, that he said, Escape for thy life, look not behind thee, neither stay thou in all the plain ; escape to the mountain, lest thou be consumed. 18 And Lot said unto them. Oh, not so, my Lord! 19 Behold now, thy servant hath found grace in thy eyes, and thou hast magnified thy kindness, which thou hast showed unto me in saving my life ; and I cannot escape to the mountain, lest the evil overtake me, and I die. 20 Behold now, this city is near to flee thereunto, and it is little ; oh, let me, I pray thee, escape thither, (as it is but little,) that my life may be swed.* 21 And he said unto him, See, I have favoured thee concerning this thing also, that I will not overthrow this city, of which thou hast spoken. 22 Haste thee, escape thither ; for I cannot do any thing till thou hast come thither. Therefore was the name of the city called Zoar.a 23 The sun rose over the earth, when Lot entered into Zoar. 24 And the Lord rained upon Sodom and upon Gomorrah brimstone and fire, from the Lord, out of heaven ; 25 And he overthrew those cities, and all the plain, and all the inhabitants of the cities, and that which grew upon the ground. 20 But his wife looked back from behind him, and she became a pillar of salt. 27 And Abraham got up early in the morning to the place where he had stood be– fore the Lord : 28 And he looked toward Sodom and Go– morrah, and toward all the land of the plain, and beheld, and lo, smoke went up from the earth as the smoke of a furnace.b 29 And it came to pass, when God de– stroyed the cities of the plain, that God re– membered Abraham,c and sent Lot away out of the midst of the overthrow, when he over– threw the cities in the which Lot had dwelt. 30 And Lot went up out of Zoar, and a " little," from mi'lzar. b Eng. ver. " the smoke of the country went up," &c. c Not for any particular merit in Lot, although he was not so corrupt as the othiT men in Sodnm ; but because he waa a kinsman of Abraham ; for the sake of Abraham's virtue was Lot spared. (See Gen. xxri. 5 ; Exod. xs. 6.) 22 dwelt in the mountain, and his two daugh– ters with him, for he feared to dwell in Zoar; and he dwelt in a cave, he, and his two daughters. 31 And the first–born said unto the young– er. Our father is old, and there is not a man in the country to come in unto us after the manner of all the earth : 32 Come, let us make our father drink wine, and we will lie with him, that we may preserve seed of our father. 33 And they made their father drink wine that night ; and the first–born went in, and lay with her father, and he perceived not when she lay down, nor when she arose. 34 And it came to pass on the morrow, that the first–bom said unto the younger. Be– hold, I lay yesternight with my father; let us make him drink wine this night also, and go thou in, and lie with him, that we may pre– serve seed of our father. 35 And they made their father drink wine that night also ; and the younger arose, and lay with him, and he perceived not when she lay down, nor when she arose. 36 And both the daughters of Lot became with child by their father. 37 And the first–born bore a son, and called his name Moab ;d the same is the father of the Moabites unto this day. 38 And the younger, she also bore a son, and called his name Ben–ammi: e the same is the father of the children of Ammon unto this day. CHAPTER XX. 1 ¶ And Abraham journeyed from there toward the south country–, and dwelt between Kadesh and Shur, and sojourned in Gerar. 2 And Abraham said of Sarah his wife, She is my sister; and Abimelech king of Gerar sent and took Sarah. 3 But God came to Abimelech in a dream by night,f and said to him. Behold, thou shalt die for the sake of the woman whom thou hast taken ; for she is a man's wife. 4 But Abimelech had not come near to d " From my father," MoUb axn, from Ab 3k. e "The son of my people," Amnion '.ny, from Ben– ammi 'n;? p. f Literally, "in a dream of the night," a species of pro– phecy specially referred to in Numb. xii. 6j also Gen xxxi. 11, 24, &c. [Page 23] GENESIS XX. XXI. VAYERA. her ; and he said, Lord, wilt thou then slay also a righteous nation ?a 5 Said he not unto me. She is my sister? and she, even she herself, said, He is my brother ; in the integrity of my heart and the innocency of my hands have I done this. 6 And God said unto him in the dream. Yea, I also well know that thou hast done this in the integrity of thy heart; therefore did I also withhold thee from sinning against me ; for this cause I suffered thee not to touch her. 7 And now restore the man s wife, lor he is a prophet, and he will pray for thee, that thou mayest live; and if thou restore her not, know thou, that thou shalt surely die, thou and all that are thine. 8 And Abimelech rose early in the morn– ing, and called all his servants, and told all these things in their hearing ; and the men were greatly afraid. 9 Then Abimelech called Abraham, and said unto him. What hast thou done unto us? and in what have I offended thee, that thou 1; hast brought on me and on my kingdom a great sin ? deeds that ought not to be done , thou hast done unto me. 10 And Abimelech said unto Abraham, What sawest thou, that thou didst this thing? 11 And Abraham said. Because I thought. Surely there is no fear of God in this place,b and they will slay me for the sake of my wife. 12 And yet indeed she is my sister, the daughter of my father, but not the daughter of my mother ; and she became my wife. 13 And it came to pass, when Godc caused me to wander from my father's house, that I said unto her. This is thy kindness which thou shalt show unto me; at every place whither we shall come, say of me. He is my brother. 14 And Abimelech took sheep, and oxen, and men–servants, and women–servants, and gave them unto Abraham, and restored to him Sarah his wife. 15 And Abimelech said. Behold, my land is before thee : dwell where it is pleasing in thy eyes. 16 And unto Sarah he said, Behold, I have given thy brother a thousand pieces of silver : behold, this is to thee a covering of the eyesd unto all that are with thee ; and with all others thou canst thus justify thyself.e 17 And Abraham prayed unto God ; and God healed Abimelech, and his wife, and his maid–servants, so that they could bear chil– dren. 18 For the Lord had fast closed up every womb of the house of Abimelech, because of Sarah, Abraham's wife. CHAPTER XXI. 1 ¶ And the Lord visited Sarah as he had said, and the Lord did unto Sarah as he had spoken. 2 And Sarah conceived, and bore unto Abraham a son in his old age, at the ap– pointed time of which God had spoken to him. 3 And Abraham called the name of his son that was born unto him, whom Sarah bore to him, Isaac. 4 And Abraham circumcised his son Isaac, I at eight days old, as God had commanded him.* 5 And Abraham was a hundred years old, when his son Isaac was born unto him. 6 And Sarah said, God hath made me joy,f whoever heareth it will laugh concerning me. 7 And she said. Who would have said unto Abraham, that Sarai should have given children suck ? yet I have born a son in his old age. 8 And the child grew, and was weaned; and Abraham made a great feast the day that Isaac was weaned. 9 And Sarah saw the son of Hagar the Egyptian, whom she had born unto Abra– ham, mocking. 10 Wherefore she said unto Abraham, Cast out this bond–woman and her son ; for the son a This speech of Abimelech proves that the nations of Palestine were acquainted with the moral laws : hence their transgressions were sinful. b The beauty, therefore, of his wife would expose him to the violence of those who might desire to possess them– selves of her against his will. c Heb. D–nbx "ns y¶'r\r\ " the Gods caused me to wan– der," the p10ral of majesty. Compare above, i. 26. d That is, "a vail," f16urative for '–justification." e Rashi, who makes nno:! the second person past tense of the Niphal conjugation, which gives the best explana– tion of this passage. Arnheim makes the word a partici– ple, and renders the passage, " for all and each who contend with thee." f Onkelos. Others render the word ''laughing, thui* " God hath made me cause for laughing." [Page 24] GENESIS XXI. XXII. VAYERA. of this bond–woman shall not be heir with my son, with Isaac. 11 And the thing was very grievous in Abraham's eyes, because of his son. 12 And God said unto Abraham, Let it not be grievous in thy eyes because of the lad, and because of thy bond–woman ; in all that Sarah shall say unto thee, hearken unto her voice; for in Isaaca shall thy seed be called. 13 And also of the son of the bond–woman will I make a nation, because he is thy seed. 14 And Abraham rose up early in the morning, and took bread, and a bot¶eb of water, and gave it unto Hagar, putting it on her shoulder, and the child, and sent her away; and she departed, and wandered astray in the wilderness of Beiir–sheba. 15 And the water was spent from the bot– ¶e, and she cast the child under one of the shrubs. 16 And she went, and seated herself down at some distance, a good way off, about a bow– shot ; for she said, I cannot look on when the child dieth; so she sat at a distance, and lifted up her voice, and wept. 17 And God heard the voice of the lad; and an angel of God called to Hagar out of heaven, and said unto her, What aileth thee, Hagar? Fear not; for God hath heard the voice of the lad, there where he is. 18 Arise, lift up the lad, and lay hold on him with thy hand; for I will make of him a great nation. 19 And God opened her eyes, and she saw a well of water : and she went, and filled the bot¶e with water, and gave the lad drink. 20 And God was with the lad; and he grew up, and dwelt in the wilderness, and be– came an archer. 21 And he dwelt in the wilderness of Pa– ran; and his mother took him a wife out of the land of Egypt.* 22 ¶ And it came to pass at that time, that Abimelech, and Phichol the chief captain of a The blessing made on a previous occasion, that all na– tions should be blessed through the seed of Abrahuni, was to bo accomplished through Isaac and his descendants, to the exc10sion of Ishmael and the other children ¶iat Abraham might have. b The water–skin in which trwellers carry the neces– sary supply on their journey ¶irough the wilderness. c "Well of the oath." Rashi, after the Talmud. d The word " tempt" here must be taken in the sense 24 his host, spoke unto Abraham, saying, God is with thee in all that thou doest: 23 Now therefore swear unto me here by God, that thou wilt not deal falsely with me, nor with my son, nor with my son's son; (but) according to the kindness that I have done unto thee, shalt thou do unto me, and to the land wherein thou hast sojourned. 24 And Abraham said, I will swear. 25 And Abraham reproved Abimelech be– cause of a well of water, which Abimelech's servants had violently taken away. 26 And Abimelech said, I know not who hath done this thing: neither didst thou tell me; nor have I lieard of it except this day. 27 And Abraham took sheep and oxen, and gave them unto Abimelech ; and both of them made a covenant. 28 And Abraham set seven ewe–lambs of the flock, by themselves. 29 And Abimelech said unto Abraham ; What mean these seven ewe–lambs which thou hast set by themselves ? 30 And he said. For these seven ewe–lambs shalt thou take from my hand, that they may be a witness unto me that I have dug this well. 31 Wherefore he called that place Beer– sheba;c because there they swore, both of them. 32 Thus they made a covenant at Beer– sheba; then Abimelech rose up, and Phichol the chief captain of his host, and they returned into the land of the Philistines. 33 And Abraham planted an orchardd in Beer–sheba, and called there on the name of the Lord, the God of everlasting. 34 And Abraham sojourned in the land of the Philistines many days.* CHAPTER XXII. 1 ¶ And it came to pass after these things, that God did tempte Abraham, and he said unto him, Abraham, and he said, Behold, here I am. of proving, i. e. God proved Abraham's constancy by the command to sacrifice Isaac. All the other proofs of faith hitherto demanded of him were to bo crowned by the wil– lingness to sacrifice up to the will of God his dearest hope, the child in whom all the blessings promised him should be accomplished ; still he obeyed, and did not complain of the apparent inconsistency of the divine promise with the present injunction of destroying the very child through whom this blessing could alono be fulfilled. [Page 25] GENESIS XXII. VAYERA. 2 And he said, Take now thy son, thy only one, whom thou lovest, even Isaac, and get thee into the land of Moriah; and offer him there for a burnt–offering upon one of the mountains which I will tell thee of. 3 And Abraham rose up early in the morn– ing, and saddled his ass, and took two of his young men with him, and Isaac his son ; and he clwe the wood for the burnt–offering, and arose,a and went unto the place of which God had told him. 4 On the third day Abraham lifted up his eyes, and saw the place afar off. 5 And Abraham said unto his young men. Abide ye here with the ass, and I and the lad will go yonder, and we will worship,b and then come again to you. 6 And Abraham took the wood for the burnt–offering, and laid it upon Isaac his eon ; and he took in his hand the fire and the knife; and they went both of them to– gether. 7 And Isaac spoke unto Abraham his father, and said, My father; and he said. Here am I, my son. And he said. Behold, here is the fire and the wood ; but where is the lamb for a burnt–offering ? 8 And Abraham said, God will provide himself the lamb for a burnt–offering, my son c so they went both of them together. 9 And they came to the place which God had told him of; and Abraham built there an altar, and laid the wood in order, and bound Isaac his son, and laid him on the altar above the wood. 10 And Abraham stretched forth his hand, and took the knife to slay his son. 11 But the angel of the Lord called unto him out of heaven, and said, Abraham, Abrar ham ; and he said, Here am I. 12 And he said, Lay not thy hand upon the lad, neither do thou the least unto him; for now I know that thou fearest God, seeing that thou hast not withheld thy son, thy only one, from me. a This term, from the Hebrew Dip " to arise," is mostly employed when some exertion or activity is required to do the act subsequently mentioned. b Properly, " we will prostrate ourselves." c " Will look out and choose for himself the lamb; and if there be no lamb, then my son, for the burnt–oifering." — Rashi. d " The Lord shall provide," from the words of Abra– D 13 And Abraham lifted up his eyes, and looked, and behold, behind him was a ram caught in a thicket by his horns ; and Abra– ham went and took the ram, and offered him up for a burnt–offering in the stead of his son. 14 And Abraham called the name of that place, Adonai–yireh :d as it is said to this day,e On the mount of the Lord it shall be seen.f 15 And the angel of the Lord called unto Abraham the second time out of heaven, 16 And said. By myself have I sworn, saith the Lord, since, because thou hast done this thing, and hast not withheld thy son, thy only one : 17 That I will greatly bless thee, and I will exceedingly multiply thy seed as the stars of the heaven, and as the sand which is upon the searshore ; and thy seed shall possess the gate of his enemies ; 18 And in thy seed shall all the nations of the earth be blessed ; because that thou hast obeyed my voice. 19 And Abraham returned unto his young men ; and they rose up, and went together to Beer–sheba; and Abraham dwelt at Beer– sheba.* 20 ¶ And it came to pass after these things, that it was told to Abraham, saying. Behold, Milcah, she also, hath born children unto Nachor thy brother ; 21 'Uz his first born, and Buz his brother, and Kemuel the father of Aram, 22 And Kesed, and Chazo, and Pildash, and Yidlaph, and Bethuel. 23 And Bethuel begat Rebekah; these eight did Milcah bear to Nachor, Abraham's brother. 24 And his concubine, whose name was Reiimah, she also bore Tebach, and Gacham, and Thachash, and Maachah. Haphtorah, in 2d Kings iv. 1 to 37 ; but the Portuguese end with V. 23. ham to Isaac, Elohim yireh lo hassay, " God will provide himself the lamb." e " In future days, as all ' unto this day' in Scripture must be understood ; for all coming generations, who read this verse, will say ' unto this day' of the day in which they are." — Rashx. f " Will the Lord appear" to his people. — IsEM. [Page 26] GENESIS XXIII. XXIV. CHAYE SARAH. SECTION V. CHAYE SARAH, Hit' '♦n. CHAPTER XXIII. 1 ¶ And the lifetime of Sarah was a hundred and twenty–seven years; (these) were the years of the life of Sarah. 2 And Sarah dieda in Kiryath–arba, the same is Hebron in the land of Canaan : and Abraham came to mourn for Sarah, and to weep for her. 3 And Abraham stood up from before his dead, and–spoke unto the sons of Heth, saying, 4 A stranger and a sojourner I am with you ; give me a possession for a burying–place with you, that I may bury my dead out of my sight. 5 And the children of Heth answered Abraham, saying unto him : 6 Hear us, my lord ; a prince of God thou art among us ; in the choice of our sepulchres bury thy dead ; none of us shall withhold from thee his sepulchre, so that thou mayest bury thy dead. 7 And Abraham stood up and bowed him– self to the people of the land, to the children of Heth. 8 And he spoke with them, saying. If it be your mind that I should bury my dead out of ray sight, hear me, and intercede for me with Ephron the son of Zochar, 9 That he may give me the cave of Mach– pelah, which is his, which is at the end of his field ; for as much money as it is worth he shall give it me, for a possession as a burying– place amongst you. 10 And Ephron dwelt among the children of Heth ; and Ephron the Hittite answered Abraham in the hearing of the children of Heth, of all those that went in at the gate of his city, saying, 11 Nay, my lord, hear me : the field I give to thee, and the cave that is therein, I give it to thee; in the presence of the sons of my people do I give it thee; bury thy dead. 12 And Abraham bowed himself down be– fore the people of the land. 13 And he spoke unto Ephron in the hear– a It is the opinion of commentators that Sarah died in consequence of the grief she experienced when hearing that Abraham had guiic to sacrifice Isaac, b Ephron had pretended groat anxiety to give the land to Abraham ; but when he mentioned the va10e, Abra– 26 ing of the people of the land, saying, But if thou wouldest only hear me ; I will give the money for the field, take it of me, and I will bury my dead there. 14 And Ephron answered Abraham, saying unto him, 15 My lord, hearken unto me : a piece of land worth four hundred shekels of silver, what is that between me and thee ? only bury thy dead. 16 And Abraham understoodb the meaning of Ephron; and Abraham weighed out to Ephron the silver which he had named in the hearing of the sons of Heth, four hundred shekels of silver, current with the merchant.* 17 And the field of Ephron, which was in Machpelah, which was before Mamre, the field, and the cave which was therein, and all the trees that were in the field, that were in all its borders round about, were made sure. 18 Unto Abraham for a bought possession in the presence of the children of Heth, before all that went in at the gate of his city. 19 And after this, Abraham buried Sarah his wife in the cave of the field of Machpelah, before Mamre, which is Hebron, in the land of Canaan. 20 And the field, with the cave that is therein, was made sure unto Abraham for a possession as a burying–place by the sons of Heth. CHAPTER XXIV. 1 ¶ And Abraham was old, well stricken in years ; and the Lord had blessed Abraham in all things. 2 And Abraham said unto his servant, the eldest of his house, who ruled over all that he had. Put, I pray thee, thy hand under my thigh : 3 And I will make thee swear by the Lord, the God of heaven, and the God of the earth, that thou shalt not take a wife unto my son from the daughters of the Canaanites,c among whom I dwell. 4 But unto ray country, and to my birth– place shalt thou go, and take a wife unto my son, unto Isaac. ham at once understood Lis price, and weighed out the amount which Kphron required. c That the desceuJants of those cursed by the father of the new generation of man, should not mingle with those blessed. (Gen. ix. 29.) — Dubno. [Page 27] GENESIS XXIV. CHAYE SAEAH. 5 And the servant said unto him, Perad– venture the woman will not be willing to fol– low me unto this land : must I then bring thy son again unto the land from which thou camest? 6 And Abraham said unto him, Beware thou, that thou bring not my son thither again. 7 The Lord, the God of heaven, who took me from my father's house, and from the land of my birth, and who spoke unto me, and who swore unto me, saying. Unto thy seed will I give this land : he will send his angel before thee, and thou shalt take a wife unto my son from there. 8 But if the woman should not be willing to follow thee, then shalt thou be clear from this my oath ; only my son thou shalt not bring thither again. 9 And the servant put his hand under the thigh of Abraham his master, and swore to him concerning this matter.* 10 And the servant took ten camels of the camels of his master, and departed, with all kinds of precious thingsa of his master in his hand ; and he arose, and went to Mesopota– mia,b unto the city of Nachor. 11 And he made the camels to kneel down without the city by a well of water at the time of the evening, at the time that the women goc out to draw water. 12 And he said, Lord, the God of my master Abraham, I pray thee, send me good speed this day, and deal kindly with my master Abraham. 13 Behold, I standd by the well of water ; and the daughters of the men of the city come out to draw water: 14 And let it come to pass, that the maiden to whom I shall say. Let down thy pitcher, I pray thee, that I may drink ; and she shall say. Drink, and to thy camels also will I give drink, be the one thou hast appointed for thy servant Isaac ; and thereby shall I know that thou hast shown kindness unto my master. 15 And it came to pass, before he had a Eng. ver. " for all the goods of his master were in his hand." Rashi explains that he took with him a deed of gift of all Abraham's wealth unto Isaac. Others refer it to the presents mentioned afterward : this opinion has been adopted in this version. b " Anam–Naharayim," Syria of the two rivers, the Eu– phrates and T16ris. c" This custom still prevails. yet finished speaking, that, behold, Rebekahe came out, who was bom to Bethuel, son of Milcah, the wife of Nachor, Abraham's bro– ther, with her pitcher upon her shoulder, 16 And the maiden was of a very hand– some appearance, a virgin, neither had any man known her ; and she went down to the well, and filled her pitcher, and came up. 17 And the servant ran to meet her, and said. Let me, I pray thee, drink a little water out of thy pitcher. 18 And she said, Drink, my lord: and she hastened, and let down her pitcher upon her hand, and gave him to drink. 19 And when she had finished giving him drink, she said. Also for thy camels will I draw water, until they have finished drinking. 20 And she hastened, and emptied her pitcher into the trough, and ran again unto the well to draw water, and drew for all his camels. 21 And the man was wondering at her ;f remaining silent, to discover whether the Lord had made his journey prosperous or not. 22 And it came to pass, as the camels had finished drinking, that the man took a golden ear–ring, half a shekel in weight, and two brace– lets for her hands, ten gold shekels in weight ; 23 And he said. Whose daughter art thou? tell me, I pray thee ; is there room in thy father's house for us to stay this night in ? 24 And she said unto him, I am the daughter of Bethuel the son of Milcah, whom she bore unto Nachor. 25 She said moreover unto him. We have both straw and provender in plenty, as also room to lodge in. 26 And the man bowed down his head, and prostrated himself before the Lord.* 27 And he said. Blessed be the Lord, the God of my master Abraham, who hath not withdrawn his mercy and his truth from my master ; I being on the way, which the Lord hath led me, to the house of the brethren of my master. d " I will place myself." — Arnheim and others. e Properly, Rihlcah. f Meaning, he felt astonished at the remarkable verifi– cation of the test he had proposed, and therefore remained silent for some time, to endeavour first to find out by the sequel whether indeed the maiden before him might truly be the one of the family of Abraham, whom he was to take as a wife for Isaac. 27 [Page 28] GENESIS XXIV. CHAYE SARAH. 28 And the maiden ran, and told at her mother's house these things. 29 And Rebekah had a brother, and his name was Laban ; and Laban ran out unto the man, unto the well. 30 And this came to pass, when he saw the ear–ring, and the bracelets upon his sister's hands, and when he heard the words of Re– bekah his sister, saying. Thus spoke the man unto me ; and he came unto the man ; and, be– hold, he was standing by the camels at the well. 31 And he said, Come in, thou blessed of the Lord; wherefore standest thou without? whilst I have prepareda the house and room for the camels. 32 And the man came into the house, and he ungirded the camels ; and he gave straw and provender for the camels, and water to wash his feet, and the feet of the men that were with him. 33 And there was set food before him to eat ; but he said, I will not eat, until I have spoken my words. And he said. Speak on. 34 And he said, I am Abraham's servant. 35 And the Lord hath blessed my master greatly ; and he is become great : and he hath given him flocks, and herds, and silver, and gold, and men–servants, and maid–servants, and camels, and asses. 36 And Sarah my master's wife bore a son to my master after she was become old : and he hath given unto him all that he hath. 37 And my master made me swear, say– ing. Thou shalt not take a wife for my son from the daughters of the Canaanites, in whose land I dwell : 38 But thoub shalt go unto my father's house, and to my kindred, and take a wife unto my son. 39 And I said unto my master, Peradven– ture the woman will not follow me. 40 And he said unto me. The Lord, before whom I have walked, will send his angel with thee, and prosper thy way ; that thou mayest take a wife for my son from my kindred, and from ray father's house. a Properly, " cleared out" the obstmctions from the house which might prevent the reception of guests. b Some, among these Rashi, explain this verse as a condition, vh DX " if not," meaning that he should first endeavour to obtain a wife from Abraham's fomily; but " if not," then by inference to be permitted to choose one elsewhere. c In the narrative, the word m;?3 ndarah is found, 28 41 Then shalt thou be clear from my oath, when thou comest to my kindred; and if they do not give thee one, (then) shalt thou be clear from my oath. 42 And I came this day unto the well, and said, Lord, the God of my master Abraham, if thou wouldst but prosper my way on which I am going. 43 Behold, I stand by the well of water; and it shall be the young womanc who cometh forth to draw water, and I say to her, Give me, I pray thee, a little water out of thy pitcher to drink; 44 And she say to me, Both drink thou, and also for thy camels will I draw : this shall be the wife whom the Lord hath destined for my master's son. 45 And before I had yet finished speaking to my own heart, behold, Rebekah came forth with her pitcher on her shoulder; and she went down unto the well, and drew water; and I said unto her. Let me drink, I pray thee. 46 And she made haste, and let down her pitcher from her shoulder, and said. Drink, and also to thy camels I will give drink; and I drank, and she made the camels drink also. 47 And I asked her, and said. Whose daughter art thou? And she said. The daughter of Bethuel, Nachor's son, whom Milcah bore unto him: and I put the ear– ring upon her face,d and the bracelets upon her hands. 48 And I bowed down my head, and pros– trated myself before the Lord ; and I blessed the Lord, the God of my master Abraham, who had led me in the right way to take the daughter of my master's brother for his son. 49 And now if ye will deal kindly and truly with my master, tell me : and if not, tell me, that I may turn to the right, or to the left. 60 Then Laban and Bethuel answered and said, The thing hath proceeded from the whereas Eleazer employs the term nn'ji' 'Almah, perhaps then used to express a person of quality, equal to the modern phrase, "young lady." The change of the terms is readily accounted for by the occurrence itself d "The nose–ring on her nose." — Menpklssoiin, who translates Qu with "nose–ring." This is undoubtedly cor– rect here, though in other passages it stands for ear–ring; for instance, Exod. xxxii. 2. [Page 29] GENESIS XXIV. XXV. CHAYE SARAH. Lord; we cannot speaka unto thee bad or good. 51 Behold, Rebekah is before thee, take her, and go, and let her be the wife of thy master's son, as the Lord hath spoken. 52 And it came to pass, when Abraham's servant heard their words, that he prostrated himself to the earth unto the Lord.* 53 And the servant brought forth vessels of silver, and vessels of gold, and garments, and gave them to Rebekah; and precious things he gave to her brother and to her mother. 54 And they did eat and drink, he and the men that were with him, and tarried the night; and they rose up in the morning, and he said, Send me away unto my master. 55 And her brother and her mother said, Let the maiden abide with us, a year or ten months; after that she shall go. 56 And he said unto them, Hinder me not, seeing the Lord hath prospered my way ; send me away that I may go to my master. 57 And they said. We will call the maiden, and inquire her own decision.b 58 And they called Rebekah, and said unto her. Wilt thou go with this man ? And she said, I will go. 59 And thereupon they sent away Rebekah their sister, and her nurse, and Abraham's servant, and his men. 60 And they blessed Rebekah, and said unto her, Our sister, be thouc the mother of thousands of myriads, and let thy seed pos– sess the gate of those who hate them. 61 And Rebekah arose with her maidens, and they rode upon the camels, and followed the man ; and the servant took Rebekah, and went his yvay. 62 And Isaac came from a walk to the well Lachai–roi; for he dwelt in the south country ; 63 And Isaac was gone out to meditate in the field towax'd evening; and he lifted up his eyes, and saw, and, behold, camels were coming. 64 And Rebekah lifted up her eyes, and she saw Isaac ; and she alighted off the camel. 65 And she said unto the servant. Who is yonder man that walketh in the field toward us ? And the servant said. This is my mas– ter ; therefore she took a vail, and covered herself 66 And the servant told Isaac all the things that he had done. 67 And Isaac brought her into the tent of Sarah his mother, and took Rebekah, and she became his wife, and he loved her; and Isaac was comforted after his mother's death. * CHAPTER XXV. 1 Then Abraham took again a wife, and her name was Keturah. 2 And she bore him Zimran, and Yokshan, and Medan, and Midian, and Yishbak, and Shuach. 3 And Yokshan begat Sheba, and Dedan. And the sons of Dedan were Asshurim, and Letushim, and Leiimmim. 4 And the sons of Midian : Ephah, and Epher, and Chanoch, and Abidah, and El– daah. All these were the children of Ke– turah. 5 And Abraham gave all that he had unto Isaac. 6 But unto the sons of the concubines that Abraham had, Abraham gave gifts; and he sent them away from Isaac his son, while he was yet living, eastward, unto the east country. 7 And these are the days of the years of Abraham's life which he lived, one hundred seventy and five years. 8 Then Abraham departed this life, and died in a good old age, an old man, and full of years, and was gathered to his people. 9 And his sons Isaac and Ishmael buried him in the cave of Machpelah, in the field of Ephron the son of Zochar the Hittite, which is before Mamre; 10 The field which Abraham purchased of the sons of Heth : there was Abraham buried, with Sarah his wife. 11 And it came to pass after the death of Abraham, that God blessed Isaac his son ; and Isaac dwelt by the well Lachai–roi.* 12 ¶ Now these are the generations of Ishmael, Abraham's son, whom Hagar the a That is, " dissuade tbce by good or bad words." I lish "to become;" thus then, "become thou thousands b Literally, "her mouth," f16urative for what is spoken, jj of myriads," the words "mother of" being understood c h rrn the construction here employed always denotes n and added to supply the hiatus in the sentence, a transition or change, almost synonymous with the Eng– 1 29 [Page 30] GENESIS XXV. TOLEDOTH. Egyptian, Sarah's handmaid, bore unto Abrar ham. 13 And these are the names of the sons of Ishmael, by their names, according to their generations : the first–born of Ishmael, Ne– bayoth; and Kedar, and Adbeel, and Mib– sam, 14 And Mishma, and Dumah, and Massa, 15 Chadad, and Tema, Yetur, Naphish, and Kedemah.* 16 These are the sons of Ishmael, and these are their names, by their towns, and by their castles; twelves princes according to their nations. 17 And these are the years of the life of Ishmael, one hundred and thirty and seven years : and he departed this life and died ; and was gathered unto his people. 18 And they dwelt from Chavilah unto Shur, that is before Egypt, as thou goest to– ward Assyria :a he dwelt in the presence of all his brethren. Haphtorah in 1 Kings i. 1 to 31. SECTION VI. TOLEDOTH, mSin. 19 ¶ And these are the generations of Isaac, the son of Abraham : Abraham begat Isaac. 20 And Isaac was forty years old when he took Rebekah, the daughter of Bethuel the Syrian, of Padan–aram, the sister to Laban the Syrian, to himself as wife. 21 And Isaac entreated the Lord in behalf of his wife, because she was barren : and the Lord was entreated of him, and Rebekah his wife conceived. 22 And the children struggled together within her ; and she said. If it be so, why did I desire this ?b And she went to inquire of the Lord. a Meaning, that Ishmael in his descendants settled him– self along the whole extent of country occupied by all his other brethren descended from Abraham. (Sec above, ch. xvi. 12.) Arnheim gives, "he settled eastward of all his brothers," which idea, howevor, is corabattcd as in– correct by others, because Ishmacfa descendants lived not eastward of all other sons of Abraham. b Rashi, "Why did I desire and pray for conception?" Aben Ezra, "Why am I different from others?" Others again explain it as an ellipsis : " If I suffer so, why am I thus (in the world)?" meaning that dea¶i would be pre– ferable. c Philippson and Arnheim render dkS with "tribe," 30 23 And the Lord said unto her. Two na– tions are in thy womb, and two manner of peoplec shall be separated from thy bowels ; and one people shall be stronger than the other people ; and the elder shall serve the younger 24 And when her days to be delivered were fulfilled, behold, there were twins in her womb. 25 And the first came out red, all over like a hairy garment; and they called his name Esau.d 26 And after that came his brother out, his hand holding on to Esau's heel ; and his name was called Jacob :e and Isaac was sixty years old when she bore them. 27 And the boys grew up: and Esau was an expert hunter, a man of the field; and Jacob was a plain man, dwelling in tents.f 28 And Isaac loved Esau, because he did eat of his venison ; but Rebekah loved Jacob. 29 And Jacob at one time boiled pottage, and Esau came from the field, and he was faint. 30 And Esau said to Jacob, Let me swal– low down, I pray thee, some of that yonder red pottage, for I am faint; therefore was his name called Edom.g 31 And Jacob said. Sell me this day thy right of first–born. 32 And Esau said. Behold, I am going to die ;h and what profit then can the right of first born be to me ? 33 And Jacob said, Swear to me this day; and he swore unto him : and he sold his right of first–born unto Jacob. 34 Then Jacob gave Esau bread and pot– tage of lentiles, and he did eat and drink, and he rose up, and went his way; thus Esau de– spised the birthright. or " branch of a nation :" the same version is given by them in other passages. d Properly, ' Emhv ; probably from nci', participle –\tly 'ahsity, "ready," "made." Philippson derives it from an Arabic word, signifying " hairy." e Properly, "Va'acob, from 'Akih, ap', "the heel." f That is, "loving home." g From Adorn, " red." h Probably meaning, that his life as hunter exposed him daily to such dangers that he was almost sure to die before bis father, wlvfrefore the birthright as the eldest of the family would in all probability be of no use to him ; wherefore he parted with it so l16htly. [Page 31] GENESIS XXVI. TOLEDOTH. CHAPTER XXVI. 1 ¶ And there was a famine in the land, be– side the first famine that was in the days of Abraham ; and Isaac went unto Abimelech, the king of the Philistines, unto Gerar. 2 And the Lord appeared unto him, and said. Go not down into Egypt; dwell in the land which I shall tell thee of. 3 Sojourn in this land, and I will be with thee, and will bless thee ; for unto thee, and unto thy seed, will I give all these countries, and I will perform the oath which I swore unto Abraham thy father ; 4 And I will cause thy seed to multiply as the stars of heaven, and I will give unto thy seed all these countries ; and in thy seed shall all the nations of the earth bless themselves. 5 Because that Abraham obeyed my voice, and kept my charge,a my commandments, my statutes, and my laws.* 6 And Isaac dwelt in Gerar. 7 And the men of the place asked (him) concerning his wife ; and he said, She is my sister ; for he feared to say. She is my wife ; lest, (said he,) the men of the place should kill me for Rebekah, because she is of a hand– some appearance. 8 And it came to pass, when he had been there a long time, that Abimelech, the king of the Philistines, looked out at a window, and saw, and behold, Isaac was sporting with Rebekah his wife. 9 And Abimelech called Isaac, and said. Behold, of a surety she is thy wife : and how saidst thou. She is my sister? And Isaac said unto him. Because I thought,b Perhaps I may die for her. 10 And Abimelech said. What is this thou hast done unto us ? How easily might one of the people have lain with thy wife, and thou wouldest have brought guiltiness upon us. 11 And Abimelech charged all his people, saying. He that toucheth this man or his wife shall surely be put to death. 12 Then Isaac sowed in that land, and re– a " Mt/ charge, the belief in God, for he believed in the Unity, and kept this faith in his heart, contending with idolaters, and publicly proclaiming the truth, to bring many to God's service ; my commandmenU, in whatever he was ordered, as to go out from his land, &c. ; my sta– tutes, to walk in the way of the Lord in the exercise of mercy; and laws, such as circumcision and the Noae"hitic precepts." — After Ramban. ceived in the same year an hundred–fold c so the Lord blessed him.* 13 And the man became great, and went forward and grew, until he became very great ; 14 And he had possession of flocks, and possession of herds, and great store of ser– vants ; and the Philistines envied him. 15 And all the wells which his father's servants had dug in the days of Abraham his father, these the Philistines stopped, and filled them with earth. 16 And Abimelech said unto Isaac, Go away from us ; for thou hast become much mightier than we. 17 And Isaac departed thence, and pitched his tent in the valley of Gerar, and dwelt there. 18 And Isaac dug again the wells of water, which they had dug in the days of Abraham his father, and which the Philistines had stopped after the death of Abraham ; and he called their names after the names by which his father had called them. 19 And the servants of Isaac dug in the valley, and found there a well of springing water. 20 And the herdmen of Gerar did strive with Isaac's herdmen, saying. The water is ours : and he called the name of the well Esek ; because they stroved with him. 21 And they dug another well, and they strove for that also : and he called the name of it Sitnah.e 22 And he removed from there, and dug another well ; and for that they strove not : and he called the name of it Rechoboth, and he said. For now the Lord hath madef room for us, and we shall increase in the land.* 23 And he went up from there to Beer– sheba. 24 And the Lord appeared unto him the same night, and said, I am the God of Abra– ham thy father ; fear not, for I am with thee, and I will bless thee, and multiply thy seed for the sake of Abraham my servant. b 1DK " to say," in Hebrew, very often refers to thought, or speaking to oneself; so here, " I said to myself," or " thought." c " The estimated increase a hundred–fold." — Rashi. d From pB'i'nn hith 'assck, " to contend." e From Oiy satone, " to hinder." f Hirchib, " he hath made room." [Page 32] GENESIS XXVI. XXVII. TOLEDOTH. 25 And he built there an altar, and called upon the name of the Lord, and pitched there his tent : and the servants of Isaac dug there a well. 26 Then Abimelech went to him from Ge– rar, and Achuzzath his friend, and Phichol the chief captain of his army. 27 And Isaac said unto them, Wherefore come ye to me, seeing that ye do hate me, and have sent me away, from you? 28 And they said, We saw clearly that the Lord was with thee; and we said, Let there be now an oath between us, between us and thee : and we will make a covenant with thee; 29 That thou shalt do us no hurt, as we have not touched thee, and as we have done unto thee nothing but good, and have sent thee away in peace : thou art now one blessed of the Lord.* 30 And he made them a feast, and they ate and drank. 31 And they rose up betimes in the morn– ing, and they swore one to the other; and Isaac sent them away, and they departed from him in peace. 32 And it came to pass the same day, that Isaac's servants came, and told him concern– ing the wella which they had dug, and they said unto him, We have found water. 33 And he called it Shibah : therefore is the name of the city Beer–sheba unto this day. 34 ¶ And when Esau was forty years old he took to wife Judith the daughter of Beeri, the Hittite, and Bahsemath the daughter of Elon the Hittite. 35 And they were a grief of mind unto Isaac and to Rebekah. CHAPTER XXVIL 1 ¶ And it came to pass, when Isaac was old, and his eyes were too dim to see, that he called Esau his eldest son, and said unto him. My son : and he said unto him. Behold, here am I. 2 And he said. Behold now, I am grown old, I know not the day of my death : a Perhaps the same well originally dug by Abraham's, and wliic–h having been lost sight of, and filled up, was now reopened by Isaac's servants. b Onkelos and Rashi render this ySn with " sword," that " which hangs by the side." c " It was his desire to bless him, that he might obtain the blessing of Abnihuiii, to inherit the land, and to be 32 3 Now therefore take, I pray thee, thy weapons, thy quiverb and thy bow, and go out to the field, and hunt for me some venison ; 4 And make me savoury food, such as I love, and bring it to me, that I may eat; that my soul may bless thee Ijefore I die.c 5 And Rebekah heard as Isaac was speak– ing to Esau his son. And Esau went to the field to hunt for venison, and to bring it. 6 And Rebekah spoke unto Jacob her son, saying. Behold, I heard thy father speak unto Esau thy brother, saying, 7 Bring me venison, and make me savoury food, that I may eat, and bless thee before the Lord before my death. 8 And now, my son, obey my voice in that which I command thee. 9 Go, I pray thee, to the flock, and fetch me from there two good kids; and I will make them savoury food for thy father, such as he loveth : 10 And thou shalt bring it to thy father, that he may eat ; for the sake that he may bless thee before his death. 11 And Jacob said to Rebekah his mother. Behold, Esau my brother is a hairy man, and I am a smooth man : 12 Peradventure my father will feel me, and I shall then seem to him as a deceiver;, and I would bring upon me a curse, and not a blessing. 13 And his mother said unto him. Upon me be thy curse, my son; only obey my voice, and go fetch them to me. 14 And he went, and fetched, and brought them to his mother ; and his mother made savoury food, such as his father loved. 15 And Rebekah took the goodly garments of her eldest son Esau, which were with her in the house, and clothed therewith Jacob her younger son ; 16 And the skins of the kids she put upon his hands, and upon the smooth part of his neck ; 17 And she gave the savoury food and the bread, which she had prepared, mto the hand of Jacob her son. the one in covenant with God, because he was the first– born ; and it is probable that Rebekah had never revealed to him the prophecy given to her before the birth of the children, or else Isaac would certainly not have wished to give a blessing against the will of God, which could thus be of no avail. We must, however, look upon the whole asprovidential." — Ramban. [Page 33] GENESIS XXVII. TOLEDOTH. 18 And he came unto his father, and said, My father : and he said, Here am I ; who art thou, my son? 19 And Jacob said unto his father, I am Esau thy first–born ; I have done as thou didst speak to me : arise, I pray thee, sit here and eat of my venison, that thy soul may bless me. 20 And Isaac said unto his son, How is it that thou hast found it so quickly, my son ? And he said, Because the Lord thy God brought it before me. 21 And Isaac said unto Jacob, Come near, I pray thee, that I may feel thee, my son, whether thou be truly my son Esau or not. 22 And Jacob went near unto Isaac his father, and he felt him ; and he said. The voice is the voicea of Jacob, but the hands are the hands of Esau. 23 And he recognised him not, because his hands were hairy as his brother Esau's hands : so he blessed him. 24 And he said. Art thou indeed my son Esau ? and he said, I am. 25 And he said, Bring it near to me, and I will eat of my son's venison, that my soul may bless thee. And he brought it near to him, and he did eat, and he brought him wine, and he drank. 26 And Isaac his father said unto him. Come near, I pray thee, and kiss me, my son. 27 And he came near, and kissed him : and he smelled the smell of his gannents and blessed him, and said,b See, the smell of my son is as the smell of a field which the Lord hath blessed.* 28 And may God give thee of the dew of heaven, and the fatness of the earth, and plenty of corn and wine ; 29 Nations shall serve thee, and people bow down to thee ; be lord over thy brethren, and thy mother's sons shall bow down to thee ; cursedc be they that curse thee, and blessed be they that bless thee. 30 And it came to pass, as soon as Isaac a There was probably a similarity in their voices, and Isaac failed, therefore, to recognise Jacob fully, because his hands were then hairy. b According to Arnheim, the blessing commences at this word ; compare with Hosea xiv. 7, where, among the promises of a blissful future, the personification of happi– ness is represented under the words, " And his smell shall be like that of Lebanon." The words which follow were prompted here by the excitement of the sense of smelling, E had made an end of blessing Jacob, and Jacob was yet scarcely gone out from the presence of Isaac his father, that Esau his brother came in from his hunting. 31 And he also made savoury food, and brought it unto his father, and said unto his father, Let my father arise, and eat of his son's venison, in order that thy soul may bless me. 32 And Isaac his father said unto him, Who art thou ? And he said, I am thy son, thy first–bom, Esau. 33 And Isaac trembled greatly, exceed– ingly, and said. Who was it ? where is he that had hunted venison, and brought it me, and I ate of all before thou camest, and blessed him ? yea, he shall also remain blessed. 34 When Esau heard the words of his father, he uttered a great and exceedingly bitter cry, and said unto his father. Bless me, also me, my father. 35 And he said. Thy brother came with subtilty, and took away thy blessing. 36 And he said, Hath he been therefore named Jacob, becaused he hath supplanted me these two times? my right of first–born he took away; and, behold, now he hath taken away my blessing ; and he said. Hast thou not reserved a blessing for me ? 37 And Isaac answered and said unto Esau, Behold, I have made him thy lord, and all his brethren have I given to him for ser– vants; and with corn and wine have I en– dowed him : and what can I do now for thee, my son ? 38 And Esau said unto his father. Hast thou then but one blessing, my father? bless me, also me, my father. And Esau lifted up his voice, and wept. 39 And Isaac his father answered and said unto him. Behold, thy dwelling shall be the fatness of the earth, and (blessed) by the dew of heaven from above ; 40 And by thy sword shalt thou live, and thy brother shalt thou serve; and it shall as Jacob's garments gave forth the odour imbibed from field and forest flowers. c Properly, " cursed be every one of those," &c., " blessed be every one of those," &c. d Others render, " Is it because he hath been named Jacob, that he hath," &c. — 'japyi vayangkehani, "he hath deceived me," is derived from the same root as the name, (see above, xxv. 26,) hence it might be rendered " trodden me under foot." 83 [Page 34] GENESIS XXVII. XXVIII. VAYETZAY. come to pass, that when thou shalt have the dominion,a thou canst break his yoke from off thy neck. 41 And Esau hated Jacob because of the blessing wherewith his father had blessed him ; and Esau said in his heart. The days of mourning for my father– will be at hand; then will I slay my brother Jacob. 42 And Rebekah was informed of the words of Esau her elder son : and she sent and called Jacob her younger son, and said unto him. Behold, thy brother Esau doth com– fort himself, with regard to thee, purposing to kill thee. 43 Now therefore, my son, obey my voice; and arise, flee thou to Laban my brother, to Charan ; 44 And tarry with him a short time, until thy brother's fury turn away; 45 Until thy brother's anger turn away from thee, and he forget that which thou hast done to him : then will I send, and fetch thee from there; why should I be deprived of both of you at once in one day ? 46 And Rebekah said to Isaac, I am weary of my life because of the daughters of Heth ; if Jacob take a wife from the daughters of Heth, such as these, from the daughters of the land, what good will life do me ? CHAPTER XXVIII. 1 And Isaac called Jacob, and blessed him,b and charged him, and said unto him, Thou shalt not take a wife from the daugh– ters of Canaan. 2 Arise, go to Padan–aram, to the house of Bcthuel thy mother's fother; and take thy– self from there a wife of the daughters of Lar ban thy mother's brother. 3 And God, the Almighty, bless thee, and make thee fruitful, and multiply thee, that thou mayest become a multitude of people; 4 And may he give thee the blessing of Abraham, to thee, and to thy seed with thee; that thou mayest inherit the land of thy so– journ, which God gave unto Abraham.* 5 And Isaac sent away Jacob, and he went to Padan–aram, unto Laban, the son of Bethuel a This translation, given in the common English version, is according to Saai>iaii and Redak, as quoted by Phi– lippson. iiaslii, after Onkelos, renders, "when thou hast cause to compfiiin (in case the Israelites sin) for the blessings taken from thee, that," &c. Gescnius and Arn– 34 the Syrian, the brother of Rebekah, the mother of Jacob and Esau. 6 And when Esau saw that Isaac had blessed Jacob, and sent him away to Padan– aram, to take himself from there a wife ; and in blessing him had given him a charge, say– ing. Thou shalt not take a wife of the daugh– ters of Canaan ;* 7 And that Jacob had oljeyed his father and his mother, and was gone to Padan–aram : 8 Then saw Esau that the daughters of Canaan were evil in the eyes of Isaac his father ; 9 And Esau went unto Ishmael, and took Machalath the daughter of Ishmael, Abra– ham's son, the sister of Nebayoth in addition to his wives, to himself as wife. Haphtorah in Malachi i. 1 to ii. 7. SECTION VII. VAYETZAY, Ni'M. 10 And Jacob went out from Beer–sheba, and went toward Charan. 11 And he lighted upon a certain place, and tarried there all night, because the sun was set ; and he took one of the stones of the palace, and put it for his pillow, and laid him– self doAvn in that place. 12 And he dreamed, and behold a ladder was set up on the earth, and the top of it reached to heaven ; and behold, angels of God were ascending and descending on it. 13 And, behold, the Lord stood above it, and said, I am the Lord, the God of Abraham thy father, and the God of Isaac : the land whereon thou liest, to thee will I give it, and to thy seed; 14 And thy seed shall be as the dust of the earth, and thou shalt spread abroad to the Avost, and to the east, and to the north and to the south ; and in thee and thy seed shall all the families of the earth be blessed. 15 And, behold, I am with thee, and will keep thee whithersover thou goest, and will bring thee again into this land; for I will not leave thee, until I have done what I have spoken to thee of 10 And Jacob waked out of his sleep, and heim, " when thou becomest spread abroad." Philippson, " when thou rebellest that thou mayest break," &c. b ConBrmation of the blessing previously obtained: this proves that however much Isaac loved Esau, he w:is not unconscious of the great merits and piety of his younger son. [Page 35] GENESIS XXVIII. XXIX. VAYETZAY. he said, Surely the Lord is present in this place ; and I knew it not.a 17 And he was afraid, and said, How fear– ful is this place! this is none other but the house of God, and this is the gate of heaven.b 18 And Jacob rose up early in the morn– ing, and took the stone that he had put for his pillow, and set it up for a pillar, and poured oil upon the top of it. 19 And he called the name of that place Beth–el c but 10z was the name of that city in fonner times. 20 And Jacob made a vow, saymg, If God will be with me, and will keep me on this way which I am going, and will give me bread to eat, and raiment to put on, 21 And I come again in peace to my father's house: then shall the Lord be my God;d 22 And this stone, which I have set for a pillar, shall be God's house;e and of all that thou wilt give me I will surely give the tenth unto thee.* CHAPTER XXIX. 1 Then Jacob lifted up his feetf and went unto the land of the children of the east. 2 And he looked, and behold there was a well in the field, and, lo, there were three flocks of sheepg by it; for out of that well they watered the flocks : and the stone upon the mouth of the well was great. 3 And there all the flocks were wont to as– semble ; and they rolled then the stone from the mouth of the well, and watered the sheep ; and they put the stone agam upon the mouth of the well in its place. 4 And Jacob said unto them. My brethren, whence are ye? And they said. Of Charan are we. 5 And he said unto them. Know ye Laban the son of Nachor? And they said, We know him. 6 And he said unto them. Is he well? h And they said. He is well ; and, behold, Ra– chel his daughter cometh with the sheep. 7 And he said, Lo, the day is yet long, it is not time that the cattle should be di–ivcn home ; water ye the sheep, and go and feed them. 8 And they said. We cannot, until all the flocks be gathered together, then do they roll the stone from the mouth of the well; and we water the sheep. 9 And while he was yet speaking with them, Rachel came with her father's sheep; for she was a shepherdess. 10 And it came to pass, when Jacob saw Rachel the daughter of Laban his mother's brother, and the sheep of Laban his mother's brother, that Jacob went near, and rolled the stone from the mouth of the well, and watered the flock of Laban his mother's brother. 11 And Jacob kissed Rachel, and lifted up his voice, and wept. 12 And Jacob told Rachel that he was her father's brother,i and that he was Rebekah's son : and she ran and told her father. 13 And it came to pass, when Laban heard the tidings of Jacob his sister's son, that he ran to meet him, and embraced him, and kissed him, and brought him to his house. And he told Laban all these things. 14 And Laban said to him, Surely thou art my bone and my flesh. And he abode with him the space of a month. 15 And Laban then said unto Jacob, Be– cause thou art my brother, shouldest thou therefore serve me for naught? tell me, what shall thy wages be? 16 And Laban had two daughters; the name of the elder was Leah, and the name of the younger was Rachel. 17 And the eyes of Leahavere tender; but Rachel was of handsome form and handsome appearance.* 18 And Jacob loved Rachel ; and he said, a " If I had known it, I would not have slept in a place as holy as this." — Rashi. b "The place whence prayers ascend to heaven." — Idem. c " The house of God." d This does not express a doubt or condition concerning Jacob's willingness to serve God, but means to convey that he would, in the event of his safe return, feel as– sured that he was an accepted servant of the Lord who had just appeared to him. e " Shall be the place where I will worship before the Lord." — Onkelos. f i. e. Pursued his journey. g The word JKV tzone., rendered here "sheep," properly inc10des both sheep and goats. h Literally, "Hath he peace?" a f16urative phrase for well–being or prosperity ; perhaps, derived from the fre– quent hostilities of nomadic tribes. i See above, iiii. 8 ; it stands here for " near relative." [Page 36] GENESIS XXIX. XXX. VAYETZAY I will serve thee seven years for Kachel thy younger daughter. 19 And Laban said, It is better that I give her to thee, than that I should give her to another man : abide with me. 20 And Jacob served for Rachel seven years; and they seemeda unto him but a few days, through the love he had to her. 21 And Jacob said unto Laban, Give me my wife, for my days are fulfilled, that I may go in unto her. 22 And Laban gathered together all the men of the place, and made a feast. 23 And it came to pass in the evening, that he took Leah his daughter, and brought her to him; and he went in unto her. 24 And Laban gave unto his daughter Leah, Zilpah his maid for a handmaid. 25 And it came to pass, that in the morn– ing, behold, it was Leah : and he said to La– ban, What is this thou hast done unto me ? did I not serve with thee for Rachel? where– fore then hast thou deceived me ? 26 And Laban said. It is not done so in our place, to give in marriage the younger be– fore the first–born. 27 Fulfil the weekb of this, and we will give thee this one also, for the service which thou shalt serve with me yet seven other years. 28 And Jacob did so, and fulfilled the week of the first; and he gave him Rachel his daughter for a wife. 29 And Laban gave to Rachel his daughter Bilhah his handmaid to be her maid. 30 And he went in also unto Rachel, and he loved also Rachel more than Leah; and he served with him yet seven other years. 31 And when the Lord saw that Leah was hated,c he opened her womb; but Rachel was barren. 32 And Leah conceived, and bore a son, and she called his name Reuben ;d for she said. Surely, the Lord hath looked upon my a Heb. " Were in his eyes as." b The seven days of festivity, which appear to have been customarily observed at that time, as afterwards, in later periods, at the occurrence of a marriage. c This means, not abso10tely hated, but neglected, less loved than the other. d From raoh, " to see," and hen, "a son." e Shim'on, from yDI? shamang, "he has heard," and K on, "affliction." f From Tfh lavah, " he united," "he adhered." affliction, because now my husband will love me. 33 And she conceived again and bore a son; and she said. Because the Lord heard that I was hated, he hath given me this one also; and she called his name Simeon.e 34 And she conceived again, and bore a son; and she said. Now this time will my husband be jomed unto me, because I have bom him three sons; therefore wa? his name called Levi.f 35 And she conceived again, and bore a son ; and she said. This time will I praise the Lord ; therefore she called his name Judah :g and she left off bearing. CHAPTER XXX. 1 And when Rachel saw that she bore Jacob no children, Rachel envied her sister; and she said unto Jacob, Give me children, and if not, I die. 2 And Jacob's anger was kindled against Rachel: and he said. Am I in God's stead, who hath withheld from thee the fruit of the womb ? 3 And she said. Behold, (here is) my maid Bilhah, go in unto her; and she shall bear uponh my knees, that I may also havei chil– dren by her. 4 And she gave him Bilhah her handmaid for wife, and Jacob went in unto her. 5 And Bilhah conceived, and bore Jacob a son. 6 And Rachel said, God hath judged me, and hath also heard my voice, and hath given me a son : therefore called she his name Dan.k 7 And Bilhah, Rachefs maid, conceived again, and bore Jacob a second son. 8 And Rachel said. Contests of Godl have I contended with my sister, I have also pre– vailed : and she called his name Naphtali.m 9 When Leah now saw that she had left off bearing, she took Zilpah her maid, and gave her to Jacob for wife. g Yehudah, from nilN odeh, " I will thank," and TV Yah, "the Lord." h "Those which I shall rear."— Onkelos. i "Be built up through her." — Heb. k From don, " to judge." l It is very customary in Hebrew constructions to add the word God in the genitive, to the idea expressed, to denote its greatness. Thus, " mountains of God." — Ps. xxxvi. 7, &c. m From pathol, "to wres¶e," "to twist;" found only in the passive and reflexive forms. [Page 37] GENESIS XXX. VAYETZAY. 10 And Zilpah Leah's maid bore Jacob a son. 11 And Leah said, Good 10ck hath come : and she called his name Gad.a 12 And Zilpah Leah's maid bore a second son unto Jacob. 13 And Leah said, To my happiness; for the daughters will call me blessed : and she called his name Asher.b* 14 And Reuben went in the days of the wheat harvest, and found mandrakes in the field, and he brought them unto Leah his mother; then Rachel said to Leah, Give me, I pray thee, (some) of thy son's man– drakes. 15 And she said unto her, Is it not enough that thou hast taken my husband? and wouldest thou also take away my son's man– drakes? And Rachel said, Therefore shall he lie with thee to–night for thy son's man– drakes. 16 And Jacob came out of the field in the evening, and Leah went' out to meet him, and said. Unto me, thou must come in ; for surely I have obtained thee as a rewardc with my son's mandrakes. And he lay with her that night. 17 And God hearkened unto Leah, and she conceived, and bore Jacob a fifth son. 18 And Leah said, God hath given me my reward, because I have given my maid to my husband : and she called his name Issachar.d 19 And Leah conceived again, and bore a sixth son unto Jacob. 20 And Leah said, God hath endued me with a good dowry; now will my husband dwell with me, because I have born him six sons; and she called his name Zebulun.e 21 And afterward she bore a daughter, and she called her name Dinah. 22 And God remembered Rachel, and God hearkened to her, and opened her womb. 23 And she conceived, and bore a son; and she said, God hath taken away my re– proach. a " 10ck." b " Happy." c This elegant turn is according to Amheim's version. d Yissachar, from sachar, " reward." e From zehul, a " dwelling." f Yosarph, i. e. " he will add." g Onkelos; as much as, "excuse me for saying;'*the word " tarry," added in the English version, has no war– 24 And she called his name Joseph,f say– ing, The Lord shall add to me another son. 25 And it came to pass, when Rachel had born Joseph, that Jacob said unto Laban, Send me away, that I may go unto my own place, and to my country. 26 Give me my wives and my children, for whom I have served thee, and let me go; for thou knowest my service with which I have served thee. 27 And Laban said unto him, If I could but find favour in thy eyes;g I have learned by experience that the Lord hath blessed me for thy sake.* 28 And he said. Appoint me thy wages, and I will give them. 29 And he said unto him. Thou knowest how I have served thee, and what thy cattle hath become with me. 30 For it was a little which thou hadst be– fore I came, and it is now increased unto a multitude; and the Lord hath blessed thee since my coming; and now when shall I pro– vide also for my own house ? 31 And he said, What shall I give thee? And Jacob said. Thou shalt not give me the least; if thou wilt do this thing for me, I will again feed and keep thy flock : 32 I will pass through all thy flock to–day, remoAdng from there every speckled and spot– ted lamb, and every brown lamb among the sheep, and whatever is spotted and speckled among the goats ; and such shall be after this my reward. 33 And my righteousnessh shall testify for me in time to come, when iti shall come with my reward before thy face : every one that is not speckled and spotted among the goats, and brown among the sheep, that shall be counted stolen with me. 34 And Laban said. Well, let it be accord– ing to thy word. 35 And he removed on that day the he– goats that were ring–streaked and spotted, and all the she–goats that were speckled and spot– rant for it in the Hebrew, though Dubno deduces it as a consequence from the antecedent, considering the verse as elliptical. h"Honesty" — Mendelssohn — in which sense this word should be taken when applied to dealings with man. i After Rashi and Arnheim ; others render Ki3n " when thou (Laban) comest (to look) over my reward (the property acquired) before thee." [Page 38] GENESIS XXX. XXXI. VAYETZAY. ted, every one that had some white on it, and all the brown among the sheep, and gave them mto the hand of his sons. 36 And he put a space of three days' jour– ney between himself and Jacob; and Jacob fed the flocks of Laban that were left. 37 And Jacob took himself rods of green poplar, and of the hazela and chestnut tree; and peeled thereon white streaks, laying bare the white which was on the rods. 38 And he set the rods which he had peeled in the gutters in the watering troughs, where the flocksb came to drink, just before the flocks, and where they conceived, when they came to drink. 39 And the flocks conceived before the rods, and brought forth ring–streaked, speckled, and spotted. 40 And these lambs did Jacob separate, and set the facesc of the flocks toward the ring–streaked, and whatever was brown in the flock of Laban ; and he put his own flocks by themselves, and put them not with Laban's cattle. 41 And it came to pass, whensoever the stronger cattle did conceive, that Jacob laid the rods before the eyes of the cattle in the gutters, that they might conceive among the rods. 42 But when the cattle were feeble, he put them not in ; so the feebler belonged to Laban, and the stronger to Jacob. 43 And the man increasedd exceedingly, and he had many flocks, and maid–servants, and men–servants, and camels, and asses. CHAPTER XXXI. 1 And he heard the words of Laban's sons, saying, Jacob hath taken away all that was our father's, and of that which was our father's hath he gotten all this wealth.e 2 And Jacob beheld the countenance of Laban, and, behold, it was not toward him as before.f a Others, "Almond and plane tree." b Laban no doubt sought to give Jacob the least possi– ble wages, expecting, however, that he would employ some device to obtain all he could in accordance with their bargain; hence he was evidently not offended at it. c " He made advance–droves out of whatcve¶ was speckled and brown in Laban's flocks," Arnheim, tak– ing juxn 'ja as tiie name of the flocks which went before the other ; but the sense is at last the same as that given in the text, since there the plainly coloured are represented as following those having the marks agreed upon 3 And the Lord said unto Jacob, Return unto the land of thy fathers, and to thy birth– place; and I will be with thee. 4 And Jacob sent and called Rachel and Leah to the field unto his flock. 5 And he said unto them, I see your father's countenance, that it is not toward me as before ; but the God of my father hath been with me. 6 And ye know well that with all my power I have served your father. 7 And your father hath deceived me, and changed my wages ten times; but God suf– fered him not to do me evil. 8 If he said thus. The speckled shall be thy wages ; then bore all the cattle speckled : and if he said thus. The ring–streaked shall be my reward; then bore all the cattle ring– streaked. 9 Thus God took away the cattle of your father, and gave them to me. 10 And it came to pass at the time that the cattle conceived, that I lifted up my eyes, and saw in a dream, and, behold, the rams which leaped upon the cattle were ring– streaked, speckled, and grizzled. 11 And an angel of God spoke unto me in the dream, Jacob : and I said. Here am I. 12 And he said, Lift up now thy eyes and see, all the rams which leap upon the cattle are ring–streaked, speckled, and grizzled; for I have seen all that Laban doeth unto thee. 13 I am the God of Beth–el, where thou anointedst a pillar, where thou madest unto me a vow : now arise, get thee out from this land, and return unto the land of thy birth. 14 And Rachel and Leah answered and said unto him. Is there yet any portion or in– heritance for us in our fother's house ? 15 Were we not counted of him as stran– gers? for he hath sold us; and he hath quite consumed also our money.g 16 For all the riches which God hath taken from our father, that is ours, and our chil– d Literally, " spread out," i. e. his flocks were extended over a large pasture–ground. e Literally, "glory," or "honour." f Hcb. " Yesterday and day before yesterday." g Through the frauds practised upon Jacob. Rachel and Lciih express in this verse their just indignation against the cruelty of their father in having sold them, as though they wore servants, to their husbaud, much as they loved him ; and now they had additional cause for complaint in his eS'orts to give their husband as small wages as possible. [Page 39] GENESIS XXXI. VAYETZAY. dren's ; now then, whatsoever God hath said unto thee, do.* 17 Then Jacob rose up, and. set his sons and his wives upon camels ; 18 And he led away all his cattle, and all his goods which he had gotten, the cattle of his acquirmg, which he had gotten in Padan– aram, to go to Isaac his father into the land of Canaan. 19 And Laban was gone to shear his sheep ; and Rachel stole the images that were her father's. 20 And Jacob stolea away unawares to La– ban the Syrian, by not letting him know that he was going to flee. 21 And he fled with all that he had; and he rose up, and passed over the river, and set his face toward the mount Gilead. 22 And it was told to Laban on the third day that Jacob was fled. 23 And he took his brethren with him, and pursued after him a seven days' journey; and he overtook him at the mount of Gilead. 24 And God came to Laban, the Syrian, in a dream of the night, and said unto him, Take thou heed that thou speak not to Jacob either good or bad.b 25 Then Laban overtook Jacob ; now Jacob had pitched his tent on the mount, and Laban with his brethren pitched on the mount of Gilead. 26 And Laban said to Jacob, What hast thou done, that thou hast stolen away una– wares to me, and led away my daughters, as captives taken with the sword ? 27 Wherefore didst thou flee away secretly, and steal away from me ; and why didst thou not tell me, that I might have sent thee away with mirth, and with songs, with tabret, and with harp? 28 And (why) hast thou not suffered me to kiss my sons and my daughters? now thou hast acted foolishly in so doing. 29 It is in the power of my hand to do you hurt ; but the God of your father spoke unto me yesternight, saying, Take thou heed that thou speak not to Jacob either good or bad. 30 And now, thou wouldest needs be gone, because thou greatly longedst after thy father's a Heb. " Stole the heart of Laban." b i. e. Use no threats or persuasion to induce him to return to Syria. c Lit. " Felt over." house ; (yet) wherefore hast thou stolen my gods? 31 And Jacob answered and said to Laban, Because I was afraid, for I said, Peradventure thou wouldest take by force thy daughters from me. 32 With whomsoever thou findest thy gods, let him not live ; before our brethren seek out thou what is thine with me, and take it to thee ; but Jacob knew not that Rachel had stolen them. 33 And Laban went into the tent of Jacob, and into the tent of Leah, and into the tent of the two maid–servants ; but he found no– thing ; he then went out of the tent of Leah, and entered into Rachefs tent. 34 Now Rachel had taken the images, and put them in the saddle–cushion of the camel, and sat upon them ; and Laban searched" all the tent, and found nothing. 35 And she said to her father. Let it not displease my lord that I cannot rise up before thee ; for the custom of women is upon me ; and thus he searched, but found not the images. 36 Now Jacob became wroth, and quar– relled with Laban ; and Jacob answeredd and said to Laban, What is my trespass ? what is my sin, that thou hast so hotly pursued after me? 37 Although thou hast searched all my goods, what hast thou found of all the articles of thy household ? set it here before my bre– thren and thy brethren, that they may judge between us both. 38 These twenty years have I been with thee : thy ewes and thy she–goats have not cast their young ;e and the rams of thy flock have I not eaten. 39 That which was torn of beasts I brought not unto thee ; I had to bear the loss of it, of my hand didst thou require it, whatever was stolen by day, and stolen by night. 40 (Where) I was in the day the heat con– sumed me, and the frost by night; and my sleep departed from my eyes. 41 These twenty years have I been in thy house ; I have served thee fourteen years for thy two daughters, and six years for thy flocks : and thou hast changed my wages ten times. d Amheim renders " commenced," in which sense the verb nJi' is found at times. (See Deut. xxvii. 14.) e (". e. Carelessness in not attending properly to the flock could never be charged to me. 89 [Page 40] GENESIS XXXI. XXXII. VAYISHLACH. 42 Except the God of my father, the God of Abraham, and the Fear of Isaac, had been with me, surely thou hadst now sent me away empty ; my affliction and the labour of my hands God hath seen, and decideda yester– night.* 43 And Laban answered and said unto Jacob, The daughters are my daughters, and the children are my children, and the flocks are my flocks, and all that thou seest is mine ; but as to my daughters, what can I do unto them this day, or unto their children whom they have born ? 44 And now, come thou, let us make a covenant, I and thou ; and let it be for a wit– ness between me and thee. 45 And Jacob took a stone, and set it up for a pillar. 46 And Jacob said unto his brethren, Gather stones; and they took stones, and made a heap : and they ate there upon the heap. 47 And Laban called it Yegar–sahadutha :b but Jacob called it Galed.*b 48 And Laban said, This heap is a witness between me and thee this day ; therefore called he its name Galed ; 49 And Mitzpahc for he said. The Lord shall watch between me and thee, when we are absent one from the other ; 50 If thou shouldest afflict my daughters, or if thou shouldest take other wives besides my daughters, when there is no man with us : see, God is witness between me and thee. 51 And Laban said to Jacob, Behold this heap, and behold this pillar, which I have cast up between me and thee ; 52 Witness be this heap and witness be this pillar, that I will not pass by this heap, and that thou shalt not paiss unto me by this heap and this pillar, for evil. 53 The God of Abraham and the God of Nachor shall judge between us, the God of their father ; but Jacob swore by the Fear of his father Isaac. 54 Then Jacob slew some cattled upon the a Meaning, tbat by the direction given to Laban not to urge Jacob's return, God had decided that Jacob had acted rightly, and that Laban had been the wrong–doer. b This, the Aramaic name, is identical with the He– brew appellation of Jacob, meaning the " heap of testi– mony." c From nijy tzaphoh, " to see, to watch." d After Rashi, who does not agree with the English 40 mount, and called his brethren to eat bread ; and they did eat bread, and tarried all night on the mount.* CHAPTER XXXII.e 1 And early in the morning Laban rose up, and kissed his sons and his daughters and blessed them ; and Laban departed, and re– turned unto his own place. 2 And Jacob went on his way, and there met him angels of God. 3 And when Jacob saw them, he said. This is a host of God ; and he called the name of that place Machanayim.f Haphtorah in Hoshea xi. 7 to xii. 12. Some read from xii. 13, to xiv. 10. SECTION VIII. VAYISHLACH, nSt''l. 4 ¶ And Jacob sent messengers before him to Esau his brother unto the land of Se'ir, the countryg of Edom. 5 And he commanded them, saying, Thus shall ye speak unto my lord, to Esau, Thus saith thy servant Jacob, With Laban have I sojourned, and stayed until now. 6 And I have acquired oxen, and asses, flocks, and men–servants, and women–ser– vants ; and I send now to tell my lord, to find grace in thy eyes. 7 And the messengers returned to Jacob, saying, We came to thy brother, to Esau, and also he cometh to meet thee, and four hun– dred men with him. 8 Then Jacob was greatly afraid, and he felt distressed ; and he divided the people that were with him, and the flocks, and the herds, and the camels, into two bands. 9 And he said, if Esau should come to the one band and smite it, then the other band which is left may escape. 10 And Jacob said, God of my father Abraham, and God of my father Isaac, the Lord who saidst unto me. Return unto thy country, and to thy birthplace, and I will deal well with thee : version in making it a sacrifice. — dhS " broad," as here given, means a "prepared meal," or "dinner." e In the English version, chap, xxxii. commences wi¶i V. 2. f " Two camps," or " hosts." g Heb. " Fields." Dubuo explains, " to the land of Seir, that part where Edom (Esau) dwelt." [Page 41] GENESIS XXXII. XXXIII. VAYISHLACH. 11 I am not worthya of all the mercies, and of all the truth, which thou hast shown unto thy servant ; for with my staff I passed over this Jordan; and now I am become two bands. 12 Deliver me, I pray thee, from the hand of my brother, from the hand of Esau ; for I fear him, lest he will come and smite me, the mother with the children. 13 And thou saidst, I will surely do thee good, and make thy seed as the sand of the sea, which cannot be numbered for multi– tude.* 14 And he lodged there that same night ; and he took of that which he carried with him*b a present for Esau his brother : 15 Two hundred she–goats, and twenty he– goats, two hundred ewes, and .twenty rams, 16 Thirty milch camels with their colts, forty cows, and ten bulls, twenty she–asses, and ten foals. 17 And he delivered them into the hand of his servants, every drove by itself; and he said unto his servants. Pass on before me, and put a space between drove and drove. 18 And he commanded the foremost, say– ing. When Esau my brother should meet thee, and ask thee, saying. Whose art thou? and whither art thou going? and for whom are these before thee? 19 Then shalt thou say. They belong to thy servant, to Jacob ; it is a present sent unto my lord, to Esau; and, behold, also, he is him– self behind us. 20 And so he commanded also the second, also the third, as also all that followed the droves, saying. After this manner shall ye speak unto Esau, when ye find him. 21 And say ye moreover. Behold, also thy servant Jacob is behind us. For he said, I will appease him with the present that goeth before me, and afterward I will see his face ; peradventure he will receivec me kindly. a My merits have been diminished through all," &c. — Onkelos and Rashi. There is no warrant to render it, with the English version, " I am not worthy of the least of," &c., there being no word in the text to correspond with the addition. b Heb. " Which had come to his hand," meaning " the cattle in which his wealth consisted, and from these he sent ; for he was on the way, and had no opportunity to send silver and gold and precious things." — Ramban. c Lit. " he will bear my face," since one is not able to look with composure in the face of the person who has not obtained his forgiveness. 22 The present went thus on before him ; and he lodged himself that night in the camp. 23 And he rose up that night, and he took his two wives, and his two women–servants, and his eleven sons, and passed over the ford of the Yabbok. 24 And he took them, and sent them over the stream, and sent over what he had. 25 And Jacob was left alone ; and there wres¶ed a man with him until the breaking of the day.*d 26 And when he saw that he could not pre– vail against him, he struck againste the hol– low of his thigh ; and the hollow of Jacob's thigh was put out of joint, as he was wres¶ing with him. 27 And he said, Let me go, for the day hath dawned. And he said, I will not let thee go until thou hast blessed me. 28 And he said unto him. What is thy name ? and he said, Jacob. 29 And he said. Not Jacob shall any more be called thy name, but Israel f for as a princeg hast thou power with God and with men, and hast prevailed. 30 And Jacob asked him, and said, Tell me, I pray thee, thy name. And he said. Wherefore is it that thou dost ask after my name ? And he blessed him there.* 31 And Jacob called the name of the place Peniel :h for I have seen an angel of Godi face to face, and my life hath been preserved. 32 And the sun rose unto him as he passed by Penuel, and he halted upon his thigh. 33 Therefore the children of Israel do not eat the since whichk shrank, which is upon the hollow of the thigh, unto this day; because he struck against the hollow of Jacob's thigh on the since that shrank. CHAPTER XXXIII. 1 And Jacob lifted up his eyes, and looked, and behold, Esau came, and with him four d More correctly, " the rise of the morning dawn." e Lit. " He touched on the pan of," &c. f " Prince of God," SxiE¶' I'isniel, "wa sar, " prince," and ha EI, " God." g The moderns render, " for thou hast striven for the mastery with divine beings (angels) and with men, and hast conquered." h YroxD. panim, " face," and El, " God." i After Onkelos. k Philippson and others, " tendon" and explain with tendo Achillis. [Page 42] GENESIS XXXIII. XXXIV. VAYISHLACH. hundred men. And he divided the children unto Leah, and unto Rachel, and unto the two handmaids. 2 And he put the handmaids and their children foremost, and Leah and her children after, and Rachel and Joseph hindermost. 3 And he himself passed on before them, and bowed himself to the gromid seven times, until he came near to his brother. 4 And Esau ran to meet him, and embraced him, and fell on his neck, and kissed him; and they wept. 5 And he lifted up his eyes, and saw the women and the children ; and said. Who are these with thee ? And he said, The children whom God hath graciously given thy servant.* 6 Then came the handmaidens near, they and their children, and they bowed themselves. 7 And Leah also with her children came near, and they bowed themselves ; and after that came Joseph near and Rachel, and they bowed themselves. 8 And he said, What meanest thou by all this drove which I have met? And he said. To find grace in the eyes of my lord. 9 And Esau said, I have enough, my bro– ther, keep unto thyself what thou hast. 10 And Jacob said, This must not be, I pray thee ; if I have but found grace in thy eyes, then do thou receive my present at my hand; since I have seen thy face, it is as though I had seen the face of an angel, and because thou hast received me kindly.a 11 Take, I pray thee, my presentb that is brought to thee ; because God hath dealt graciously with me, and because I have a plenty of all. And he urged him, and he took it. 12 And he said. Let us depart, and move farther, and I will trwel near thee. 13 And he said unto him, My lord knoweth that the children are tender, and the flocks and herds with young are a charge on me :c and if they should overdrive them one day, all the flock would die. 14 Let my lord, I pray thee, pass on before his servant: and I will lead on slowly, accord– ing as the cattle that goeth before me and a After Rashi. b Heb. "blessing." c Arnheim and Philippson regard 'S;' as a Syriae p10ral from the singular hy " the young," and render, "and the flocks and the herds suckle the young." d From succah, " a booth." 42 the children may be able to trwel, until I come unto my lord unto Seir. 15 And Esau said. Let me, I pray thee, leave with thee some of the people that are with me. And he said, What needeth it ? let me only find grace in the eyes of my lord. 16 So Esau returned that day on his way unto Seir. 17 And Jacob journeyed to Succoth and built himself a house, and for his cattle he made booths; therefore he called the name of the place Succoth.d 18 ¶ And Jacob came in good health to the city of Shechem, which is in the land of Ca– naan, when he came from Padan–aram; and he encamped before the city. 19 And he bought the parcel of the field, where he had spread his tent, at the hand of the children of Chamor, the father of Shechem, for a hundred kessitah.e 20 And he erected there an altar, and called it, El–Elohe–Israel.*f CHAPTER XXXIV. 1 ¶ And Dinah the daughter of Leah, whom she had born unto Jacob, went out to look about among the daughters of the land. 2 And Shechem the son of Chamor the Hivite, the prince of the country, saw her; and he took her, and lay with her, and did her violence. 3 And his soul clwe unto Dinah the daughter of Jacob, and he loved the maiden, and spoke kindly unto the maiden. 4 And Shechem spoke unto Chamor his father, saying, Get me this girl for wife. 5 And Jacob heard that he had defiled Dinah his daughter; but his sons were with his cattle in the field: and Jacob held his peaceg until they were come. 6 And Chamor the father of Shechem went out unto Jacob to speak with him. 7 And the sons of Jacob came from the field when they heard it, and the men were grieved, and it excited their anger greatly ; because he had wrought a disgraceful thing in Israel to lie with the daughter of Jacob, and this ought not to be done. e A particular coin, of unknown va10e. The notion of Gesenius that each was worth four shekels is mere con– jecture. f " God, the God of Israel." g i. e. Kept silent. [Page 43] GENESIS XXXIV. XXXV. VAYISHLACH. 8 And Chamor spoke with them, saying, The soul of Shechem my son longeth for your daughter; give her, I pray you, unto him for wife. 9 And intermarry with us ; your daughters ye shall give unto us, and our daughters ye may take unto yourselves. 10 And with us shall ye dwell; and the land shall be open before you; dwell and trade ye therein, and acquire possessions therein. 11 And Shechem said unto her father and unto her brother, Let me but find grace in your eyes, and whatever ye may say unto me, I will give. 12 Ask of me ever so much dowry and gift, and I will give, just as ye may say unto me; but give me the maiden for wife. 13 And the sons of Jacob answered She– chem and Chamor his father with cunning, and spoke; because he had defiled Dinah their sister. 14 And they said unto them. We cannot do this thing, to give our sister to one that is uncircumcised ; for that would be a reproach unto us. 15 But on this condition will we consent unto you ; if ye will become as we are, that every male of you be circumcised : 16 Then will we give our daughters unto you, and we will take your daughters unto us ; and we will dwell with you, and we will become one people. 17 But if ye will not hearken unto us, to be circumcised, then will we take our daugh– ter, and go our way. 18 And their words were pleasing in the eyes of Chamor, and in the eyes of Shechem, the son of Chamor. 19 And the young man deferred not to do the thing, because he had delight in Jacob's daughter; and he was the most honoured of all the house of his father. 20 And Chamor and Shechem his son came unto the gate of their city, and spoke with the men of their city, saying, 21 These men are peaceably inclined with us; therefore let them dwell in the land, and a Mendelssohn renders, And they wish to dwell in the land and trwel ahout therein." b " Rashi; but Onkelos refers nt33 "secure," to the in– habitants of the city, as if it said, "expecting no dan– ger." trade therein ;a and the land, behold, it is large enough on all sides before them ; their daugh– ters we will take unto us for wives, and our daughters we will give mito them. 22 Only with this condition will the men consent unto us to dwell with us, to become one people, if every male among us be circum– cised, as they are circimicised. 23 Their cattle and their substance and every beast of theirs — will they not be ours? only let us consent unto them, that they may dwell with us. 24 And unto Chamor and unto Shechem his son hearkened all that went out of the gate of his city ; and all the males were cir– cumcised, all that went out of the gate of his city. 25 And it came to pass on the third day, when they were sore, that two of the sons of Jacob, Simeon and Levi, Dinah's brothers, took each his sword, and came upon the city unresistedb and slew all the males. 26 And they slew Chamor and Shechem his son with the edge of the sword ; and they took Dinah out of Shechem's house, and went out. 27 The sons of Jacob came upon the slain, and spoiled the city, because they had defiled their sister. 28 They took their sheep, and their oxen, and their asses, and that which was in the city, and that which was in the field, 29 And all their wealth, and all their little ones, and their wives they took captive, and spoiled; and all that was in the house. 30 And Jacob said unto Simeon and Levi, Ye have troubled me, to cause me to be hatedc among the mhabitants of the land, among the Canaanites and the Perizzites: and as I am but few in number, they may gather them– selves together against me, and slay me ; and I would be destroyed, I and my house. 31 And they said, Should he deal with our sister as with a harlot? CHAPTER XXXV. 1 ¶ And God said unto Jacob, Arise, go up to Beth–el, and dwell there; and make c 'WK2T¶h means literally " to cause me to be in bad odour," from t7K3 "to stink," which term is then f16ura– tively applied to a tainted reputation, which produces hate in others. Hence the translation in the text. [Page 44] GENESIS XXXV. VAYISHLACH. there an altar unto the God that appeared unto thee when thou fleddest from the face of Esau thy brother. 2 Then said Jacob unto his household, and to all that were with him, Put away the strange godsa that are among you, and cleanse yourselves, and change your garments. 3 And let us arise, and go up to Beth–el; and I will make there an altar unto the God who answered me in the day of my distress, and was with me on the way which I went. 4 And they gave unto Jacob all the strange gods which were in their hand, and the ear– rings which were m their ears ; and Jacob hid them under the oak which was near Shechem. 5 And they journeyed; and the terror of God was upon the cities that were round about them, and they did not pursue after the sons of Jacob. 6 So Jacob came to 10z, which is in the land of Canaan, that is, Beth–el, he and all the people that were with him. 7 And he built there an altar, and called the place El–beth–el: b because there Godc ap– peared unto him, when he fled from the face of his brother. 8 And Deborah Rebekah's nurse died, and she was buried beneathd Beth–el imder an oak : and he called its name Allon–bachuth.e 9 ¶ And God appeared unto Jacob again, when he came from Padan–aram, and blessed him. 10 And God said unto him, Thy name is Jacob; thy name shall not be called any more Jacob, but Israel shall be thy name : and he called his name Israel. 11 And God said unto him, I am God the Almighty; be fruitful and multiply; a nation and an assemblage of nationsf shall spring from thee, and kings shall come out of thy loins.* 12 And the land which I gave to Abraham and Isaac, to thee will I give it; and to thy seed after thee will I give the land. 13 And God went up from him on the place where he had spoken with him.* 14 And Jacob set up a pillar at the place a Referring probably to images they had found among the spoil of the city of Shechem. b " God of Bethel." c According to Rashi and the Massorah ; but On– kclos renders, " for there appeared to him the angels of the Lord." d On the declivity leading to it. 44 where he had spoken with him, a pillar of stone ; and he poured a drink offering thereon, and he poured oil thereon. 15 And Jacob called the name of the place where God had spoken with him, Beth–el. 16 And they journeyed from Beth–el; and there was yet some distance to come to Ephrath, when Rachel travailed, and she had hard labour. 17 And it came to pass, when she was in hard labour, that the midwife said unto her, Fear not; for this child also is a son for thee.g 18 And it came to pass, as her soul was departing, (for she died,) that she called his name Ben–oni: h but his father called him Ben– jamin.i 19 And so Rachel died, and was buried on the way to Ephrath, which is Beth–lechem. 20 And Jacob set a pillar upon her grave ; this is the pillar of Rachefs grave unto his day. 21 And Israel journeyed, and spread his tent beyond the tower of flocks (Eder) . 22 And it came to pass, when Israel dwelt in that land, that Reuben went and lay with Bilhah his father's concubine; and Israel heard it. ¶ Now the sons of Jacob were twelve. 23 The sons of Leah, Jacob's first–born, Reii– ben, and Simeon, and Levi, and Judah, and Issachar, and Zebulun. 24 The sous of Rachel, Joseph, and Ben– jamin. 25 And the sons of Bilhah, Rachefs hand– maid, Dan, and Naphtali. 26 And the sons of Zilpah, Leah's hand– maid, Gad, and Asher: these are the sons of Jacob, that were born to him in Padan–aram. 27 And Jacob came unto Isaac his fother unto Mamre, the city of Arbah, which is Hebron, where Abraham and Isaac had so– journed. 28 And the days of Isaac wcve one hun– dred and eighty years. 29 And Isaac departed this life, and died, and was gathered unto his people, old and e " Oak of weeping." f " Tribes." — Onkelos. g No doubt referring to Rachefs wish at the birth of Joseph. (Gen. xxx. 24.) h " Son of my pain." i " Son of my old age." [Page 45] GENESIS XXXVI. VAYISHLACH. full of days; and Esau and Jacob his sons buried him. CHAPTER XXXVI. 1 ¶ Now these are the generations of Esau, who is Edoni. 2 Esau took his wives of the daughters of Canaan ; Adaha the daughter of Elon the Hit– tite, and Aholibamah the daughter of Anah the daughter of Zibeon the Hivite; 3 And Bahsemath Ishmaefs daughter, the sister of Nebayoth. 4 And Adah bore to Esau Eliphaz; and Bahsemath bore Reuel; 5 And Aholibamah bore Yeiish, and Ya'lam, and Korach : these are the sons of Esau, that were born unto him in the land Canaan. 6 And Esau took his wives, and his sons, and his daughters, and all the persons of his house, and his cattle, and all his beasts, and all his substance, which he had gotten in the land of Canaan; and went into another country from the face of his brother Jacob. 7 For their riches were more than that they might dwell together; and the land of their sojourning could not bear them, because of their cattle. 8 Thus dwelt Esau in mount Seir: Esau is Edom. 9 And these are the generations of Esau the father of the Edom in mount Seir. 10 These are the names of Esau's sons: Eliphaz the son of Adah the wife of Esau, Reuel the son of Bahsemath the wife of Esau. 11 And the sons of Eliphaz were Teman, Omar, Zepho, and Ga'tam, and Kenaz. 12 And Timna was concubine to Eliphaz Esau's son : and she bore to Elipliaz Amalek ; these were the sons of Adah, Esau's wife. 13 And these are the sons of Reuel: Nar– chath, and Zerach, Shammah, and Mizzah; these were the sons of Bahsemath, Esau's wife. 14" And these were the sons of Aholibamah, the daughter of Anah the daughter of Zibeon, a In Genesis xxvi. 34, the wives of Esau are called Judith, daughter of Beeri the Hittite, and Bahsemath, daughter of Elon; we may therefore assume that the daughter of Beeri died childless, when Esau took Aholi– bamah ; and regarding the names of Adah, in the case of the daughter of Elon, and of Bahsemath, the daughter of Ishmacl, we can suppose that they may have been terms of endearment applied to them. For instance, mj> 'Adah, from ¶w 'Adi, "ornament," nDB'3 Bahsemath, from aoi Esau's wife : and she bore to Esau Yeush, and Ya'lam, and Korach. 15 These are the dukesb of the sons of Esau; the sons of Eliphaz the firsl>bom of Esau : duke Teman, duke Omai", duke Zepho, duke Kenaz, 16 Duke Korach, duke Ga'tam, duke Ama– lek; these are the dukes of Elipliaz in the land of Edom ; these are the sons of Adah. 17 And these are the sons of Reuel Esau's son ; duke Nachath, duke Zerach, duke Sham– mah, duke Mizzah; these are the dukes of Reuel in the land of Edom; these are the sons of Bahsemath Esau's wife. 18 And these are the sons of Aholibamah, Esau's wife : duke Yeush, duke Ya'lam, duke Korach ; these are the dukes of Aholibamah the daughter of Anah, Esau's wife. 19 These are the sons of Esau, and these are their dukes; this is Edom.* 20 ¶ These are the sons of Seir the Chorite, who inhabited the land : Lotan, and Shobal, and Zibeon, and Anah, 21 And Dishon, and Etzer, and Dishan; these are the dukes of the Chorites, the chil– dren of Seir in the land of Edom. 22 And the children of Lotan were Chori and Heman ; and Lotan's sister was Timna. 23 And these were the children of Shobal: Alvan, and Manachath, and Ebal, Shepho, and Onam. 24 And these are the children of Zibeon : both Ajah, and Anah; this was that Anah that found the mulesc in the wilderness, as he fed the asses of Zibeon his father. 25 And these are the children of Anah : Dishon, and Aholibamah the daughter of Anah. 26 And these are the children of Dishan : d Chemdan, and Eshban, and Yithran, and Cheran. 27 These are the children of Etzer: Bilhan, and Zaavan, and Akan. 28 These are the children of Dishan : Uz, and Aran. bossem, "spice." Such names are not uncommon in the East. b Others, "princes of tribes." c The word d'O' yemim, here rendered "mules," has been variously interpreted, as it is but once met with; the first with mules; secondly, with "giants," same as cmim, and again "warm springs." The version here is according to Talmud. d Eng. ver. " Dishon." 45 [Page 46] GENESIS XXXVI. XXXVII. VAYESHEB. 29 These are the dukes of the Chorites: duke Lotan, duke Shobal, duke Zibeon, duke Anah ; 30 Duke Dishon, duke Etzer, duke Dishan ; these are the dukes of the Chorites, after their dukes in the land of Seir. 31 ¶ And these are the kings that reigned in the land of Edom, before there reigned any king over the children of Israel.a 32 And there reigned in Edom Bela the son of Beor : and the name of his city was Dinhabah. 33 And Bela died, and there reigned in his stead Yobab the son of Zerach of Bozrah. 34 And Yobab died, and there reigned in his stead Chusham of the land of Teman. 35 And Chusham died, and there reigned in his stead Hadad the son of Bedad, who smote Midian in the field of Moab; and the name of his city was with. 36 And Hadad died, and there reigned in his stead Samlah of Masrekah. 37 And Samlah died, and there reigned in his stead Shaul of Rechoboth by the river. 38 And Shaul died, and there reigned in his stead Baal–chanan the son of Achbor. 39 And Baal–chanan the son of Achbor died, and there reigned in his stead Hadar, and the name of his city was Paii ; and his wife's name was Mehetabel, the daughter of Matred, the daughter of Mezahab.* 40 And these are the names of the dukes of Esau, according to their families, after their places, by their names : duke Timna, duke Alvah, duke Yetheth, 41 Duke Aholi–bamah, duke Elah, duke Pinon, 42 Duke Kenaz, duke Teman, duke Mib– zar, 43 Duke Magdiel, duke Irani : these are the dukes of Edom, according to their habita– tions in the land of their possession ; this is Esau the father of the Edom. Haphtorah in Hosea xii. 13, to xiv. 10. Others read from xi. 7 to xii. 12. The Portuguese read Obadiah i. 1–21. a It is highly probable that the last of the eight kings mentioned here, was the king of Edom in the days of Moses, ('Numb. xx. 14,) and this verse then only ex– presses tnat Edom had a consolidated government, while Israel was enslwed. b i. e. He kept more with them than the others who were the sons of Leah. c This refers to his brothers mentioned at first. 46 SECTION IX. VAYESHEB, Dtril. CHAPTER XXXVII. 1 ¶ And Jacob dwelt in the land of his father's sojourning, in the land of Canaan. 2 These are the generations of Jacob. Jo– seph, being seventeen years old, was feeding the flock with his brothers ; and he was as a ladb with the sons of Bilhah, and with the sons of Zilpah, his father's wives ; and Joseph brought evil reports of themc unto his father. 3 Now Israel loved Joseph more than all his children, because he was the son of his old age ; and he made him a coat of many colours.d 4 And when his brothers saw that their father loved him more than all his brothers, they hated him, and could not speak peace– ably unto him. 5 And Joseph dreamed a dream, and he told it his brothers : and they hated him yet the more. 6 And he said unto them, Hear, I pray you, this dream which I have dreamed. 7 And, behold, we were binding shewes in the field, and, lo, my sheaf arose, and also re– mained standing upright ; and, behold, your shewes placed themselves round about, and made obeisance to my sheaf. 8 And his brothers said to him, Shalt thou indeed reign over us ? or shalt thou indeed have dominion over us ? And they hated him yet the more for his dreams, and for his words. 9 And he dreamed yet another dream, and told it his brothers; and he said, Behold, I have dreamed a dream more; and, behold, the sun and the moon and eleven stars made obeisance to me. 10 And he told it to his father, and to his brothers; and his father rebuked him, and said unto him, What is this dream that thou hast dreamed ? Shall we indeed come, I and thy mother, and thy brothers, to bow down ourselves to thee to the earth ? 11 And his brothers envied him; but his father notede the matter (in his mind).* d Here is shown the danger of preferring one child be– fore the others, although he may deserve it ; the preference shown by Jacob was as much cause for the hatred toward Joseph as his own fault of talebearing. e Aben Ezra, Rashi comments, " He waited and watched to see when it would come to pass." Onkelos renders 1¶¶¶ with " the word." [Page 47] GENESIS XXXVII. XXXVIII. VAYESHEB. 12 And his brothers went to feed their father's flocks in Shechem. 13 And Israel said unto Joseph, Do not thy brothers feed (the flocks) in Shechem? come, and I will send thee unto them. And he said to him, Here am I.a 14 And he said to him, Go, I pray thee, see whether it be well with thy brothers, and well with the flocks ; and bring me word again. So he sent him from the vale of Hebron, and he came to Shechem. 15 And a certain man found him, and, be– hold, he was wandering astray in the field ; and the man asked him, saying, What seekest thou? 16 And he said, I seek my brothers; tell me, I pray thee, where they are feeding their flocks ? 17 And the man said, They are departed hence; for I heard them say. Let us go to Dothan. And Joseph went after his brothers, and found them in Dothan. 18 And when they saw him afar off, even before he came near unto them, they con– spired against him to slay him. 19 And they said one to another, Behold, here cometh this man of dreams. 20 And now, come and let us slay him, and cast him into one of the pits, and we will say. Some evil beast hath devoured him ; and we shall see what will become of his dreams. 21 And when Reuben heard it, he de– livered him out of their hand ; and he said. Let us not put him to death. 22 And Reuben said unto them, Do not shed blood ; but cast him into this pit that is in the wilderness, but do not lay hand upon him; — in order that he might deliver him out of their hand, to bring him back again to his father.* 23 And it came to pass, when Joseph was come unto his brothers, that they stript Jo– seph of his coat, the coat of many colours that was on him ; 24 And they took him, and cast him into the pit; and the pit was empty; there was no water in it. a This phrase, frequently used in Scripture, expresses the readiness to do what is bidden. b " The term Ishmaelites, in this and verse 25, appears to have been the collective names of all the Dip 'J3 ' the eastern nations;' as the Turks now call all Europeans, 25 And they sat down to eat bread : and they lifted up their eyes and looked, and, be– hold, a company of Ishmaelites was coming from Gileiid ; and their camels were bearing spicery, and balm, and lotus, going to carry it down to Egypt. 26 And Judah said unto his brothers, What profit will it be if we slay our brother, and conceal his blood? 27 Come, and let us sell him to the Ish– maelites, but let our hand not be upon him ; for he is our brother, our flesh. And his bro– thers hearkened to him. 28 And when the Midianitishb men, mer– chants, passed by, they drew and lifted up Joseph out of the pit, and sold Joseph to the Ishmaelites for twenty pieces of silver : and they brought Joseph into Egypt. 29 And when Reuben returned unto the pit, and, behold, Joseph was not in the pit, he rent his clothes. 30 And he returned unto his brothers, and said. The child is not there ; and I, whither shall I go ? 31 And they took Joseph's coat, and killed a he–goat,c and dipped the coat in the blood ; 32 And they sent the coat of many colours, and they brought it to their father, and said. This have we found : acknowledge, we pray thee, whether it be thy son's coat or not. 33 And he recognised it, and said, It is my son's coat ; an evil beast hath devoured him ; Joseph is surely torn in pieces. 34 And Jacob rent his clothes, and put sackcloth upon his loins, and mourned for his son many days. 35 And all his sons and all his daughter rose up to comfort him; but he refused to be comforted; and he said. For I must go down unto my son, mourning, into the grave ; thus his father wept for him. 36 And the Midianites sold him into Egypt unto Potiphar, an officer of Pharaoh's, the captain of the guards.* CHAPTER XXXVIII. 1 ¶ And it came to pass at that time, that Judah went doAvn from his brothers, and he ' Franks.' " — Arnheim. The Midianitish merchants are accordingly the same Ishmaelites spoken of at first ; and this, which is also after Rashbani, is evidently ihc correct construction. c Heb. " buck of the goats." [Page 48] GENESIS XXXVIII. VAYESHEB. pitcheda his tent with a certain Adullamite whose name was Chirah. 2 And Judah saw there a daughter of a certain Canaanite,b whose name was Shua ; and he took her, and went in unto her. 3 And she conceived, and bore a son ; and he called his name 'Er. 4 And she conceived again, and bore a son ; and she called his name Onan. 5 And she again bore another son ; and she called his name Shelah : and he was at Chezib, when she bore him. 6 And Judah took a wife for 'Er his first– born, whose name was Tamar. 7 And 'Er, Judah's first–born, was displeas– ing in the eyes of the Lord ; and the Lord slew him. 8 And Judah said unto Onan, Go in unto thy brother's wife, and take her, as her brother–in–law,c and raise up seed to thy brother. 9 Onan thus knew that the seed should not be his ; and it came to pass, when he went in unto his brother's wife, that he spilled it on the ground, so as not to give seed unto his brother. 10 And the thing which he did was dis– pleasing in the eyes of the Lord ; wherefore he slew him also. 11 Then said Judah to Tamar his daughter– in–law. Remain a widow at thy father's house, till Shelah my son be grown ; for he thought, Lest peradventure he die also, as his brothers have done. And Tamar went and dwelt in her father's house. 12 And many days had elapsed when the daughter of Shua, Judah's wife, died; and after Judah was comforted, he went up unto his sheep–shearers, he and his friend Chirah the Adullamite, to Timnah. 13 And it was told unto Tamar, saying, Behold thy father–in–law goeth up to Timnah to shear his sheep. 14 And she put her widows garments off from her, and covered herself with a vail, and concealed her face, and seated herself at the cross–road,d which is by the way to Timnah ; for she saw that Shelah was grown, and she was not given unto him for wife. a Mendolssohn ; Ilashi and others render B'l "and re– moving took up his residence wi¶i," &c. b " Merchant." — Onkelos. c See Deut. xxv. 5, G. d Rashi ; " at the entrance to the double–spring," Aben 48 15 And Judah saw her, and thought her to be a harlot; because she had covered her face. 16 And he turned unto her by the way, and said. Go to, I pray thee, let me come in unto thee ; (for he knew not that she was his daughter–in–law.) And she said. What wilt thou give me, that thou mayest come in unto me? 17 And he said, I will send thee a kid from the flock. And she said, If thou wilt give me a pledge, till thou send it. 18 And he said, What is the pledge which I shall give thee ? And she said. Thy signet, and thy scarf,e and thy staff that is in thy hand. And he gave them to her, and came in unto her, and she conceived by him. 19 And she arose, and went away, and laid by her vail from her, and put on the gamients of her widowhood. 20 And Judah sent the kid by the hand of his friend the Adullamite, to take the pledge out of the woman's hand ; but he found her not. 21 Then he asked the men of her place, saying. Where is the harlot, that was at the cross–road on the highway ? And they said, There hath been no harlot in this neighbour– hood. 22 And he returned to Judah, and said, I cannot find her; and also the men of the place have said. There hath been no harlot in this place. 23 And Judah said. Let her keep it, lest we be put to shame ; behold, I sent this kid, and thou hast not found her. 24 And it came to pass about three months after, that it was told to Judah, saying, Ta– mar thy daughter–in–law hath played the har– lot; and also, behold, she is with child by prostitution. And Judah said. Lead her forth, and let her be burnt. 25 When she was led forth, she sent to her father–in–law, saying. By the man, whose these are, am I with child : and she said, Ac– knowledge, I pray thee, to whom belong these, the signet, the scarf, and staff. 20 And Judah acknowledged them, and said, She hath been more righteous than I ; Ezra; "at the gate of 'Enayinj," according to others, thinking it identical with the 'Knani of Joshua xv. 34 ; others again, " in the open place" or " open road." e Rashi and Onkelos ; others, simply " thy string," i. e. by which the seal was hung round the neck. [Page 49] GENESIS XXXVIII. XXXIX. VAYESHEB. because that I gave her not to Shelah my son. And he knew her not again any more. 27 And it came to pass at the time of her travail, that, behold, twins were in her womb. ! 28 And it came to pass, when she tra– vailed, that the one put out his hand : and the midwife took and bound upon his hand a scarlet thread, saying, This came out first. 29 And it came to pass, as he drew back his hand, that, behold his brother came out; and she said, How hast thou broken forth? this breach is upon thee : therefore his name was called Peretz.a 30 And afterward came out his brother, that had the scarlet thread upon his hand : and his name was called Zerach.b* CHAPTER XXXIX. 1 ¶ And Joseph was brought down to Egypt; and Potiphar, an officer of Pharaoh, the captain of the guards, an Egyptian, bought him of the hands of the Ishmaelites, who had brought him down thither. 2 And the Lord was with Joseph, and he was a prosperous man; and he was thus in the house of his master the Egyptian. 3 And when his master saw that the Lord was with him, and that the Lord caused all that he did to prosper in his hand : 4 Joseph found grace in his eyes, and he served him ; and he made him overseer over his house, and all that he had he put mto his hand. 5 And it came to pass from the time he had made him overseer in his house, and over all that he had, that the Lord blessed the Egyptian's house for the sake of Joseph ; and the blessing of the Lord was upon all that he had, in the house and in the field. 6 And he left all that he had in Joseph's hand; and he troubled himself notc about aught he had, swe the bread which he did eat. And Joseph was handsome in fomi and handsome in appearance.* 7 And it came to pass after these things, that his master's wife cast her eyes upon Joseph ; and she said. Lie with me. 8 But he refused, and said unto his mas– ter's wife, Behold, my master troubleth him– self not about what is with me in the house, and he hath committed all that he hath into my hand; 9 There is none greater in this house than I ; neither hath he kept back any thing from me but thee, because thou art his wife : how then can I do this great evil, and sin against God?d 10 And it came to pass, as she spoke to Joseph day by day, and he hearkened not unto her, to lie by her, or to be with her ; 11 That it came to pass one particular day, that he went into the house to do his business; and there was none of the men of the house there within. 12 And she caught him by his garment, saying. Lie with me ; and he left his garment in her hand, and fled, and ran out into the street. 13 And it came to pass, when she saw that he had left his garment in her hand, and was fled forth, 14 That she called unto the men of her house, and spoke unto them, saying, See, he hath brought in unto us a Hebrew man to mocke us; he came in unto me to lie with me, and I cried with a loud voice : 15 And it came to pass, when he heard that I lifted up my voice and cried, that he left his garment with me, and fled, and ran out into the street. 16 And she laid up his garment by her until his lord came home. 17 And she spoke unto him according to these words, saying. The Hebrew servant whom thou hast brought unto us, came m unto me to have his sport with me. 18 And it came to pass, as I lifted up my voice and cried, that he left his garment with me, and fled out. 19 And it came to pass, when his master heard the words of his wife, which she spoke unto him, saying, After this manner hath a From yii) parotz, "to break forth," "to make a break." b From rni zaroacTi " to shine," applied to the svin, " to rise." c Heb. " Knew not." d This assertion of Joseph clearly proves with Scripture evidence, that the sons of Noah were prohibited the com– mission of incest. When therefore the Canaanites became 6 corrupt, and lived in a manner so contrary to the laws of the Bible in this respect, they were justly doomed to ex– pulsion from the land which they bad defiled. This view of the subject will also explain the passage in Leviticus xis. 27, 28. e pnx "to laugh," then "to mock," and finally "to do acts of mischief and wantonness." [Page 50] GENESIS XXXIX. XL. VAYESHEB. thy servant done to me; that his wrath was kindled. 20 And Joseph's master took him, and put him into the prison,a the place where the king's prisoners were imprisoned : and he was there in the prison. 21 But the Lord was with Joseph, and caused him to find mercy, and gave him favour in the eyes of the superintendent of the prison. 22 And the superintendent of the prison committed into Joseph's hand all the prisoners that were in the prison ; and whatsoever they did there, was done through him.b 23 The superintendent of the prison looked not after any thing that was under his hand, because the Lord was with him; and that which he did, the Lord made to prosper. * CHAPTER XL. 1 ¶ And it came to pass after these things, that the butler of the king of Egypt and the baker committed an offence, against their lord the king of Egypt. 2 And Pharaoh was wroth against his two officers, against the chief of the butlers, and against the chief of the bakers. 3 And he put them in ward in the house of the captain of the guards, into the prison, the place where Joseph was confined.c 4 And the captain of the guards charged Joseph with them, and he served them; and they continued a seasond in ward. 5 And they dreamed a dream both of them, each his dream in one night, each in accord– ance with the interpretation of his dream, the butler and the baker of the king of Egypt, who were confined in the prison. 6 And Joseph came in unto them in the morning, and looked at them, and, behold, they were sad. 7 And he asked the officers of Pharaoh that were with him in ward in his lord's house, saying. Wherefore look ye so sadly to–day? 8 And they said unto him, We have dream– ed a dream, and there is none to interpret it. a Lit. "prison–house." b Hob. "he was the doer thereof." c From ¶DX, " to bind, to imprison," not neeessarily llicrcfore "bound," as in the English version. d 10shi and Mendelssolm, "and they were a whole year," &c. e ')n is perhaps un abbreviation for O'lP, "nobles, 50 And Joseph said unto them, Do not interpre– tations belong to God? tell it to me, I pray you. 9 The chief of the butlers then told his dream to Joseph, and said to him, In my dream, behold, a vine was before me ; 10 And on the vine were three branches: and it was as though it budded, shot forth its blossoms, and on its c10sters the grapes be– came ripe : 11 And Pharaoh's cup was in my hand; and I took the grapes, and pressed them out into Pharaoh's cup, and I placed the cup into Pharaoh's hand. 12 And Joseph said unto him, This is its interpretation : The three branches are three days; 13 Within yet three days will Pharaoh lift up thy head, and restore thee unto thy office; and thou shalt place Pharaoh's cup into his hand, after the former manner when thou wast his butler. 14 Therefore if thou thinkest on me when it shall be well with thee, then show kind– ness, I pray thee, unto me, and make mention of me unto Pharaoh, and bring me out of this house ; 15 For indeed I was stolen away out of the land of the Hebrews; and here also have I not done the least that they should put me into the dungeon. 16 And when the chief of the bakers saw that he had well interpreted, he said unto Jo– seph, I also (saw) in my dream, and, behold, I had three baskets with fine bread on my head :e 17 And in the uppermost basket there was of all manner of bakemeats, used as food for Pharaoh ; and the birds did eat them out of the basket from my head. 18 And Joseph answered and said, This is its interpretation : The three baskets are three days; 19 Within yet three days Pharaoh will lift up thy head from off" thee, and will hang thee on a tree; and the birds shall eat thy flesh from off thee.* 20 And it came to pass on the third day, lords," and it is then an ellipsis for D'ln onS, "bread for the lords." Arnheim and Rashi and others derive nn from lin "hole," thus, "baskets full of holes." Saadinh takes it as synonymous with tvn the Aramaic for " white," thus, "baskets with white or fine bread," as rendered in our text. Philippson renders "baskets for tine bread," i. e. such as are used to put fine bread in. [Page 51] GENESIS XL. XLI. MICKETZ. which was Pharaoh's birthday, that he made a feast unto all his servants : and he lifted up the head of the chief of the butlers and the head of the chief of the bakers among his servants. 21 And he restored the chief of the butlers unto his butlership; and he placed the cup into Pharaoh's hand; 22 But the chief of the bakers he hanged, as Joseph had interpreted to them. 23 Yet the chief of the butlers did not re– member Joseph, and forgot him. Haphtorah in Amos ii. 6 to iii. 8.– SECTION X. MICKETZ, fpO. CHAPTER XLI. 1 ¶ And it came to pass at the end of two full years, that Pharaoh dreamed ; and behold he stood by the river. 2 And, behold, there came up out of the river seven cows, of good appearance and fat in flesh ; and they fed in the meadow.a 3 And, behold, seven other cows came up after them out of the river, ill–favoured and lean in flesh; and they stood by the other cows upon the brink of the river. 4 And the ill–favoured and lean–fleshed cows did eat up the seven well–favoured and fat cows. And Pharaoh awoke. 5 And he slept and dreamed a second time : and, behold, seven ears of corn came up on one stalk, rank and good. 6 And, behold, seven thin ears and blastedb with the east wind sprung up after them. 7 And the seven thin ears swallowed up the seven rank and full ears. And Pharaoh awoke, and, behold, it was a dream.c 8 And it came to pass in the morning that his spirit was troubled ; and he sent and called for all the magicians of Egypt, and all the wise men thereof: and Pharaoh told them his dream ; but there was none that could inter– pret the same unto Pharaoh. 9 Then spoke the chief of the butlers unto Pharaoh, saying. My faults I must call to re– membrance this day : 10 Pharaoh was wroth with his servants, and put me in ward in the house of the cap– tain of the guards, me and the chief of the bakers ; 11 And we dreamed a dream in one night, I and he; we dreamed each in accordance with the interpretation of his dream. 12 And there was with us a Hebrew lad, a servant to the captain of the guards ; and we told him, and he interpreted to us our dreams ; to each according to his dream did he inter– pret. 13 And it came to pass, just as he had in– terpreted to us, so it was ; me he restored unto my office, and him he hanged. 14 Then Pharaoh sent and had Joseph called, and they brought him hastily out of the dungeon : and he shaved himself, and changed his garments, and came in unto Pha– raoh.* 15 And Pharaoh said unto Joseph, I have dreamed a dream, and there is none that can interpret it: and I have heard say of thee, that thou canst understand a dream to inter– pret it. 16 And Joseph answered Pharaoh, saying, It is not in me; God will give an answer for the peace of Pharaoh.*d 17 And Pharaoh said unto Joseph, In my dream, behold, I stood upon the brink of the river ; 18 And, behold, there came up out of the river seven cows, fat in flesh and good in shape; and they fed in the meadow; 19 And, behold, seven other cows came up after them, poor and very ill–shaped and lean in flesh ; I never saw any like these in all the land of Egypt for ugliness ; 20 And the lean and the, ill–favoured cows did eat up) the first seven fat cows ; 21 And when they had eaten them up,e it could not be known that they had eaten them; but their appearance was still as bad as at the beginning. And I awoke. 22 And I saw in my dream, and, behold, seven ears came up on one stalk, full and good; 23 And, behold, seven ears, withered, thin, a " Swamp," Rashi ; " among the reeds," Arnheim. b Rashi and Onkelos take cpis as equal to npty, "to thrash out, to beat frequently;" Arnheim, however, ex– plains it as equal to t]iB¶ "to burn," (Song of Sol. i. 6;) which would properly give the version "blasted." c " Only on awaking he recognised that he had dreamed, so like reality was his dream." — Arnheim d " The wisdom is not mine, but God will put and an– swer in my mouth for the welfare of Pharaoh." — Rashi e Heb. "Came into their inward part." 51 [Page 52] GENESIS XLI. MICKETZ. blasted with the east wind, sprung up after them; 24 And the thin ears devoured the seven good ears: And I told this unto the magi– cians; but there was none that could tell it to me. 25 And Joseph said unto Pharaoh, The dream of Pharaoh is one, that which God is about to do, he hath told to Pharaoh. 26 The seven good cows are seven years; and the seven good ears are seven years; the dream is one. 27 And the seven thin and ill–favoured cows that came up after them are seven years; and the seven empty ears, blasted with the east wind, shall be seven years of famine. 28 This is the thing which I have spoken unto Pharaoh : What God is about to do he hath shown unto Pharaoh. 29 Behold, there come seven years of great plenty throughout all the land of Egypt : 30 And there shall arise seven years of famine after them, when all the plenty shall be forgotten in the land of Egypt; and the famine shall consume the land; 31 And the plenty shall not be known in the land by reason of that famine following it; for it shall be very grievous. 32 And as it respecteth that the dream was doubled unto Pharaoh twice, it is because the thing is fimily resolved on by God, and God hasteneth to bring it to pass. 33 Now therefore let Pharaoha look out a man discreet and wise, and set him over the land of Egypt. 34 Let Pharaoh do this, and let him ap– point officers over the land, and take up the fifth part (of the produce) of the land of Egypt in the seven years of plenty. 35 And let them gather all the food of those good years that are coming, and lay up a "This is not an advice; for who authorized him to act as counsellor to the king? but it belongs likewise to the interpretation ; therefore had God at that time also shown him the geren years of famine, which would not happen till after the expiration of the seven years of plenty, in order to induce Pharaoh to look out an intelli– gent man to heap up com for the support of the people; for if God had not now made him acquainted with the famine, he would not have been induced to heap up corn, and all would then have died in the famine." — Dubno. b Arnheim leaves the Hebrew pax untranslated; On– kelos renders it, "This is the father of the king;" but 52 corn under the hand of Pharaoh, as food in the cities, and keep the same. 36 And that food shall be for a store to the land against the seven years of famine, which shall be in the land of Egypt ; that the land be not cut off through the famine. 37 And the thing was good in the eyes of Pharaoh, and in the eyes of all his servants. 38 And Pharaoh said unto his servants, Can we find such a one as this, a man in whom the spirit of God is ?* 39 And Pharaoh said unto Joseph, Inas– much as God hath caused thee to know all this, there is none so discreet and wise as thou : 40 Thou shalt be over my house, and ac– cording to thy word shall all my people be ruled; only in regard to the throne will I be greater than thou. 41 And Pharaoh said unto Joseph, See, I have set thee over all the land of Egypt. 42 And Pharaoh took off his ring from his hand, and put it upon Joseph's hand, and arrayed him in vestures of fine linen, and put a golden chain about his neck ; 43 And he caused him to ride in the second chariot which he had ; and they cried before him. Bend the knee:b and he placed him (thus) over all the land of Egypt. 44 And Pharaoh said unto Joseph, I am Pharaoh ; but without thee shall no man lift up his hand or his foot in all the land of Egypt. 45 And Pharaoh called Joseph's name Zaphenath–pa'neach ;c and he gave him Ase– nath the daughter of Poti–pherah, the priestd of On, for wife. And Joseph went out over all the land of Egypt. 46 And Joseph was thirty years old when he stood before Pharaoh, king of Egypt; and Joseph went out from the presence of Pha– raoh, and went throughout all the land of Egypt. Mendelssohn, after other commentators, derives the word from 113 " the knee," and assumes it to be in the impe– rative of the Hiphil, with the k instead of n, which would give us the words "bend the knee." c "Revealer of secret things," Ramban : according to others, however, the words are pure Egyptian, and mean "Saviour of the world," or "of the century." d "Lord of On," O.nkelos. This place was afterwards called by the Greeks " Heliopolis," the "city of the sun;" by the Hebrews, " Beth Shemesh, " the house of the sun." On is said to be an Egyptian word, signifying " light," or "sun." [Page 53] GENESIS XLI. XLII. MICKETZ. 47 And the earth brought forth in the seven years of plenty by handfuls.a 48 And he gathered up all the food of the seven years, which were in the land of Egypt, and laid up the food in the cities : the food of the field, which was round about every city, laid he up in the same. 49 And Joseph heaped up corn as the sand of the sea, very much ; until he left off num– bering, for it was without number. 50 And unto Joseph were born two sons before the years of famine came, whom Ase– nath the daughter of Poti–pherah, the priest of On, bore unto him. 51 And Joseph called the name of the first–born Menasseh :b For God (said he) hath made me forget all my toil, and all my father's house. 52 And the name of the second he called Ephraim ;c For God (said he) hath caused me to be fruitful in the land of my affliction.* 53 And the seven years of plenty, that was in the land of Egypt, were ended. 54 And the seven years of famine began to come, just as Joseph had said; and there was famine in all the countries, but in all the land of Egypt there was bread. 55 And when all the land of Egypt also felt hunger, the people cried to Pharaoh for bread : and Pharaoh said unto all the Egyptians, Go unto Joseph ; what he saith to you, do. 56 And the famine Was over all the face of the earth : and Joseph opened all the store– houses,d wherein corn was, and sold unto the Egyptians ; for the famine grew strong in the land of Egypt. 57 And all the countriese came into Egypt to buy corn of Joseph; because the famine was sore in all lands. CHAPTER XLII. 1 And when Jacob saw that there was corn in Egypt, Jacob said unto his sons. Why do ye look at one another ? a That is, each grain of corn produced a handful of its kind. b Menasheh, from nashoJi, " to forget." c Ephrayim, from paroh, " to be fruitful." d Heb. "All in which was;" the ellipses arc supplied, according to Onkelos, first with "storehouses," and secondly, with " corn." e This term, which is also used in the preceding verse, and there rendered " all the earth," evidently is an hyper– bolical expression, and al10des to the parts of the earth 2 And he said. Behold, I have heard that there is corn in Egypt; get you down thither, and buy for us provision from there, that we may live, and not die. 3 And ten brothers of Joseph went down to buy corn in Egypt. 4 But Benjamm, Joseph's brother, Jacob sent not with his brothers ; for he said. Lest mischief befall him. 5 And the sons of Israel came to buy corn among those that came; for the famine was in the land of Canaan. 6 And Joseph, he was the governor over the land, it was he that sold com to all the people of the land ; and Joseph's brothers came, and bowed themselves down before him with the face to the earth. 7 And Joseph saw his brothers, and he re– cognised them ; but made himself strange unto them, and spoke roughly unto them ; and he said unto them ; Whence come ye ? And they said, From the land of Canaan to buy food. 8 And Joseph recognised his brothers, but they recognised not him. 9 And Joseph remembered the dreams which he had dreamed concerning them, and he said unto them. Ye are spies; to see the nakedness of the land are ye come. 10 And they said unto him, No, my lord, thy servants are only come to buy food. 11 We all are sons of one man; we are true men, thy servants have never been spies. 12 And he said unto them. No! but to see the nakedness of the land are ye come. 13 And they said, We, thy servants, are twelve brothers, sons of one man in the land of Canaan; and, behold, the youngest is this day with our father, and one is no more. 14 And Joseph said unto them, It isf as I have spoken unto you, saying, Ye are spies ; 15 Hereby shall ye be proved : By the life of Pharaoh, ye shall not go forth hence, except your youngest brother come hither. cont16uous to and having commercial intercourse with Egypt, such as Phoenicia, Palestine, and Arabia. Men– delssohn renders " all the people from the country around;" but Onkelos translates here ]–iNn h2\ with Kipx 'T'T Sdi "all inhabitants of the earth :" still the sense is the same. f Joseph meant that the contradiction of which they were guilty, proved the truth of his suspicion. First they were ten brothers, and immediately afterward twelve, and thus he pretended that he could place no confidence in their assertions. 53 [Page 54] GENESIS XLII. MICKETZ. 16 Send one of you, and let him fetch your brother, and ye shall be kept in prison, that your words may be proved, whether the truth be with you; and if not, by the life of Pha– raoh, ye are surely spies. 17 And he put them together into ward three days. 18 And Joseph said unto them on the third day. This do, and live ; I fear God.* 19 If ye be true men, let one of your bro– thers remain imprisoned in the house of your confinement; but ye, go, carry home what you have bought for the want of your house– hold. 20 But your youngest brother bring unto me; so shall your words be verified, and ye shall not die. And they did so. 21 And they said one to another. Truly we are guiltya concerning our brother, in that we saw the anguish of his soul, when he be– sought us, and we would not hear; therefore is this distress come upon us. 22 And Reuben answered them, saying. Did I not say unto you, thus. Do not sin against the child; and ye would not hear? and behold, his blood also is now required. 23 And they knew not that Joseph under– stood them; for he spoke unto them by an interpreter. 24 And he turned himself away from them, and wept; and returned to them again, and spoke with them, and took from them Simeon, and bound him before their eyes. 25 And Joseph commanded to fill their sacks with corn, and to restore every man's money into his sack, and to give them pro– vision for the way; and heb did unto them thus. 26 And they loaded their asses with their corn, and departed thence. 27 And one of them opened his sack, to give his ass provender in the inn: when he espied his money, for, behold, it was in the mouth of his sack. 28 And he said unto his brothers. My a " Truly we suffer punishment for our brother's sake, whose anguish of soul wc saw," &c. — Arnheim. b Probably al10ding to the superintendent who is men– tioned hereafter. c They no doubt suspected that the restoration of the money was not accidental ; hence they thought that it was a new infliction of punishment for their sins. d Lit. " Over me have all these events been ;" meaning, I 54 money hath been restored; and, lo, it is even in my sack : and their heart failed them, and they were afraid,c saying one to another. What is this that God hath done unto us ? 29 And they came unto Jacob their father unto the land of Canaan, and they told him all that had befallen them; saying, 30 The man, the lord of the land, spoke roughly to us, and took us as though we were espying the country. 31 And we said unto him. We are true men ; we have never been spies : 32 We are twelve brothers, sons of our father; the one is no more, and the youngest is this day with our father in the land of Canaan. 33 And the man, the lord of the country, said unto us. Hereby shall I know that ye are true men : leave one of your brothers here with me, and (the food for) the want of your households take ye and be gone; 34 And bring your youngest brother unto me; then shall I know that ye are no spies, but that ye are true men ; your brother I will give up to you, and in the land ye shall be allowed to traffic. 35 And it came to pass as they were emptying their sacks, that, behold, CA–ery man's bundle of money was in his sack : and when they saw the bundles of their money, they and their father, they were afraid. 36 And Jacob, their father said unto them, Me ye have berewed of my children : Joseph is gone, and Simeon is gone, and Benjamin ye will take away; all these things are against me.d 37 And Reuben said unto his father, thus, Two of my sons shalt thou slay, if I bring him not to thee; deliver him into my hand, and I will bring him back to thee. 38 And he said. My son shall not go down with you ; for his brother is dead, and he alone is left: and if mischief befall him by the way in which ye go, then will ye bring down my gray hairs with sorrow to the grave. alone have to suffer from all these events. Jacob perhaps suspected that his other sons, out of some wicked feeling, had left Joseph and Simeon to perish, and he thus up– braids them with their indifference to his sorrows. They might regard little the perilling of the life of two brothers, and endangering that of another ; but he could not be cal– lous to the fate of those so dear to him. [Page 55] GENESIS XLIII. MICKETZ. CHAPTER XLIII. 1 And the famine was sore in the land. 2 And it came to pass, when they had completely eaten up the provisionsa which they had brought out of Egypt, that their father said unto them, Go again, buy us a little food. 3 And Judah said unto him, thus, The man did solemnly protest unto us, saying, Ye shall not see my face, except your brother be with you. 4 If thou wilt send our brother with us, we will go down and buy thee food; 5 But if thou sendest him not, we will not go down; for the man said unto us. Ye shall not see my face, except your brother be with you. 6 And Israel said, Wherefore have ye dealt so ill with me, as to tell the man that ye have yet another brother? 7 And they said, The man inquired par– ticularly concerning us, and our kindred, say– ing. Is your father yet alive ? have ye another brother? and we told him according to the tenor of these words : could we possibly know that he would say. Bring down your brother? 8 And Judah said mito Israel his father, Send the lad with me, and we will arise and go; that we may live, and not die, both we, and thou, as also our little ones. 9 I will be surety for him ; from my hand shalt thou require him: if I bring him not unto thee, and set him before thee, then shall I have sinned against thee all the days. 10 For, if we had not lingered, surely we had now returned the second time. 11 And their father Israel said unto them, If it must be so now, do this ; take of the bestb products of the land in your vessels, and carry down to the man a present, a little balm, and a little honey, spices, and lotus, pistar chio–nuts and almonds : 12 And twofold money take in your hand; and the money that was put back in the a laty sheber has been rendered varyingly in the text, "corn," "provision," and "what hath been bought," as all signifying the same. b Heb. niDt from "ini " to sing," or " praise," meaning those things for which the land is praised abroad. Phi– lippson remarks that the smallness of the present showed the simplicity of Jacob's notions of the ruler of Egypt, as he wished to propitiate him with a gift suitable perhaps to the petty chiefs of Palestine. So also with regard to mouth of your sacks, you must carry back in your hand; peradventure it was an oversight; 13 Also your brother take along, and arise, go again unto the man. 14 And may God the Almighty give you mercy before the man, that he may send away to you your other brother, and Ben– jamin. And I, if I am to be berewed, let me be berewed.c 15 And the men took that present; and twofold money they took in their hand, as also Benjamin;, and they rose up, and went down to Egypt, and stood before Joseph.* 16 And when Joseph saw Benjamin with them, he said to the superintendent of his house. Bring these men into the house, and slay, and make ready; for with me shall these men dine at noon. 17 And the man did as Joseph had said ; and the man brought the men into Joseph's house. 18 And the men were afraid, because they were brought into Joseph's house : and they said. Because of the money that came back in our sacks at the first time are we brought in ; that he may seek occasion against us, and fall upon us, and take us for bondmen, to– gether with our asses. 19 And they came near to the man who was appointed over Joseph's house, and they spoke with him at the door of the house, 20 And they said. Pardon, my lord, we came down at the first time to buy food : 21 And it came to pass, when we came to the inn, that we opened our sacks, and, be– hold, every man's money was in the mouth of his sack, our money in its full weight ; and we have brought it back in our hand. 22 And other money have we brought down in our hand to buy food; we know not who hath put our money in our sacks. 23 And he said. Peace be to you, fear not ; your God, and the God of your father, hath given you a treasure in your sacks ; your money hath come to me. And he brought Simeon out unto theiti. the fear expressed by the brothers in v. 18, that their beasts might be seized. c This version is according to ¶Mendelssohn. Onkelos renders the Hebrew words merely bj– synonymies. Arn– heim, however, adds the words tx and nn;; and says, "I, however, am either way berewed of my children." Be this as it may, it is an expression of resignation. (Compare with Esther iv. 16.) [Page 56] GENESIS XLIII. XLIV. MICKETZ. 24 And the man brought the men into Jo– seph's house; and he gave them water, and they washed their feet, and he gave proven– der to their asses. 25 And they made ready the present be– fore Joseph came home at noon ; for they had heard that they should eat bread there. 26 And when Joseph came home, they brought him the present which was in their hand into the house, and bowed themselves to him to the earth. 27 And he asked them after their welfare, and said, Is you old father well, of whom ye spoke? is he yet alive? 28 And they answered. Thy servant, our father, is in good health, he is yet alive. And they bowed down their heads, and pro– strated themselves. 29 And he lifted up his eyes, and saw his brother Benjamin, his mother's son, and said. Is this your youngest brother, of whom ye spoke unto me? And he said, God be gra– cious unto thee, my son.* 30 And Joseph hastened away, for his af– fection toward his brother became enkindled, and he sought to weep; and he entered into his chamber, and wept there. 31 And he washed his face, and came out, and refrained himself, and said. Set on the bread.a 32 And they set on for him by himself, and for them by themselves; and for the Egyptians, who did eat with him, by them– selves; because the Egyptians may not eat bread with the Hebrews ; for that is an abomi– nation unto the Egyptians. 33 And they sat before him, the first–born according to his prior birth, and the youngest according to his youth;b and the men mar– velled one at the other. 34 And he sent portionsc unto them from before him; but Benjamin's portion exceeded the portions of all fivefold. And they drank, and were merry with him. a In modern phrase, "Put the dinner on the table." b There can "bo no doubt of the correctness of the tradi– tion that Joseph ordered them to sit down according to their age. Hence their astonishment. Perhaps, too, he may have pretended to divine with his silver cup, out of which he afterward drank. c This custom is explained by that yet prevailing in Persia, where the various things to be eaten are brought in on a large dish at once, and one dish is placed before two or three guests. Before a guest of high rank, or one 56 CHAPTER XLIV. 1 And he commanded the superintendent of his house, saying. Fill the sacks of these men with food, as much as they can carry, and put every man's money in the mouth of his sack. 2 And my cup, the silver cup, thou shalt put in the mouth of the sack of the youngest, and the money for his com. And he did ac– cording to the word of Joseph which he had spoken. 3 As soon as the morning was light, the men were sent away, they and their asses. 4 They were gone out of the city, not yet far off, when Joseph said unto the superin– tendent of his house. Up, follow after the men; and when thou hast overtaken them, say unto them. Wherefore have ye returned evil for good ? 5 Is not this out of which my lord drink– eth, and whereby indeed he divineth ? ye have done evil in so doing. 6 And he overtook them, and he spoke unto them these same words. 7 And they said unto him. Wherefore will my lord speak such words as these ? God forbid that thy servants should do any thing like this. 8 Behold the money, which we found in the mouth of our sacks, we brought back unto thee out of the land of Canaan : how then should we steal out of thy lord's house silver or gold? 9 With whomsoever of thy servants it be found, let him die; and we also will be bond– men unto my lord. 10 And he said, Now also let it be accord– ing to your words :d he with whom it is found shall be my servant; but ye shall be blame– less. 11 And they made haste, and every one of them took down his sack to the ground, and every one opened his sack. whom the entertainer desires to distinguish, a particular dish is put, upon which one after the other, up to fifteen, different kinds of food are placed. — PlllLlPPSON. d " It is my wish that you prove yourselves as honest now as on the former occasion," is the explanation of Arn– heim, after Abarbenel–; but Rashi explains, "You are right, so is the law ; you are all guilty; if a thief is found with one of ten, they are all culpable ; but I will not act with you in strict justice, but only make the thief my bondman." [Page 57] GENESIS XLIV. XLV. VAYIGGASH. 12 And he searched, at the eldest he be– gan, and at the youngest he left off; and the cup was found in Benjamin's sack. 13 Then they rent their clothes, and every one loaded his ass, and they returned to the city.* 14 And Judah and his brothers came into Joseph's house, and ho was yet there; and they fell down before him on the ground. 15 And Joseph said unto them, What deed is this that ye have done ? knew ye not that such a man as I can certainly divine? 16 And Judah said, What shall we say unto my lord? What shall we speak? or how shall we justify ourselves? God hath found out the iniquity of thy servants : behold we are servants unto my lord, both we, as also he in whose hand the cup was found. 17 And he said, God forbid that I should do this : the man in whose hand the cup was found, he shall be my servant; and as for you, go you up in peace unto your father. Haphtorah in 1 Kings iii. 15 to iv. 1. SECTION XI. VAYIGGASH, ¶TI. 18 ¶ Then Judah came near unto him, and said. Pardon, my lord, let thy servant, I pray thee, speak a word in my lord's ears, and let not thy anger burn against thy ser– vant; for thou art even as Pharaoh. 19 My lord asked his servants, saying. have ye a father, or a brother? 20 And we said unto my lord, We have an old father, and a littlea child born in his old age ; and his brother is dead, and he alone is left of his mother, and his father loveth him. 21 And thou saidst unto thy servants, Bring him down unto me, that I may set my eye upon him. 22 And we said unto my lord. The lad cannot leave his father ; for if he should leave his father, he would die. 23 And thou saidst unto thy servants, Ex– cept your youngest brother come down with you, ye shall not see my face any more. 24 And it came to pass, when we came up unto thy servant my father, that we told him the words of my lord. a " little," or " young," in comparison with his other brothers, all older than he. b " His soul is bound to his soul." — Arnheim. " His soul is as dear to him as his own soul." — Onkelos. H 25 And our father said, Go back, and buy us a little food. 20 And we said, We cannot go down: if our youngest brother be with us, then will we go down ; for we cannot see the man's face, except our youngest brother be with us. 27 And thy servant my father said unto us, Ye know that my wife bore me two sons; 28 And the one went out from me, and I said, Surely he hath been torn in pieces; and I have not seen him up to this time. 29 And if ye take this one also from me, and mischief befall him, ye will bring down my gray hairs with sorrow to the grave. 30 And now, when I come to thy servant my father, and the lad be not with us ; seeing that his lifeb is bound up in the lad's life ;* 31 It will come to pass, that when he seeth that the lad is not with us, he will die : and thy servants would thus bring down the gray hairs of thy servant our father with sorrow to the grave. 32 For thy servant became surety for the lad unto my father, saying. If I bring him not unto thee, then shall I have sinned agamst my father all the days. 33 Now therefore, I pray thee, let thy servant abide instead of the lad as bondman to my lord ; and let the lad go up with his brothers. 34 For how shall I go up to my father, and the lad be not with me? I shouldc per– haps be compelled to witness the evil which would come on my father. CHAPTER XLV. 1 Then could Joseph not restrain himself before all those that stood by him ; and he cried. Cause every man to go out from me. And there remained no man with him, while Joseph made himself known unto his bro– thers. 2 And he raised his voice in weeping ; and the Egyptians heard it, and the house of Phar– raoh heard it. 3 And Joseph said unto his brothers, I am Joseph ; doth my father yet live ? And his brothers could not answer him ; for they were terrified at his presence. c Mendelssohn renders 3 as a negative : " I would not be able to look on the distress which would overtake my father." I have translated according to Onkelos. 57 [Page 58] GENESIS XLV. VAYIGGASH. 4 And Joseph said unto his brothers, Come near to me, I pray you; and they came near; and he said, I am Joseph your brother, whom ye sold into Egypt. 5 But now be not grieved, nor be angrya with yourselves, that ye sold me hither; for in order to preserve life did God send me be– fore you. 6 For these two years hath the famine been already in the land; and there are yet five years, in which there will be neither ploughing nor harvesting. 7 And God hath thus sent me before you to prepare for you a permanence on the earth, and to swe your lives by a great deliver– ance.* 8 So now it was not you that sent me hither, but God; and he hath made me a father to Pharaoh, and a lord for all his house, and a ruler throughout all the land of Egypt. 9 Haste ye, and go up to my father, and say unto him, Thus saith thy son Joseph, God hath made me lord of all Egypt ; come down unto me, tarry not. 10 And thou shalt dwell in the land of Goshen, and thou shalt be near unto me, thou, and thy children, and thy children's children, and thy flocks, and thy herds, and all that is thine. 11 And I will maintain thee there; for there are yet five years of famine ; lest thou, and thy household, and all that thou hast, come to poverty. 12 And, behold, your own eyes see, and the eyes of my brother Benjamin, that it is my mouthb that speaketh unto you. 13 And ye shall tell my father of all my honour in Egypt, and of all that ye have seen ; and ye shall hasten and bring down my father hither. 14 And he fell upon his brother Benja– min's neck, and wept; and Benjamin wept upon his neck. 15 And he kissed all his brothers, and wept upon them; and after that his brothers spoke with him. a Lit. "Let it not be grievous in your eyes." b Before he spoke to him through an interpreter; but now he addressed them himself in their own Hebrew ; and this he justly thought must impress them with the con– viction that it was none but Joseph who spoke, and that there was no further deception practised on them by the capricious rulor of Egypt, as he had shown himself hitherto. 68 16 And the report thereof was heard in Pharaoh's house, saying, Joseph's brothers are come ; and it was pleasing in the eyes of Pharaoh, and in the eyes of his servants. 17 And Pharaoh said unto Joseph, Say unto thy brothers. This do ye; load your beasts, and go, get you unto the land of Ca– naan ; 18 And take your father and your house– holds, and come unto me ; and I will give you the bestc of the land of Egypt, and ye shall eat the fat of the land. * 19 And thou art commanded,d This do ye, take unto yourselves out of the land of Egypt Avagons for your little ones, and for your wives, and take up your father, and come. 20 And do ye feel no concerne on account of your household goods ; for the best of all the land of Egypt is yours. 21 And the children of Israel did so ; and Joseph gave them wagons, according to the command of Pharaoh ; and he gave them pro– vision for the way. 22 To all of them he gave to each changes of raiment ; but to Benjamin he gave three hundred pieces of silver, and five changes of raiment. 23 And to his father he sent after this manner: ten asses laden with the best things of Egypt, and ten she–asses laden wdth corn and bread and other food for his father, for the journey. 24 And he accompaniedf his brothers on the way, and they departed : and he said unto them. Do not fall out by the way. 25 And they went up out of Egypt, and came into the land of Canaan, unto Jacob their father. 26 And they told him, saying, Joseph is yet alive; and that he is governor over all the land of Egypt ; but Jacob's heart remained cold, for he believed them not. 27 But when they told him all the words of Joseph, which he had said unto them ; and when he saw the wagons which Joseph had sent to carry him : the spirit of Jacob their father revived.* c aiB " that which is pre–eminently good," t. f. the best. d Arnheim thinks we ought to supply " to tell them." e Lit. " Let your eye have no pity on your vessels." f dSb' in Piel, is generally rendered to dismiss, or to accompany one a part of the journey. The latter meaning is here the more correct, since no doubt Joseph showed them the rights of hospitality, which among the Hebrews require the host to go part of the way with his guests. [Page 59] GENESIS XLV. XLVI. VAY16GASH. 28 And Israel said, Enough; Joseph my son is yet alive : I will go and see him before Idle. CHAPTER XLVI. 1 And Israel commenced his journey with all that he had, and came to Beer–sheba, and offered sacrifices unto the God of his father Isaac. 2 And God spoke unto Israel in the visionsa of the night, and said, Jacob, Jacob. And he said, Here am I. 3 And he said, I am God, the God of thy father; fear not to go down into Egypt; for a great nation will I make of thee there : 4 I will go down with thee into Egypt; and I will also surely bring thee up again; and Joseph shall put his hand upon thy eyes. 5 And Jacob rose up from Beer–sheba : and the sons of Israel carried Jacob their father, and their little ones, and their wives, in the wagons which Pharaoh had sent to carry him. 6 And they took their cattle, and their goods, which they had gotten in the land of Canaan, and came into Egypt ; Jacob, and all his seed with him : 7 His sons, and his sons' sons with him. his daughters,b and his sons' daughters, and all his seed he brought with him into Egypt. 8 ¶ And these are the names of the chil– dren of Israel, that came into Egypt, Jacob and his sons : the first–born of Jacob, Reuben. 9 And the sons of Reuben : Chanoch, and Pal10, and Chezron, and Carmi. 10 And the sons of Simeon : Yemuel, and Yamin, and Ohad, and Yachin, and Zochar, and Shaul the son of the Canaanitish woman. 11 And the sons of Levi: Gershon, Ke– hath, and Merari. 12 And the sons of Judah: 'Er, and Onan, and Shelah, and Perez, and Zerach; but 'Er and Onan died in the land of Canaan, and the sons of Perez were Chezron and Chamul. 13 And the sons of Issachar: Tola, and Puvah, and Yob, and Shimron. a Onkelos and others, " vision." b " His daughters" can refer only to Dinah, for he had no other daughter : the p10ral is used, as in the case of "the sons of Dan, Chushini," (v. 23,) to express the idea that, where others have several daughters or sons, Jacob had of the first one at least bearing the designation of a female child, as with Dan reference is had to the 14 And the sons of Zebulim: Sered and Elon, and Yachleel. 15 These are the sons of Leah, whom she bore unto Jacob in Padan–aram, with Dinah his daughter : all the souls of his sons and his daughters were thirty and three. 10 And the sons of Gad: Ziphyou, and Chaggi, Shuni, and Ezbon, 'Eri, and Arodi, and Areli. 17 And the sons of Asher: Yimnah, and Yishvah. and Yishvi, and Beriah, and Serach their sister; and the sons of Beriah: Cheber, and Malkiel. 18 These are the sons of Zilpah, whom La– ban gave to Leah his daughter, and she bore these unto Jacob, sixteen souls. 19 The sons of Rachel, Jacob's wife: Jo– seph, and Benjamin. 20 And there were born unto Joseph in the land of Egypt Menasseh and Ephraim, whom Asenath the daughter of Poti–pherah, the priest of On, bore unto him. 21 And the sons of Benjamin: Belah, and Becher, and Ashbel, Gera, and Naamau, Echi, and Rosh, Muppim, and Chuppim, and Ard. 22 These are the sons of Rachel, that were bom to Jacob : in all fourteen souls. 23 And the sons of Dan: Chushim. 24 And the sons of Naphtali: Yachzeel, and Guni, and Yezer, and Shillem. 25 These are the sons of Bilhah, whom Laban gave unto Rachel his daughter, and she bore these unto Jacob, in all seven souls. 20 All the souls that came with Jacob into Egypt, that came out of his loins, besides the wives of Jacob's sons, were in all sixty and six souls. 27 And the sons of Joseph, who were born him in Egj–jit, were two souls; all the souls of the house of Jacob, that came into Egypt, were threescore and ten.* 28 ¶ And Judah he sent before him unto Joseph, to direct himc beforehand unto Go– shen ; and they came into the land of Goshen. 29 And Joseph made readyd his chariot, and went up to meet Israel his father, to Go– similar circumstance of his being the father of at least one male offspring; perhaps the term also inc10des his sons' wives. a " To prepare a place for him and to find out where he could settle." — Rashi after Onkelos. b Lit. " harnessed." 59 [Page 60] GENESIS XLVI. XLVII. VAYIGGASH. shen ; and when he obtained sight of him, he fell on his neck, and wept on his neck a good while. 30 And Israel said unto Joseph, Let me die now, since I have seen thy face, that thou art yet alive. 31 And Joseph said unto his brothers, and unto his father's house, I will go up, and tell Pharaoh, and say unto him. My brothers and my father's house, who were in the land of Canaan, are come unto me; 32 And the men are shepherds, for they have been owners of cattle;a and their flocks, and their herds, and all that they have, they have brought along. 33 And it shall come to pass, if Pharaoh should have you called, and say. What is your occupation ? 34 That ye shall say. Owners of cattle have thy servants been from our youth even until now, both we, as also our fathers; in order that ye may dwell in the land of Go– shen; for every shepherd is an abomination unto the Egyptians. CHAPTER XLVII. 1 Then came Joseph and told Pharaoh, and said, My father and my brothers, and their flocks, and their herds, and all that they have, are come out of the land of Ca– naan; and, behold, they are in the land of Goshen. 2 And he took someb of his brothers, five men, and presented them before Pharaoh. 3 And Pharaoh said unto his brothers. What is your occupation? And they said unto Pharaoh, Thy servants are shepherds, both we, as also our fathers. 4 They said moreover unto Pharaoh, To sojourn in the land are we come; because there is no pasture for the flocks of thy ser– vants, for the famine is sore in the land of Canaan; and now let thy servants dwell, we pray thee, in the land of Goshen. 5 And Pharaoh said unto Joseph, thus. Thy father and thy brothers are come unto thee: 6 The land of Egypt is before thee; in the a Eng. ver. " Their trade hath been to feed cattle." b Mendelssohn renders nvpo " of the youngest," and according to the Talmud they were Zebulun, Dan, Naph– tali, Gad, and Asher ; while the Midrash names Keiibon, Simeon, Levi, Issachar, and 15enjaniin. c Heb. " How many are the days of the years of thy life ?" best of the land let thy father and brothers dwell; let them dwell in the land of Goshen; and if thou knowest that there are among them men of activity, then appoint them rulers over my cattle. 7 And Joseph brought in Jacob his father, and placed him before Pharaoh; and Jacob blessed Pharaoh. 8 And Pharaoh said unto Jacob, How old art thou?c 9 And Jacob said unto Pharaoh, The days of the years of my pilgrimage are one hun– dred and thirty years: few and evil been the days of the years of my life, and have not attained unto the days of the years of the life of my fathers in the days of their pilgrimage. 10 And Jacob blessed Pharaoh, and went out from before Pharaoh.* 11 And Joseph assigned places of residence for his father and his brothers, and gave them a possessiond in the land of Egypt, in the test of the land, in the land of Ra'meses, as Phar– raoh had commanded. 12 And Joseph supplied his father, and his brothers, and all his father's household, with bread, in proportion to their families. 13 And there was no bread in all the land; for the famine was very sore; and the land of Egypt and the land of Canaan fainted by reason of the famine. 14 And Joseph gathered up all the money that was foimd in the land of Egypt, and in the land of Canaan, for the corn which they bought; and Joseph brought the money into Pharaoh's house. 15 And when the money failed in the land of Egypt, and in the land of Canaan, all the Egyptians came unto Joseph, and said, Give us bread ; for why should we die in thy pre– sence, since the money is all gone? 16 And Joseph said, Give up your cattle; and I will give you for your cattle, if the money be all gone. 17 And they brought their cattle unto Jo– seph; and Joseph gave them bread in ex– change for horses, and for the flocks of sheep, and for the herds of cattle, and for the asses ; d " They had merely asked permission to remain in Egypt during the famine ; but as Pharaoh authorized their set¶ing in Egypt, Joseph purchased thoni estates, that they might not be as strangers in the land." — After Ramban. [Page 61] GENESIS XLVII. XLVIII. VAYECHEE. and he supplied them with bread for all their cattle for that year. 18 And when that year was ended, they came unto him in the second year, and said him, We will not hide it from my lord, unto how that our money with our herds of cattle hath entirely passed into the possession of my lord ; there is naught left in the sight of my lord, but our bodies, and our land. 19 Wherefore shall we die before thy eyes, both we and our land? buy us and our land for bread; and we and our land will be ser– vants unto Pharaoh; and give us seed, that we may live, and not die, and that the land be not rendered desolate. 20 And Joseph bought all the land of Egypt for Pharaoh; for the Egyptians sold every man his field, because the famine pre– vailed over them: so the land become Pha– raoh's. 21 And as for the people, he removed them to the cities,a from one end of the borders of Egypt even to the other end thereof. 22 Only the land of the priests bought he not; for the priests had a portion assigned them by Pharaoh, and they ate their portion which Pharaoh gave them: therefore they did not sell their land. 23 Then said Joseph unto the people. Be– hold, I have bought you this day and your land for Pharaoh: lo, here is seed for you, and sow ye the land. 24 And it shall come to pass in the har– vest times, that ye shall give the fifth part unto Pharaoh; and four parts shall be your own, for the seed of the field, and for your food, and for those belonging to your house– holds, and for food for your little ones.* 25 And they said, Thou hast swed our lives : let us but find grace in the eyes of my lord, and we will be Pharaoh's servants. 26 And Joseph made it a law unto this day over the land of Egypt, that Pharaoh should have the fifth part; except the land of the priests alone became not Pharaoh's. 27 And Israel dwelt in the land of Egyt, a " Because they had no more property in the land, he removed them to the towns," Arnheim after Abakba– NEL; and adds: "Von Bohlen explains hence the great number of towns, of which there were, according to Hero– dotus, twenty thousand in the Delta of the Nile." b "In order to swear that thou wilt deal," &c. — Arn– heim. c This expression means merely the act of dying, thus, in the country of Goshen ; and they had pos– sessions therein, and were fruitful, and mul– tiplied exceedingly. Haphtorah in Ezekiel xxxvii. 15 to 28. SECTION XII. VAYECHEE, 'nn. 28 And Jacob lived in the land of Egypt seventeen years : and the days of Jacob the years of his life were a hundred forty and seven years. 29 And when the time of Israel drew near that he was to die, he sent to call his son Joseph, and said unto him, If now I have found grace in thy eyes, put, I pray thee, thy hand under my thigh ;b and deal with me in kindness and truth; bury me not, I pray thee, in Egypt. 30 But when I shall liec with my fathers, thou shalt carry me out of Egypt, and bury me in their burying–place. And he said, I will do as thou hast said. 31 And he said. Swear unto me; and he swore unto him ; and Israel bowedd himself upon the head of the bed. CHAPTER XLVIII. 1 And it came to pass after these things, that some one said to Joseph, Behold, thy father is sick ; and he took his two sons with him, Menasseh and Ephraim. 2 And some one told Jacob, and said, Be– hold, thy son Joseph is coming unto thee; and Israel strengthened himself, and sat upon the bed. 3 And Jacob said unto Joseph, God, the Almighty, appeared unto me at 10z in the land of Canaan, and blessed me, 4 And he said unto me. Behold, I will make thee fruitful, and multiply thee, and I will make of thee a multitude of people; and I will give this land to thy seed after thee for an everlasting possession. 5 And now thy two sons, who were bom unto thee in the land of Egypt before I came unto thee into Egypt, shall be mine ; Ephraim "When I at length shall die;" wherefore Philippson's rendering, "That I may lie with my fathers, carry me," &c., is not necessary; since rnDX Di' in 2Dii>'i simply con– veys " that Da\nd fell asleep, in death, as his fathers had done ;" for he was not buried at Beth–lechcm, their native place, but at Jerusalem. d i. e. "In gratitude to God." 61 [Page 62] GENESIS XLVIII. XLIX. VAYECHEE. and Menasseh shall lie unto me as Reuben and Simeon. 6 And thy issue, which thou begettest after them, shall be thine, after the name of their brothers shall they be called in their in– heritance. 7 And as for me, when I came from Padan, Rachel died by me in the land of Canaan on the way, when yet there was some distance to come unto Ephrath : and I buried her there on the way of Ephrath, the same is Beth–chem. 8 And Israel perceived the sons of Joseph, and said, Who are these? 9 And Joseph said unto his father. They are my sons, whom God hath given me in this place. And he said. Bring them, I pray thee, unto me, and I will bless them.* 10 Now the eyes of Israel were dim through age, he could not see;a and he brought them near unto him, and he kissed them, and embraced them. 11 And Israel said unto Joseph, To see thy face I had not hoped; and, lo, God hath ehown me also thy seed. 12 And Joseph brought them out from be– tween his knees, and he bowed himself with his face to the earth. 13 And Joseph took them both, Ephraim in his right hand toward Israels left, and Me– nasseh in his left hand toward Israels right, and brought them near unto him. 14 And Israel stretched out his right hand, and laid it upon Ephraim's head, who was the younger, and his left hand upon Menas– seh's head; he laid his hands wittingly; al– though Menasseh was the first–born. 15 And he blessed Joseph, and said. The God, before whom my fathers Abraham and Isaac did walk, the God avIio fedb me from my first being unto this day, 16 The angelc who redeemed me from all evil, bless the lads; and let my name be called on them, and the name of my fathers a This is to say, Israel could perceive dimly the pre– sence of persons, without being aide to see distinctly. b rii'in, literally, " Who fed mc upon pastures," taking this word from his own pastoral life. c Dubno and Sforno think that the words "may he send" should be supplied before "the angel;" meaning, " May God, who hath always protected me, send his mes– senger to bless the lads." d Lit. "A fulness of the nations," which may mean, "whose fame shall fill the books of nations;" so Rashi; Onkelos, "rulers of nations." 62 Abraham and Isaac; and let them grow into a multitude in the midst of the earth.* 17 And when Joseph saw that his father would lay his right hand upon the head of Ephraim, it displeased him : and he took hold of his father's hand, to remove it from the head of Ephraim unto the head of Menasseh. 18 And Joseph said unto his father. Not so, my father; for this is the first–born, put thy right hand upon his head. 19 And his father refused, and said, I know, my son, I know, he also shall become a people, and he also shall be great; but truly his younger brother shall be greater than he, and his seed shall become a multituded of nations. 20 And he blessed them that day, saying. With thee shall Israel bless, saying, God make thee as Ephraim and Menasseh : and so he set Ephraim before Menasseh. 21 And Israel said unto Joseph, Behold, I die ; but God will be with you, and bring you again unto the land of your fathers. 22 Moreover I have given unto thee one portion above thy brothers, which I tooke out of the hand of the Emorite with my sword and with my bow.* CHAPTER XLIX. 1 ¶ And Jacob called unto his sons, and said. Gather yourselves together, that I may tell you that which shall befall you in the last days. 2 Gather yourselves together, and hear, ye sons of Jacob; and hearken unto Israel your father. 3 Reuben, thou art my first–born, my might, and the beginning of my strength ; the excel– lency of dignity, and the excellency of power (should be thine). 4 Unstable as water, thou shalt not have the excellence; because thou wentest up to thy father's bed; then defiledst thou the one who ascendedf my couch. e Philippson renders, "Which I shall have taken," re– ferring to the future conquest of Palestine, since prophecy looks upon future events as already past. f Kamban and Arnheira are of opinion that the third person nS;' in the Hebrew text, rotors to the sj)oaker, viz. Jacob. I'hiiippson renders, "then didst thou commit a violation," and agrees with the English version, that rhy 'IMS' is a sort of interjection, defining the cause of his displeasure, "he ascended my couch;" but the opiniou of llamban appears more correct. [Page 63] GENESIS XLIX. VAYECHEE. 5 ¶ Simeon and Levi are brethren; wea– pons of violence are their swords.a 6 Into their secret shall my soul not come ; unto their assembly my spirit shall not be united; for in their anger they slew the man, and in their self–will they lamed the ox. 7 Cursed be their anger, for it is fierce; and their wrath, for it is cruel : I will divide them in Jacob, and scatter them in Israel. 8 ¶ Judah, thou art the one thy brothers shall praise, thy hand shall be on the neck of thy enemies ; thy father's children shall bow down unto thee. 9 Like a lion's whelp, Judah, from the prey, my son, thou risest: he stoopeth down, he croucheth as a lion, and as a lioness, who shall rouse him up? 10 The sceptreb shall not depart from Ju– dah, nor a lawgiver from between his feet; until Shiloh come, and unto him shall the gathering of the people be. 11 He bindeth unto the vine his foal, and a After Rashi. b I have left this verse as it is in the English version, inasmuch as it is according to Onkelos and Rashi, the former of whom renders at¶hy ly 'niJ3 'J3a NiiJDi, "and the scribe from his sons' sons for ever, until," &c. But Arnheim gives, "Till he of Shiloh cometh, and the obedience of the tribes be turned to him," and refers "he of Shiloh" to Achiyah, the prophet of Shiloh, who fore– told to Jeroboam that a part of the kingdom should be taken from Solomon and transferred to him, (1 Kings xi. 31,) which prediction afterward came to pass, when Rechoboam refused to redress the grievances of the people ; and "to him," then al10des to Jeroboam, to whom the tribes of Israel, here called D'Oi', (see Gen. xiv. 4,) were to turn from the house of David. Mendelssohn, in giving a somewhat different version, refers to the same event. Others, again, give: "The sceptre shall not depart from Judah, nor the lawgiver from his descendants for ever; because Shiloh shall come, and to him shall be the gather– ing of the nations." This version is predicated upon the words being separated by a disjunctive accent, and thus stand for "for ever" and "because;" since the Yetib is a greater disjunctive than the Pesseek in 2 Samuel xxiii. 10. Philippson, the latest of our trans– lators, renders: "Not shall the sceptre from Judah, the ruler's staff from between his feet, even then when he cometh to Shiloh, and his shall be the obedience of the nations." In his comment he says, in substance, that to Judah is promised the rule and prominence in Israel, which was not to depart even when Joshua, the Ephraimite, should set up the tabernacle at Shiloh after the conquest of Palestine; so that o i) does not signify alone "until," but inc10des the time beyond the period stated, "even then when." — It is impossible in this work to go into various versions and opinions hazarded by commentators; but this much is certain, that Onkelos, the best translator the Pentateuch had for a long while, and who is not yet ex– celled, would not have added no¶;' –}]? if he had thought to the vine–branch his ass's colt; he washeth his garments in wine, and in the blood of grapes his clothes; 12 His eyes shall be red from wine, and his teeth white from milk. 13 ¶ Zebulun shall dwell at the margin of the seas; and he shall be at the haven of ships; and his border shall be near to Zidon. 14 ¶ Issachar is a strong–boned ass, couch– ing down between the stables. 15 And when he saw the resting–place that it was good, and the land that it was pleasant, he bent his shoulder to bear, and became a servant unto tribute.c 16 ¶ Dan shall judged his people, as one of the tribes of Israel. 17 Dan shall be a serpent by the way, an adder on the path, that biteth the horse in the heels, so that his rider falleth backward. 18 For thy salvation, I hope, O Lord.''' 19 ¶ Gad, troops will band against him ; but he shall wound their heel.e that it militated against the Jewish faith. The assump– tion that the sceptre was taken at a particular period, wherefore Shiloh must have come then, is futile; since Judah had no rule during the second temple, and with the blinding of Zedekiah, in the year of the world 3402, prior to the common era 586 years, the kingdom or sceptre of David became extinct; wherefore the alleged fulfilmeut came five hundred and eighty–six years too late. But believing Israelites, who confide in prophecy, do not think the sceptre totally departed from Judah; especially are the scribes, or those learned in the law, not lost from the as yet latest descendants of Israel. The sceptre u–ill re/uni when the Shiloh, the King Messiah, shall come, and to him shall be both the obedience and assemblage of people or nations, as ca;' nnp' is variously rendered. The plan of this work prohibits us from enlarging; but the pious and intell16ent reader will have enough to satisfy all doubts. c Doub¶essly Jacob here contrasts Issachar with Zebu– 10n: the latter was to be a merchant tribe, seeking for gain upon the ocean, going in quest of wealth; the former, on the contrary, laborious and patient, like the animal to which he is compared, who lies down at night near the stables when his work is done, was to prefer his beautiful land, full of all that can make agriculture profitable. Arnheim therefore renders the last words, "and yieldeth himself to the service of the labourer." d Arnheim renders T with "wenge." e Arnheim; making ¶U' "shall cut," or "wound," (Deut. xiv. 2 ;) the verse refers then to the many wars which the border–tribe of Gad should have to wage s\iccessfu]ly against their faithless heathen neighbours. Onkclns would require this version: "Those of the house of Gad shall pass in bands in advance of their brothers (over the Jordan) to the war, and with many goods shall they re– turn to their land." Jerusalem Targum : "and return in peace to their dwellings." 63 [Page 64] GENESIS XLIX. L. VAYECHEE. 20 ¶ Out of Asher cometh fat bread, and he shall yield royal dainties. 21 ¶ Naphtali is (like) a fleet hind; he giveth goodly words.a 22 ¶ Joseph is a fruitful bough, a fruitful bough by a spring; the branches of which run over the wall. 23 And they embittered his life, and they shot at him, and they hated him, the men of the arrows. 24 But his bow abode in strength, and his arms and his hands remained firm ; fromb the hands of the mighty God of Jacob, from there thou becamest the shepherd, the stone of Israel. 25 From the God of thy father, who will help thee; and from the Almighty, who will bless thee, with blessings of heaven above, with blessings of the deep that lieth beneath, with blessings of the breasts, and of the womb ; 26 With the blessings of thy father that have excelled the blessings of my progenitors unto the utmost bound of the everlasting hills : these shall be on the head of Josepli, and on the crown of the head of him that was separatedc from his brothers.* 27 Benjamin shall be as a wolf that rendeth:d in the morning he shall devour the prey, and at night he shall divide the spoil. 28 All these are the tribes of Israel, twelve in number; and this is what their father spoke unto them, and wherewith he blessed them; every one according to his proper blessing blessed he them. 29 And he charged them and said unto them, I am to be gathered unto my people; bury me near my fathers in the cave that is in the field of Ephron the Hittite, 30 In the cave that is in the field of Mach– pelah, which is before Mamre, in the land of Canaan, which field Abraham bought of Ephron the Hittite, tor a possession as a bury– ing–place, 31 (There they buried Abraham and Sarah a " He bringeth pleasant messages." — Puilippson. b Mendelssohn understands here, " this came to thee from the hands," &c. Arnheira takes px as synonymous with lis "rock," or "protector;" and it then means that, through the help of Jacob's mighty God, Joseph became the guar– dian and protector of Israel. Philippson refers both terms to (!ud, and translates, "from the hands of the mighty God of Jacob, from the Shepherd, the Rock of Israel." 64 his wife; there they buried Isaac and Rebe– kah his wife; and there I buried Leah,) 32 Purchasing the field and of the cave that is therein from the children of Heth. 33 And when Jacob had made an end of commanding his sons, he gathered up his feet into the bed; and he departed this life, and was gathered unto his peeple. CHAPTER L. 1 And Joseph fell upon his father's face, and wept upon him, and kissed him. 2 And Joseph commanded his servants the physicians to embalm his father: and the physicians embalmed Israel. 3 And they fulfilled for him forty days;e for so they fulfil the days of those that are embalmed; and the Egyptians wept for him seventy days. 4 And when the days of his mourning were past, Joseph spoke mito the house of Pharaoh, saying, If now I have found grace in your eyes, speak, I pray you, in the ears of Pharaoh, saying, 5 My father made me swear, saying, Lo, I die; in my grave, which I have dugf for me in the land of Canaan, there shalt thou bury me : now therefore let me go up, I pray thee, and I will bury my father, and return again. 6 And Pharaoh said, Go up, and bury thy father, as he hath made thee swear. 7 And Joseph went up to bury his father, and there went up with him all the servants of Pharaoh, the elders of his house, and .all the elders of the land of Egypt, 8 And all the house of Joseph, and his brothers, and his father's house ; only their little ones, and their flocks, and their herds, they left behind in the land of Goshen. 9 And there went up with him both char– riots and horsemen ; and the encampment was very great. 10 And they came to the thrashing–floor of Atad, which is beyond Jordan, and they held there a great and very sore lamentation ; and he made for his father a mourning of seven days. c Mendelssohn gives this with "crowned from among," &c. d i. e. His prey. e Meaning, the process of embalming occupied forty days; "and they fulfilled" then is, that the embalmers were for this period engaged in their labour. f " I have acquired," according to some. [Page 65] GENESIS L. VAYECHEE. 11 And when the inhabitants of the land, the Canaanites, saw the mourning at the thrashing–floor of Atad, they said, This is a grievous mourning to the Egyptians ; where– fore the name of it was called Abel–mizrayim,a which is beyond Jordan.b 12 And his sons did unto him according as he had commanded them ; 13 And his sons carried him into the land of Canaan, and buried him in the cave of the field of Machpelah, which fieldc Abraham bought for a possession, as a burying–place, of Ephron the Hittite, before Mamre. 14 And Joseph returned unto Egypt, he, and his brothers, and all that were gone up with him to bury his father, after he had buried his father. 15 And when Joseph's brothers saw that their father was dead, they said, Peradven– ture Joseph may now hate us; and then he would certainly requite us all the evil which we have done unto him. 16 And they sent word unto Joseph, say– ing, Thy father did command before he died, saying, 17 So shall ye say unto Joseph, forgive, I pray thee, the trespass of thy brothers, and their sm ; for evil have they done unto thee : and now, we pray thee, forgive the trespass of the servants of the God of thy father ; and Joseph wept when they spoke unto him. 18 And his brothers also went and fell down before him ; and they said, Behold, we will be thy servants. 19 And Joseph said unto them, Fear not ; for am I in the place of God ? 20 But as for you, though ye thought evil against me, God meant it unto good; in order to bring to pass, as it is this day, to swe alive a numerous people.* 21 Now therefore fear ye not, I vnW sup– port you, and your little ones; and he com– forted thi'm, and spoke kindly unto them. 22 And Joseph dwelt in Egypt, he, and his father's house ; and Joseph lived one hun– dred and ten years.* 23 And Joseph saw of Ephraim children of the third generation ; the children also of Machir the son of Menasseh were brought up upon Joseph's knees. 24 And Joseph said unto his brothers, I shall die; but God will surely visit you, and bring you up out of this land unto the land which he hath sworn to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob. 25 And Joseph caused the children of Israel to swear, saying, God will surely visit you, and then shall ye carry up my bones from here. 20 So Joseph died, being one hundred and ten years old ; and they embalmed him, and he was put in a coffin in Egypt. Haphtorah in 1 Kings ii. 1 to 12. a " Mourning of Egypt." b According to R. Joseph Schwartz this means the ancient bed of the river to the south of the Dead Sea, as Joseph did not cross the present Jordan to the north of that lake. Note.— Haphtorah for the Sabbath, if on the day before New Moon, is in 1 Samuel xx. 18 to 42. Reading for Maphterc for Sabbath and New Moon, Numbers xxviii. 9 to 15. Haphtorah for Sabbath and New Moon in Isaiah Ivi. 1 to 24. Haphtorah for Sabbath Chanukkah in Zcchanah u. 14 to iv. 7. 1–1 Haptorah for the second Sabbath Chanukkah in 1 Kings vii. 40 to 50. When either of the above is read on any Sabbath, the usual weekly Haphtorah is omitted. The same is the case with all other occasional Haphtoro¶i, which usually take the place of the regular ones. c This construction is according to Arnheira, rendering ityN and niB'n simply with " which field." He also ren– ders NiDO 'J3 ¶f with "east of Mamre." 65 [Page 66] THE BOOK OF EXODUS, SHEMOTH, niotr, CONTAININ6 THE HISTORY OF THE ISRAELITES IN EGYPT, AND THEIR REDEMPTION, TO THE BUILDIN6 OF THE TABERNACLE. SECTION XIII. SHEMOTH, mOlT. CHAPTER I. 1 ¶ Now these are the names of the children of Israel, that came into Egypt ; with Jacob were they come, every man and his household. 2 Reuben, Simeon, Levi, and Judah, 3 Issachar, Zebulun, and Benjamin, 4 Dan, and Naphtali, Gad, and Asher. 5 And all the souls that came out of the loins of Jacob were seventy souls; together with Joseph who was already in Egyt. 6 And Joseph died, with all his brothers, and all that generation. 7 And the children of Israel were fruitful, and increased abundantly, and multiplied, and waxed exceedingly mighty ; and the land was filled with them. 8 ¶ Now there rose up a new king over Egypt, who knew not Joseph. 9 And he said unto his people, Behold, the people of the children of Israel is more nume– rous and mightier than we : 10 Come on, let us deal wisely with it; lest it multiply, and it come to pass, that, when there happen to be a war, it join also unto our enemies, and fight against us, and depart out of the land. 11 And they thereupon did set over it taskmasters, to afflict it with their burden– some labours ; and it built treasure cities, for Pharaoh, Pithom and Raamses. 12 But in the measure that they afflicted the same, so it multiplied and so it spread it– self out ; and they felt abhorrence because of the children of Israel. 13 And the Egyptians compelled the chil– dren of Israel to labour with rigour : a D'J3X " the chair upon which women sit during child– birth" is used for the ciiild itself that is born. b i. e. vigorous; wherefore they require not the same caro as the more feeble Egyptians; in consequence of 14 And they made their lives bitter with hard labour, in mortar, and in bricks, and in all manner of laour in the field; besides all their other service, wherein they made them labour with rigour. 15 And the king of Egypt said to the He– brew midwives, of whom the name of the one was Shiphrah, and the name of the other Puah : 16 And he said. When ye do the office of a midwife to the Hebrew women, ye shall have due regard upon the birth :a if it be a son, then shall ye kill him ; but if it be a daughter, then may she live. 17 But the midwives feared God, and they did not as the king of Egypt had commanded them, but swed the men–children alive.* 18 And the king of Egvpt called for the midwives, and he said unto them. Why have ye done this thing, and have saved the men– children alive? 19 And the midwives said unto Pharaoh, Because the Hebrew women are not as the Egyptian women ; for they are lively ;b ere the midwife comes in unto them they are deli– vered. 20 And God dealt well with the midwives; and the people multiplied, and waxed very mighty. 21 And it came to pass, because the mid– wives feared God, that he made them houses.c 22 And Pharaoh charged all his people, saying. Every son that is born he shall cast into the river, and every daughter ye shall save alive. CHAPTER II. 1 And there went a man of the house of Levi, and took a daughter of Levi. which it would be impossible to slay the child unperceived by the another. c i. e. He made them important, and founders of houses of renown in Israel. [Page 67] EXODUS II. SHEMOTH. 2 And the woman conceived, and bore a son; and when she saw him that he was a goodlya child, she hid him three months. 3 And when she could no longer hide him, she took for him a box of bulrushes,b and daubed it with slime and with pitch ; and she put the child therein, and laid it amidst the flags by the brink of the river. 4 And his sister placed herself afar off, to ascertain what would be done to him. 5 And the daughter of Pharaohc came down to wash herself at the river; and her maidens walked along by the side of the river; and when she saw the box among the flags, she sent her maid and fetched it. 6 And she opened it, and saw the child, and, behold, it was a weeping boy; and she had compassion on him, and said, This is one of the Hebrews' children. 7 Then said his sister to Pharaoh's daugh– ter. Shall I go and call thee a nurse of the Hebrew women, that she may nurse for thee the child? 8 And Pharaoh's daughter said to her, Go; and the maiden went and called the mother of the child. 9 And Pharaoh's daughter said unto her. Take away this child, and nurse him for me, and I will give thee thy wages; and the woman took the child, and nursed him. 10 And the child grew up, and she brought him unto Pharaoh's daughter, and he be– came to her as a son ; and she called his name Mosesd and she said, Because out of the water have I drawn him.* 11 And it came to pass in those days, when Moses was grown up, that he went out unto his brethren, and looked on their burdensome labours ; and he saw an Egyptian man smiting a Hebrew man, one of his brethren. 12 And he looked this way and that way, and when he saw that there was no one by, he slewe the Egytian, and hid him in the sand. 13 And when he went out the second day. a That is, handsome and well formed ; the word 310 is often used in this sense. b Philippson renders, "papyrus rush," out of the stems of which boats are constructed, which attain at times im– mense speed in their propulsion. They were called by Pliny papyracex nwes. See also ndj ''70 " vessels of bulrushes," Eng. ver., in Isaiah xviii. 2. c Wonderful providence ! that the daughter of the op– pressor should be made the instrument, through the very behold, two Hebrew men were striving to– gether; and he said unto him that was in the Avrong, Wherefore smitest thou thy fellow? 14 And he said. Who made thee a chief and a judge over us? intendest thou to kill me, as thou hast killed the Egyptian? And Moses feared, and said. Surely the thing is become known. 15 And Pharaoh heard this thing, and he sought to slay Moses; but Moses fled from the face of Pharaoh, and tarried in the land of Midian, and he sat down by a well. 16 Now the priest of Midian had seven daughters; and they came and drew water, and filled the troughs to water their father's flock. 17 And the shepherds came and drove them away ; but Moses arose and helped them, and watered their flock. 18 And when they came to Reuel their father, he said. Wherefore are ye come home so soon to–day? 19 And they said, An Egyptian man de– livered us out of the hand of the shepherds ; and he also drew water for us, and watered the flock. 20 And he said unto his daughters, And where is he ? wherefore have ye left the man ? call him, that he may eat bread. 21 And Moses was content to dwell with the man; and he gave Zipporah his daughter to Moses. 22 And she bore her a son, and he called his name Gershom ; f for he said, I have been a stranger in a foreign land. 23 ¶ And it came to pass in this long time, that the king of Egypt died; and the children of Israel s16hed by reason of the bondage, and they cried ; and their complaint came up unto God by reason of the bondage. 24 And God heard their groaning, and God remembered his covenant with Abraham, with Isaac, and with Jacob. 25 And God looked upon the children of Israel, and God took cognizance of them.g* decree of exterminating the male Israelites, to educate the future deliverer of his people. d " Mosheh," from nero mashoh, " to draw forth." e Lit. " he smote." f Ger, a " stranger ;" and shahm, " there." g " He turned his attention to them and did not wert his eyes," Rashi ; that is, he noted their sorrows and re– solved to redeem them. 67 [Page 68] EXODUS III. SHEMOTH. CHAPTER III. 1 ¶ And Moses was keeping the flock of Jithro his father–in–hiw, the priest of Midian; and he led the Hock far away into the desert, and came to the mountain of God, to Choreb. 2 And an angela of the Lord appeared unto him in a flame of fire out of the midst of a thorn–bush; and he looked, and, behold, the thorn–bush was burning with fire, but the thorn–bush was not consumed. 3 And Moses said, I must turn aside, and see this great sight, why the thorn–bush is not burnt. 4 And when the Lord saw that he turned aside to see, God called unto him out of the midst of the thorn–bush, and said, Moses, Moses; and he said, Here am I. 5 And he said. Draw not nigh hither ; put off thy shoes from off thy feet; for the place whereon thou standest is holy ground. 6 And he said, I am the God of thy father, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob ; and Moses hid his face ; for he was afraid to look up to God. 7 And the Lord said, I have truly seen the aflliction of my people that is in Egypt, and have heard its cry by reason of its task– masters; yea, I know its sorrows; 8 And I am come down to deliver it out of the hand of the Egyptians, and to bring it up out of that land unto a land, good and large, unto a land flowing with milk and ho– ney; unto the place of the Canaanitcs, and the Hittites, and the Emoritcs, and the Periz– zites, and the Hivites, and the Jebusites. Now therefoi–e, behold, the cry of the children of Israel is come unto me: and I have also seen the oppression wherewith the Egyptians oppress them. 10 And now then go, and I will send thee unto Pharaoh, and thou shalt bring forth my people the children of Israel out of Egypt. a The angel who appeared to Moses –does not address him : the bodily appearance of the peculiar conflagration, was to arrest his attention ; but immediately after, when Moses attempted to inspcet it more closely, he is arrested by the Divine word, proceeding without a mediator, and he is thus called to commence his great mission by the Supreme himself b Arnheim translates this passage, "I will be that I am." It is very simple in its construction ; still it is exceed– ingly difticult to convey the whole force of the idea by any words in a translation. The Lord announces himself as 68 11 And Moses said unto God, Wbo iuii I, that I shoidd go unto Pharaoh, and ¶iat I should bring forth the children of Israel out of Egypt ? 12 And he said, Because I will be with thee; and this shall be unto thee the token, that I have sent thee: when thou hast brought forth the people out of Egypt, ye shall serve God upon this mountain. 13 And Moses said unto God, Behold, if I come unto the children of Israel, and say unto them, The God of your lathers hath sent me unto you ; and they then say to me, What is his name? what shall I say unto them? 14 And God said unto Moses, I WILL BE THAT I WILL BE:b and he said. Thus shalt thou say unto the children of Israel, I WILL BE hath sent me unto you. 15 And God said moreover unto Moses, Thus shalt thou say unto the children of Israel, The Everlasting One, the God of your fathers, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob, hath sent me unto you: this is my name for ever, and this is my memorialc unto all generations.* 16 Go, and assemble the elders of Israel, and say unto them. The Everlasting One, the God of your fiithers, the God of Abraham, of. Isaac, and of Jacol), hath appeared unto me, saying, I have surely taken cognizance of you and of that which is done to you in Egypt: 17 And I have said, I will bring you up out of the affliction of Egypt, unto the land of the Canaanitcs, and the Hittites, and the Emoritcs, and the Perizzites, and the Ilivites, and the Jebusites, unto a land flowing with milk and honey. 18 And they will hearken to thy voice: and thou shalt come, thou and the elders of Israel, unto the king of Egypt, and ye shall say unto him, The Everlasting One, the God of the Hebrews hath met with us; and now the Being who will ever be, as he was and as he is. In truth, the word is nothing but the future tense first person singular of the verb rrn "to be." In the second part of the verse, therefore, Arnheim gives it simply as the name of God, without translating it: "Ehyeh hath sent me to vou." In this new name, which God assumes to denote his eternity, we have the second revelation of his being and quality. (8ce above. Gen. svii. 1.) c This means, say the commentators, that God taught Moses how to pronounce the name of four letters, which is read Adonay, and not as it is written. [Page 69] EXODUS III. IV. SHEMOTH. let us go, we beseech thee, a three days' journey into the wilderness, that we may sacrifice to the Lord our God. 19 But I am sure that the king of Egypt will not let you go, unless it happen through a mighty hand.a 20 And I will stretch out my hand, and smite Egypt with all my wonders which I will do in the midst thereof; and after that he will let you go. 21 And I will give this people favour in the eyes of the Egyptians ; and it shall come to pass, that, when ye go, ye shall not go empty : 22 But every woman shall ask of her neighbour, and of her that sojourneth in her house, vessels of silver, and vessels of gold, and garments; and ye shall put them upon your sons, and upon your daughters ; and ye shall empty out Egypt. CHAPTER IV. 1 And Moses answered and said. But, be– hold, they will not believe me, nor hearken unto my voice; for they will say, The Lord hath not appeared unto thee. 2 And the Lord said unto him, what is that in thy hand ? and he said, A staff. 3 And he said, Cast it on the ground; and he cast it on the ground, and it became a ser– pent; and Moses fled from before it. 4 And the Lord said unto Moses, Put forth thy hand, and grasp it by the tail; and he put forth his hand, and laid hold of it, and it became a staff in his hand. 5 In order that they may believe that there hath appeared unto thee the Everlast– ing One, the God of their fathers, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob. 6 And the Lord said furthermore unto him. Do put thy hand into thy bosom ; and he put his hand into his bosom ; and when he took it out, behold, his hand was leprous, whiteb as snow. 7 And he said. Put thy hand again into a Rashi ; others, after the literal text, " and not even through a mighty hand." b Heb. " Leprous like snow." c h¶ph probably means "the report," to wit, which Moses would bring of the wonders which he had seen ; hence it says properly, if words should not convince them, he should show them something before their eyes. — Arn– heim after Rashi. thy bosom; and he put his hand again into his bosom ; and when he pulled it out of his bosom, behold, it was turned again as his other flesh. 8 And it shall come to pass, if they will not believe thee, neither hearken to the voicec of the first sign, that they will believe the voice of the latter sign. 9 And it shall come to pass, if they will not believe also these two signs, and will not hearken unto thy voice, that thou shalt take of the water of the river, and pour it upon the dry land : and the water which thou shalt take out of the river shall become blood upon the dry land. 10 And Moses said unto the Lord, Pardon, Lord, I am not a man of words, neither yesterday, nor the day before, nor since thou hast spoken unto thy servant; for I am heavy of speech, and heavy of tongue. 11 And the Lord said unto him. Who hath given a mouth to man? or who maketh him dumb, or deaf, or seeing, or blind? is it not I the Lord? 12 Now therefore go, and I will lie with thy mouth, and I will teach thee what thou shalt speak. 13 And he said, Pardon, Lord, send, I pray thee, by the hand of him wliom thou wouldestd send. 14 And the anger of the Lord was kindled against Moses, and he said, Is there not Aaron, thy brother, the Levite? I know that he can speak well; and also, behold, he cometh forth to meet thee; and when he seeth thee, he will be glad in his heart. 15 And thou shalt speak unto him, and put the words in his moutb : and I will be with thy mouth, and with his mouth, and I will teach you what ye shall do. 16 And he shall speak for thee unto the people; and he shall be, yea he shall be to thee as a mouth, and thou shalt be to him as a god.e 17 And this staff shalt thou take in thy hand, wherewith shalt thou do the signs.* d Onkelos renders, "who is worthy of being sent." e Moses should give to Aaron instruction how to speak, consequently he would be to him what God was to Moses, instructor; and again, Aaron was to be the mouth of Moses, by telling the people what had been intrusted to him, and which he himself could not tell on account of his difficulty of speech. [Page 70] EXODUS IV. V. SHEMOTH. 18 ¶ And Moses went and returned to Jethcr his father–in–law, and said unto him, Let me go, I pray thee, and return unto my brethren that are in Egypt, and see whether they be yet aUve; and Jithro said to Moses, Go in peace. 19 And the Lord said unto Moses in Mi– dian, Go, return into Egypt; for all the men are dead who sought thy life. 20 And Moses took his wife and his sons, and set them upon an ass, and he returned to the land of Egypt; and Moses took the staff of God in his hand. 21 And the Lord said unto Moses, When thou goest to return into Egypt, regard well all the wonders which I have put in thy hand, and do them before Pharaoh ; but I will harden his heart, and he will not let the people go. 22 And thou shalt say unto Pharoah, Thus saith the Lord, My son, my first–born, is Is– rael. 23 And I say unto thee. Let my son go, that he may serve me; and thou refusest to let him go; so, behold, I will slay thy son, thy first–born. 24 And as he was on the journey in the inn, the Lord met him, and sought to kill him. 25 Then took Zipporah a sharp instru– ment,a and cut off the foreskin of her son, and cast it at his feet, and said, Surely a bloody relativeb art thou to me. 26 And then he withdrew from him ; when she said, A bloody relative, but only in re– spect of the circumcision. 27 ¶ And the Lord said to Aaron, Go to meet Moses, into the wilderness; and he went and met him by the mount of God, and kissed him. 28 And Moses told Aaron all the words of the Lord wherewith he hath sent him, and all the signs which he had commanded him. 29 And Moses and Aaron went and assem– bled all the elders of the children of Israel : 30 And Aaron spoke all the words which a Aben Ezra and Rashbam ; others render, " a sharp stone." b This was said to the child, as endangering the life of Moses; but the blood was at length only that of circum– cision. c " Prostrated themselves;" but as this was the method 70 the Lord had spoken unto Moses ; and he did the signs before the eyes of the people. 31 And the people believed: and when they heard that the Lord had visited the chil– dren of Israel, and that he had looked upon their aflliction, then they bowed their heads and worshipped.c* CHAPTER V. 1 And after that Moses and Aaron went in, and said unto Pharaoh, Thus saith the Everlasting One, the God of Israel, Let my people go, that they may hold a feast unto me in the wilderness. 2 And Pharaoh said. Who is the Everlast– ing, whose voice I am to obey, to let Israel go? I know not the Everlasting, nor will I let Israel go. 3 And they said, The God of the Hebrews hath met with us : let us go, we pray thee, a three days' journey into the desert, and sacri– fice unto the Lord our God ; lest he fall upon us with the pestilence, or with the sword. 4 And the king of Egypt said unto them, Wherefore do ye, Mos6s and Aaron, hinder the people from their works? get you unto your own affairs.d 5 And Pharaoh said. Behold, the people of the land now are many, and ye disturbe them in the pursuit of their labours. 6 And Pharaoh commanded on the same day the taskmasters of the people, and its of– ficers, saying, 7 Ye shall no more give the people straw to make the bricks, as yesterday and the day before; they themselves shall go and gather themselves straw. 8 And the number of the bricks, which they did make heretofore,f ye shall impose upon them, ye shall not diminish aught thereof; for they are idle; therefore they cry, saying, Let us go and sacrifice to our God. 9 Let the work be made to lie heavy upon the men, that they may have enough to do therein ; and that they may not pay attention to false words. 10 And the taskmasters of the people and of worship, the word "worshipped" has been retained, as in the common version. d Rashi. e Lit. "Cause them to rest from their burdens." f Heb. " Yesterday and the day before yesterday." [Page 71] EXODUS V. VI. VAAYRAH. its officers went out, and they said to the people, saying, Thus saith Pharaoh, I will not give you any straw. 11 Go ye, get yourselves straw from wher– ever ye can find it ; yet not the least shall be taken off from your work. 12 And the people scattered themselves abroad throughout all the land of Egypt to gather stubble instead of straw. 13 And the taskmasters were urgent, say– ing. Fulfil your works, every day its due por– tion, just as when there was straw. 14 And the officers of the children of Israel, whom the taskmasters of Pharaoh had set over them, were beaten, as these said. Wherefore have ye not fulfilled your task in making brick as heretofore, both yesterday and to–day? 15 And the officers of the children of Israel came and cried unto Pharaoh, saying, Wherefore" dealest thou thus with thy ser– vants ? 16 Straw is not given unto thy servants, and, Make bricks, say they to us: and, be– hold, thy servants are beaten, and thy people are treated as sinners. 17 But he said. Idle are ye, idle ; therefore say ye. Let us go and sacrifice to the Lord. 18 And now go, work, and straw shall not be given you; yet the required number of bricks shall ye deliver. 19 And the officers of the children of Israel saw themselves in the evil necessity to say, Ye shall not diminish aught from your bricks, every day of its task. 20 And they met Moses and Aaron, stand– ing in their way, as they came forth from Pharaoh. 21 And they said unto them. May the Lord look upon you, and judge; because ye have made our savour to be abhorred in the eyes of Pharaoh, and the eyes of his servants, to put a sword in their hand to slay us.* 22 And Moses returned unto the Lord, and a Aben Ezra supplies here, "alone," meaning, sometimes it was as the Almighty, while at others as the Eternal, that God spoke to the patriarchs. Jonathan says, "And by my name, the Lord, through the evident appearance of my glory, (see Numb. xii. 6,) I became not knovm to them." Perhaps it may mean, however, that God made himself known to the patriarchs as the Ruler of all things, but not as the Merciful and sure Eewarder of all deeds: they might have recognised Him so from his bounties; but now said. Lord, wherefore hast thou let so much evil come upon this people? why is it that thou hast sent me? 23 For, since I came unto Pharaoh to speak in thy name, he hath done more evil to this people; but thou hast in nowise de– livered thy people. CHAPTER VL 1 Then said the Lord unto Moses, Now shalt thou see what I will do to Pharaoh ; for with a strong hand shall he send them away, and with a strong hand shall he drive them out of his land. Haphtorah in leaiah xxvii. 6 to xxviii. 13, and v. 22 and 23 of xxix. The Portuguese read Jereiniah i. 1 to ii. 3. SECTION XIV. VAAYRAH, N"1N*1. 2 ¶ And God spoke unto Moses, and said unto him, I am the Lord : 3 And I appeared unto Abraham, unto Isaac, and unto Jacob, by the name of God, the Almighty, but by my name The Eter– nala was I not made known to them. 4 And as I did also establish my covenant with them, to give unto them the land of Canaan, the land of their pilgrimage, wherein they sojourned : 5 So have I also heard the groaning of the children of Israel, whom the Egyptians com– pel to labour; and I have remembered my covenant. 6 Therefore say unto the children of Israel, I am the Eternal, and I will bring you out from under the burdensb of the Egyptians, and I will release you from their bondage, and I will redeem you with an outstretched arm, and with great judgments: 7 And I will take you to me for a people, and I will be to you a God; and ye shall know that I am the Lordc your God, who bringeth you out from under the burdens of the Egyptians. 8 And I will bring you in unto the land, this knowledge was bestowed on mankind as a new source of hope and confidence. b The same word has been rendered above with "bur– densome labour," in which sense it must be understood throughout. c The reader will please to recollect what is stated in a note to Genesis ii. 4, that the word Lord (so printed) is used in this version as equivalent to Eternal, to prevent the frequent repetition of the last term. [Page 72] EXODUS VI. VII. VAAYRAH. concerning which I did lift up my handa to give it to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob; and I will give it you for an heritage : I am the Lord. 9 And Moses spoke thus unto the children of Israel; but they hearkened not unto Moses for anguish of spirit, and for cruel bondage. 10 ¶ And the Lord spoke unto Moses, saying, 11 Go in, speak unto Pharaoh king of Egypt, that he shall let the children of Israel go out of his land. 12 And Moses spoke before the Lord, say– ing, Behold, the children of Israel have not hearkened unto me : how then shall Pharaoh hear me, whereas I am of uncircumcisedb lips? 13 ¶ And the Lord spoke unto Moses and unto Aaron, and gave them a charge unto the children of Israel, and unto Pharaoh, the king of Egypt, to bring forth the children of Israel out of the land of Egypt.* 14 ¶ These are the heads of their family divisions : The sons of Reuben the first–bom of Israel : Chanoch, and Pal10, Chezron, and Carmi ; these are the families of Reuben. 15 And the sons of Simeon : Yemuel, and Yamin, and Ohad, and Yachin, and Zochar, and Shaul the son of the Canaanitish woman ; these are the families of Simeon. 16 And these are the names of the sons of Levi according to their generations : Gershon, and Kehath, and Merari; and the years of the life of Levi were one hundred and thirty and seven years. 17 The sons of Gershon : Libni, and Shimi, according to their families. 18 And the sons of Kehath: Amram, and Yizhar, and Chebron, and'Uzziel; and the years of the life of Kehath were one hundred and thirty and three years. 19 And the sons of Merari: Machli and Mushi; these are the families of Levi accord– ing to their generations. 20 And Amram took himself Yochebed his aunt for wife; and she bore unto him Aaronc a That is, "I did swear," as an oath is taken by the lifting up of the hand. b The word "uncircumcised," among Israelites, denotes always an imperfection; so "uncircumcised of lips" means a difficulty in speaking, "uncircumcised of heart," an im– purity of thought and a state of disobedience. Whereas "circumcised" denotes the opposite state of perfectness or purity. and Moses ; and the years of the life of Am– ram were one hundred and thirty and seven years. 21 And the sons of Yizhar: Korach, and Nepheg, and Zichri.d 22 And the sons of 'Uzziel: Mishael, and Elzaphan, and Sithri. 23 And Aaron took himself Elisheba, daughter of Amminadab, sister of Nachshon, for wife; and she bore unto him Nadab, and Abihu, Elazar, and Ithamar. 24 And the sons of Korach: Assir, and Elkanah, and Abiassaph; these are the fami– lies of the Korchites. 25 And Elazar the son of Aaron took him– self one of the daughters of Putiel for wife; and she bore unto him Phinehas:e these are the heads of the divisions of the Legates ac– cording to their families. 26 These are Aaron and Moses,f to whom the Lord said, Bring forth the children of Israel out of the land of Egypt according to their armies. 27 These are they that spoke to Pharaoh king of Egypt, to bring forth the children of Israel out of Egypt: these are Moses and Aaron. 28 And it came to pass on the day when the Lord spoke unto Moses in the land of Egypt.* 29 ¶ Then spoke the Lord unto Moses, say– ing, I am the Lord; speak thou unto Pharaoh the king of Egypt all that I speak unto thee. 30 And Moses said before the Lord, Be– hold, I am of uncircumcised lips, and how shall Pharaoh hearken unto me? CHAPTER VII. 1 ¶ And the Lord said unto Moses, See, I have made thee a god to Pharaoh ; and Aaron thy brother shall be thy prophet. 2 Thou shalt speak all that I shall com– mand thee; and Aaron thy brother shall speak unto Pharaoh, that he send away the children of Israel out of his land. 3 And I will harden the heart of Pharaoh, c Properly, "Aharon." d Eng. ver. " Zithri," which is incorrect. e Properly, " Pinechas." f This genealogy is here given merely to show the do– scent of Moses and Aaron, as they were made the special instruments of Israels redemption, or to exhibit, ¶iat among all enumerated Moses was the most deserving to fulfil this mission. [Page 73] EXODUS VII. VAAYRAH. and I will multiply my signs and my wonders in the land of Egypt. 4 And Pharaoh will not hearken unto you, and I will lay my hand upon Egypt, and bring forth my armies, my people, the chil– dren of Israel, out of the land of Egypt by means of great judgments. 5 And the Egyptians shall know that I am the Lord, when I stretch forth my hand over Egypt, and bring out the children of Israel from the midst of them. 6 And Moses and Aaron did so; as the Lord commanded them, so did they. 7 And Moses was eighty years old, and Aaron eighty and three years old, when they spoke unto Pharaoh.* 8 ¶ And the Lord said unto Moses and unto Aaron, saying, 9 If Pharaoh shall speak unto you, saying. Show a miracle for yourselves:a then shalt thou say unto Aaron, Take thy staff and cast it before Pharaoh ; it shall become a serpent. 10 And Moses and Aaron went in unto Pharaoh, and they did so, as the Lord had commanded; and Aaron cast down his staff before Pharaoh, and before his servants, and it became a serpent. 11 Then Pharaoh also called for the wise men and the sorcerers; and they also, the magicians of Egypt, did with their secret arts in like manner. 12 And they cast down every man his staff, and they became serpents; but Aaron's staff swallowed up their staffs. 13 But the heart of Pharaoh was hard, and he hearkened not unto them; as the Lord had spoken. 14 ¶ And the Lord said unto Moses, The heart of Pharaoh is obdurate, he refuseth to let the people go. 15 Get thee unto Pharaoh in the morning; lo, he goeth out unto the water; and thou shalt place thyself opposite to him by the jjriuk of the river; and the staff which was turned to a serpent shalt thou take in thy hand. 16 And thou shalt say unto him. The Eter– a It must be understood that Pharaoh had refused to listen to the demand of Moses under the plea that he knew not who was the "Eternal God" in whose name the prophet spoke. When, therefore, Moses and his brother were sent again, it was to be expected that the king would require some extraordinary attestation, as proof that they who spoke thus had a power to enforce their mission, K nal, the God of the Hebrews, hath sent me unto thee, saying. Let my people go, that they may serve me in the wilderness : and, be– hold, thou wouldest not hear, up to this time. 17 Thus saith the Lord, By this thou shalt know that I am the Lord: behold, I will smite with the staff that is in my hand upon the waters which are in the river, and they shall be turned to blood. 18 And the fish that is in the river shall die, and the river shall stink ; and the Egyp– tians shall loath to drink water from the river. 19 ¶ And the Lord said unto Moses, Say unto Aaron, Take thy staff, and stretch out thy hand over the waters of Egypt, over their streams, over their rivers, and over their ponds, and over all their pools of water, that they become blood; and there shall be blood throughout all the land of Egypt, also in ves– sels of wood, and in vessels of stone. 20 And Moses and Aaron did so, as the Lord had commanded; and he lifted up (his hand) with the staff, and smote the waters that were in the river, before the eyes of Pha– raoh, and before the eyes of his servants; and all the waters that were in the river were turned to blood. 21 And the fish that was in the river died; and the river stank, and the Egyptians could not drink water from the river ; and the blood was throughout all the land of Egypt. 22 And the magicians of Egypt did sob with their secret arts : and the heart of Phar raoh remained hardened, and he did not hearken unto them; as the Lord had spoken. 23 And Pharaoh turned away and went into his house, and he did not set his heart to this thing also. 24 And all the Egyptians dug in the neigh– bourhood of the river for water to drink ; for they could not drink of the water of the river. 25 And full seven days elapsed, after that the Lord had smitten the river.c 26 ¶ And the Lord said unto Moses, Go in unto Pharaoh, and say unto him, Thus if it were in reality the word and will of an unheard–of Deity, of superior power to the gods of Egypt. b "With the water, namely, which came from the newly dug wells;" see v. 24. — Arnheim. c The English version ends here the seventh chapter, but the Massoretic text commences chap. viii. only with the fifth verse of the common version. 73 [Page 74] EXODUS VII. VIII. VAAYRAH. saith the Lord, Let my people go, that they may serve me. 27 And if thou refuse to let them go, be– hold, I will smite all thy borders' with frogs: 28 And the river shall bring forth frogs abundantly, and they shall go up and come into thy house, and into thy sleeping–cham– ber, and upon thy bed, and into the house of thy servants, and among thy people, and into thy ovens, and into thy kneading–troughs : 29 And upon thee, and upon thy people, and upon all thy servants, shall the frogs come up. CHAPTER VIII. 1 And the Lord said unto Moses, Say unto Aaron, Stretch forth thy hand with thy staff over the streams, over the rivers, and over the ponds, and cause the frogs to come up over the land of Egypt. 2 And Aaron stretched out his hand over the waters of Egypt; and the frogs came up, and covered the land of Egypt. 3 And the magicians did so with their secret arts, and brought up the frogs over the land of Egypt. 4 Then did Pharaoh call for Moses and Aaron, and said. Entreat the Lord, that he may take away the frogs from me, and from my people; and I will let the people go, that they may sacrifice unto the Lord. 5 And Moses said unto Pharaoh, Arrogate thyselfb glory over me : for what time shall I entreat for thee, and for thy servants, and for thy people, to destroy the frogs from thee and from thy houses, that they may remaiia in the river only ? 6 And he said. For to–morrow; and he said, Be it according to thy word; in order that thou mayest know that there is none like unto the Lord our God.* 7 And the frogs shall depart from thee. a i. e., the whole country, or that part which is enclosed by the boundaries. b ¶N3n¶ the hithpael from "1X3 " to glorify," hence " to assume a glory for oneself." Moses meant to convey to Pharaoh, as a proof of his divinely delegated power, that even the fixing of a period to the plague, whether long or short, would surely bo complied with. Hence follows the conc10sion referring to the greatness of the Lord. c As the word DJ3 is only found here and in Psalm cv. 31, its true clmraetcr is not easily defined. Philippson renders it with "ants," perhaps the /ormix ni(jra. Others make it to mean " mosquito," the cuUx nptavs. Both these insects are exceedingly troublesome in Egypt. and from thy houses, and from thy servants, and from thy people; only in the river shall they remain. 8 And Moses and Aaron went out from Pharaoh ; and Moses cried unto the Lord on account of the frogs which he had inflicted on Pharaoh. 9 And the Lord did according to the word of Moses ; and the frogs died out of the houses, out of the courts, and out of the fields. 10 And they gathered them together in many heaps; and the land stank. 11 But when Pharaoh saw that there was a respite, he hardened his heart, and heark– ened not unto them ; as the Lord had spoken. 12 ¶ And the Lord said unto Moses, Say unto Aaron, Stretch out thy staff, and smite the dust of the earth, and it shall become licec throughout all the land of Egypt. 13 And they did so; and Aaron stretched out his hand with his staff, and smote the dust of the earth, and the lice were thus on man, and on beast; all the dust of the land became lice throughout all the land of Egypt. 14 And the magicians did so with their secret arts to bring forth the lice, but they could not; so were the lice upon man and upon beast. 15 Then said the magicians unto Pharaoh, This is a finger of God ; but Pharaoh's heart remained hardened, and he hearkened not unto them; as the Lord had spoken. 16 ¶ And the Lord said unto Moses, Rise up early in the morning, and place thyself before Pharaoh; lo, he goeth forth to the water; and say unto him, Thus saith the Lord, Let my people go, that they may serve me. 17 For if thou wilt not let my people go, behold, I will send against thee, and against thy servants, and against thy people, and in– to thy houses variousd wild beasts: and the d The ancient Jewish commentators render any 'Arohf, only found here and in Psalms, as derived from the verb signifying "to mingle," &c., a mixture of rwenous beasts, serpents, and scorpions. Kashbam makes it derived from 3li' 'Arcb " evening," hence " the night–wolf," jackall. — Philippson renders it with " bee¶e," referring to the biatta jEijyptiaca, which is at times dangerous to human life. (He quotes " De Katte's Journey to Abyssiania," p. 143.) The English version "swarms of flies" needs no refutation, as the whole context shows it to be incorrect. See especially farther down, verse 20. [Page 75] EXODUS VIII. IX. VAAYRAII. houses of the Egyptians shall be full of the wild beasts, and also the ground whereon they dwell. 18 And I will distinguish on that day the land of Goshen, in which my people abideth, so that no wild beasts shall be there ; to the end thou mayest know that I am the Lord in the midst of the earth."a * 19 And I will put a distinction between my people and thy people; toÓmorrow shall this sign be. 20 And the Lord did so; and there came a grievous multitude of beasts into the house of Pharaoh, and into the house of his servants; and in all the land of Egypt, the land was laid waste by reason of the wild beasts. 21 And Pharaoh called for Moses and for Aaron, and said. Go ye, sacrifice to your God in the land. 22 And Moses said. It is not proper to do so ; for the abomination of the Egyptians must we sacrifice to the Eternal our God : lo, if we should sacrifice the abomination of the EgypÓ tians before their eyes, would they not stone us ? 23 A three days' journey will we go into the wilderness, and sacrifice to the Lord our God, just as he may say unto us. 24 And Pharaoh said, I will surely let you go, that ye may sacrifice to the Eternal your God in the wilderness; only do not go very far away : entreat for me. 25 And Moses said, Behold, I am going out from thee, and I will entreat the Lord, and the mid beasts shall depart from Pharaoh, 1 from his servants, and from his people, to– morrow ; only let not Pharaoh deal deceitfully any more, so as not to let the people go to sacrifice to the Lord. 26 And Moses went out from Pharaoh, and entreated the Lord. 27 And the Lord did according to the word of Moses; and he removed the wild beasts from Pharaoh, from his servants, and from his people ; there remained not one. 28 But Pharaoh hardened his heart at this time also, and he did not let the people go. CHAPTER IX. 1 ¶ And the Lord said unto Moses, Go in a Land." — Arnheim. b After Rashi, who renders j¶t? with niD'Dn "heat;" unto Pharaoh, and speak to him, Thus saith the Eternal, the God of the Hebrews, Let my people go, that they may serve me. 2 For if thou refusest to let them go, and still boldest on to them, 3 Behold, the hand of the Lord will be sent against thy cattle which is in the field, against the horses, against the asses, against the camels, against the oxen, and against the sheep ; — a very grievous pestilence. 4 And the Lord will distinguish between the cattle of Israel and the cattle of Egypt ; and not one head shall die of all that belong– eth to the children of Israel. 5 And the Lord appointed a set time, say– ing, To–morrow will the Lord do this thing in the land. 6 And the Lord did this thing on the morrow, and all the cattle of Egypt died ; but of the cattle of the children of Israel there died not one. 7 And Pharaoh sent, and, behold, there had not died of the cattle of the Israelites even one ; but the heart of Pharaoh remained hardened, and he did not let the people go. 8 ¶And the Lord said unto Moses and unto Aaron, Take unto yourselves your hands full of soot of the funitice, and let Moses throw it heavenward before the eyes of Pharaoh. 9 And it shall become small dust over all the land of Egypt, and shall become upon man and beast an inflammation,b producing boils, throughout all the land of Egypt. 10 And they took the soot of the furnace, and stood before Pharaoh ; and Moses threw it up heavenward ; and it became an inflam– mation, producing boils, upon man, and upon beast. 11 And the magicians could not stand be– fore Moses because of the inflammation ; for the inflammation was upon the magicians, and upon all the Egyptians. 12 And the Lord hardened the heart of Pharaoh, and he hearkened not unto them; as the Lord had spoken unto Moses. 13 Tf And the Lord said unto Moses, Rise up early in the morning, and place thyself before Pharaoh, and say unto him, Thus saith the Eternal, the God of the Hebrews, Let my people go, that they may serve me. "a red swelling in the skin," which speedily produced boils. 75 [Page 76] EXODUS IX. X. BO. 14 For at this time I send alla my plagues against thy heart, and against thy servants, and against thy people; in order that thou mayest know that there is none like me on all the earth. 15 For even now I might have stretched out my hand, and I might have smitten thee and thy people with the pestilence ; and thou wouldest have been cut off from the earth ; 16 But for this cause have I allowed thee to remain, in order to show thee my power; and in order that they may proclaim my name throughout all the earth.* 17 If thou dost yet wantonly oppress my people, so as not to let them go : 18 Behold, then will I let rain, about this time to–morrow, a very grievous hail, such as hath not been in Egypt since the day of its foundation even until now. 19 And now send, and bring under shelter thy cattle, and all that thou hast in the field ; (for) every man and beast that shall be found in the field, and shall not be brought into the house, upon them shall the hail come down, and they shall die. 20 He that feared the word of the Lord among the servants of Pharaoh made his servants and his cattle flee into the houses : 21 And he that regarded not the word of the Lord left his servants and his cattle in the field. 22 ¶ And the Lord said unto Moses, Stretch forth thy hand toward heaven, and there shall be hail in all the land of Egypt, upon man, and upon beast, and upon every herb of the field, in the land of Egypt. 23 And Moses stretched forth his staff to– ward heaven ; and the Lord sent thunder and hail, and the fire ran down to the ground; and the Lord rained hail upon the land of Egypt. 24 And there was hail, and fire was flam– ing up amidst the hail, very grievous, the like of which had not been in all the land of Egypt, since it had become a nation. 25 And the hail smote throughout all the land of Egypt all that was in the field, both a " All my remaining plagues," Arnheim, who refers to a similar construction in Exodus xxix. 12, where Din So ''all the blood" relates to that which was loft after the sprinkling spoken of in the beginning of the verse. b At first when Closes spoke in the name of the new Deity, "The Eternal, the God of the Hebrews," Pharaoh did not recognise Him; but now under the weight of 76 man and beast; and every herb of the field did the hail smite, and every tree of the field did it break. 26 Only in the land of Goshen, where the children of Israel were, there was no hail. 27 And Pharaoh sent, and called for Moses and Aaron, and he said unto them, I have sinned this time ; the Eternal is the righte– eous,b and I and my people are the wicked. 28 Entreat the Lord that there may be no more of the thunders of God, and hail ; and I will let you go, and ye shall no longer stay here. 29 And Moses said unto him, As soon as I am gone out of the city, I will spread out my hands unto the Lord; the thunder shall cease, and the hail shall not be any more ; in order that thou mayest know how that to the Lord belongeth the earth. 30 But as for thee and thy servants, I know that ye are not yet afraid before the Lord God. 31 And the flax and the barley were smit– ten ; for the barley was in the ear, and the flax was boiled. 32 But the wheat and the millet were not smitten ; for they are late–ripening.* 33 And Moses went away from Pharaoh out of the city, and spread out his hands unto the Lord: and the thunders and hail ceased, and the rain was not poured out upon the earth. 34 And when Pharaoh saw that the rain and the hail and the thunders had ceased, he sinned yet further, and hardened his heart, he and his servants. 35 And the heart of Pharaoh remained hardened, and he did not let the children of Israel go; as the Lord had spoken by the hand of Moses. Haphtorah in Ezekiel xxviii. 25 to xxix. 21. SECTION XV. BO, N3. CHAPTER X. 1 ¶ And the Lord said unto Moses, Go in unto Pharaoh ; for I have hardened his heart, and the heart of his servants, in order that I affliction, he acknowledged Him, his justice, and his own wickedness and the sins of the Egyptians ; hence also, not pnx " righteous," but the emphatic p'lxn " the right– eous," i. e., in the contest then going on, God was the party who had justice on his side, whilst Pharaoh and his people were those in the wrong. For the meaning of the word ypi in this sense, see above, ii. 13. [Page 77] EXODUS X. BO. might display these signs in the midst of them :a 2 And so that thou mayest tell in the ears of thy son, and of thy son's son, the wonders which I have wroughtb in Egypt, and my signs which I have shown among them; and ye shall know how that I am the Lord. 3 And Moses and Aaron came in unto Pharaoh, and said unto him, Thus saith the Eternal, the God of the Hebrews, How long yet wilt thou refuse to humble thyself before me ? let my people go, that they may serve me. 4 For, if thou refusest to let my people go, behold, I will bring to–morrow locusts into thy boundary. 5 And they shall cover the face" of the earth, so that one shall not be able to see the earth; and they shall eat the residue of that which escaped, which hath been left unto you from the hail, and they shall eat off every tree which groweth for you out of the field: 6 And thy houses, and the houses of all thy servants, and the houses of all the Egyp– tians shall be full of them ; the like of which neither thy fathers, nor thy fathers' fathers have seen, since the day of their being upon the earth, unto this day; and he turned him– self, and went out from Pharaoh. 7 And the servants of Pharaoh said unto him, How long shall this man be unto us for a snare ? let the men go, that they may serve the Lord their God: knowest thou not yet that Egypt is destroyed ? 8 And Moses was brought back with Aaron unto Pharaoh ; and he said unto them, Go ye, serve the Lord your God ; who all are they that shall go? 9 And Moses said, With our young and with our old will we go; with our sons and with our daughters, with our flocks and with our herds will we go; for we are to hold a feast unto the Lord. 10 And he said unto them. So be the Lord with you, as I will let you go, together with a Heb. "Of him," Pharaoh the king standing for the whole people. b After Onkelos. Arnheim renders, " how I have proved myself working miracles." c yp (eye) here rendered " face" should be given with " the view," or " colour ;" but the sense is after all the same. d " Look, for the wrong you purpose to do is before your little ones : look, surely your intentions are evil.d 11 Not so ; go now ye men,c and serve the Lord, for ¶iis you desire; and they were driven out from Pharaoh's presence.* 12 ¶ And the Lord said unto Moses, Stretch out thy hand over the land of Egypt for the locusts, and they shall come up over the land of Egypt, and eat every herb of the earth, all that the hail hath left. 13 And Moses stretched forth his staff over the land of Egypt, and the Lord urged an east wind over the land all that day, and all the night; when it was morning, the east wnd bore along the locusts. 14 And the locusts went up over all the land of Egypt, and rested in all the bounda– ries of Egypt; in very large masses; before them there were no such locusts as they, and after them there will not be any such. 15 And they covered the face of the whole earth, so that the earth was darkened; and they ate every herb of the land, and all the fruit of the trees which the hail had left : and there was not left any green thing on the trees, or on the herbs of the field, throughout all the land of Egypt. 16 Then made Pharaoh haste to call for Moses and Aaron ; and he said, I have sinned against the Lord your God, and against you. 17 And now forgive, I pray thee, my sin only this once, and entreat the Lord yoiu– God, that he may take away from me only this death. 18 And he went out from Pharaoh, and entreated the Lord. 19 And the Lord turned a very strong west wind, which bore away the locusts, and cast them into the Red Sea; there was not left one locust in all the boundary of Egypt. 20 But the Lord hardened Pharaoh's heart, so that he did not let the children of Israel go. 21 ¶ And the Lord said unto Moses, Stretch out thy hand toward heaven, and there shall your face to testify against you." — Onkelos. Literally it is thus : "See, for evil is before your face." c It is evident that Pharaoh in temporizing with Mosos about the dismissal of the Lsraelitcs, had all along the idea of letting them go but a short distance, after which they should return ; hence he werred that the children were of no use for such an expedition, and he therefore desired to retain them, as hostages for the return of the fathers. 77 [Page 78] EXODUS X. XI XII. BO. be darkness over the land of Egypt, and it shall be a darkness of the night.a 22 And Moses stretched forth his hand to– ward heaven ; and there was a thick darkness in all the land of Egypt three days: 23 They saw not one another, neither did they rise, any one from his place, for three days; but for all the children of Israel there was light in their dwellings.* 24 And Pharaoh called for Moses, and said, Go ye, serve the Lord ; only your flocks and your herds shall remain behind: also your little ones may go with you. 25 And Moses said, Even thou also must give into our hand sacrifices and burnt–off– ings, that we may sacrifice (them) unto the Eternal, our God. 26 And also our cattle must go with us, there shall not be left behind a single hoof, for thereof must we take to serve the Lord our God; and we cannot know with what we must serve the Lord, until we come thither. 27 But the Lord hardened Pharaoh's heart, and he would not let them go. 28 And Pharaoh said unto him. Get thee away from me; take heed to thyself, see my face no more ; for on the day thou seest my face thou shalt die. 29 And Moses said. Thou hast spoken well, I will not see thy face agam any more. CHAPTER XI. 1 ¶ And the Lord said unto Moses, Yet one plague more will I bring upon Pharaoh, and upon Egypt; after that he will let you go hence : when he doth let you go, he shall surely thrust you out altogether from here. 2 Speak now in the ears of the people, and let them ask every man of his neighbour, and every woman of her neighbour, vessels of silver, and vessels of gold. 3 And the Lord gave the people favour in the eyes of the Egyptians; also the man Mosesb was very great in the land of Egypt, a According to Rashi, who renders v/o"\ as b¶ds'i and explains " there shall come over them a darkness thicker than that of the night, and the darkness of the night shall continue into the following days." From emesh, "yesterday;" hence to remain over from the yesterday. b Although above, chap. x. 7, the servants of Pharaoh called Moses "the snare" of Egypt, they could not avoid iionouring the man who wa,s so signally favoured by the (iod of Israel, whose power they had felt. 78 in the eyes of Pharaoh's servants, and in the eyes of the people.* 4 ¶ And Moses said, Thus saith the Lord, About midnight will I go out in the midst of Egypt: 5 And there shall die every first–born in the land of Egypt, from the first–bom of Pha– raoh that isc to sit upon his throne, even unto the first–born of the maid–servant that is te– hmd the mill ; and every first¶tona of cattle. 6 And there shall be a great cry through– out all the land of Egypt, the like of which hath never been, and the like of which will not be any more. 7 But against any of the children of Israel not a dog shall moved his tongue, neither against man nor beast; in order that ye may know how that the Lord doth distinguish be– tween the Egyptians and Israel. 8 And all these thy servants shall come down unto me, and bow themselves down unto me, saying, Get thee out, and all the people that followeth thee;e and after that I will go out: and he went out from Pharaoh in a burning anger. 9 ¶ And the Lord said unto Moses, Pha– raoh will not hearken unto you ; in order that my wonders may be multiplied in the land of Egypt. 10 And Moses and Aaron did all these wonders before Pharaoh; and the Lord har– dened Pharaoh's heart, and he did not let the children of Israel go out of his land. CHAPTER XII. 1 ¶ And the Lord spoke unto Moses and Aaron in the land of Egypt, saying, 2 This month shall be unto you the chief of months : the first it shall be unto you of the months of the year. 3 Speak ye unto all the congregation of Israel, saying, On the tenth day of this month they shall take to themselves every man a lamb for every family,f a lamb for every house : e " Who in future is to sit upon the throne of his king– dom." — Onkelos. f Heb. "sharpen," "point," indic.itive of the motion and appearance of the dog's tongue in barking. g Heb. "That is at thy feet," meaning, that follows where the prophet leads. h i. e. A family divided in several households. Hebrew, "house of father," or those springing from one an– cefltorj 3K n'3 is a subdivision of nnflB¶rD, "main family," [Page 79] EXODUS XII. BO. 4 And if the household be too small for a lamb, then shall he take it with his neigh– bour who is next unto his house, according to the number of the souls; every man accord– ing to what he eateth shall ye make a count for the lamb. 5 A lamb without blemish, a male of the first year shall ye have; from the sheep, or from the goats may ye take it. 6 And ye shall have it in keeping until the fourteenth day of the same month; and then the whole assembly of the congregation of Israel shall kill it toward evening.a 7 And they shall take of the blood, and put it on the two side–posts and on the upper– door–post, in the houses, wherein they shall eat it. 8 And they shall eat the flesh in that night, roasted by the fire, with unleavened bread; together with bitter herbs shall they eat it. 9 You shall not eat of it raw, nor in any Avise sodden with water; but roasted by the fire; its head with its legs, and with its en– trails.b 10 And ye shall not let any thing of it re– main until morning; and that which remain– eth of it until morning ye shall burn with fire. 11 And thus shall ye eat it, with your loins girded, your shoes on your feet, and your staff in your hand ; and ye shall eat it in haste, it is passover unto the Lord. 12 And I will pass through the land of Egypt in this night, and I will smite every first–born in the land of Egypt, both man and beast; and against all the gods of Egypt I will execute judgment; I am the Lord.c 13 And the blood shall be to you for a token upon the houses where ye are; and when I see the blood, I will pass over you; in the same manner as this is in regard to Q2\i>, " tribe." n'3, "the household," or family in the narrow sense it often has in English, is the smallest division. Several households could thus unite to celebrate the Passover in one domicile. This note must suffice to explain any vari– ation in the version of the same words in the original text, should any such occur hereafter. a Heb. "Between the two evenings," i. e. between the time the sun begins to decline tiU sunset, or " the after– noon," from the third hour, or the ninth after the Jewish mode of computing time. This was the practice in the Temple. b After being washed as usual with sacrifices. (See Exod. xxix. 17.) and there shall be no plague against you to destroy when I smite (others) in the land of Egypt. 14 And this day shall be unto you for a memorial ; and ye shall celebrate it as a feast unto the Lord; throughout your generations, as an ordinance for ever shall ye celebrate it. 15 Seven days shall ye eat unleavened bread ; but on the first day ye shall have put away leaven out of your houses ; for whoso– ever eateth leavened bread, that soul shall be cut off from Israel, from the first day until the seventh day. 16 And on the first day thei'e shall be a holy convocation, and on the seventh day there shall be a holy convocation to you ; no manner of work shall be done on thern, swe what is eaten by every man, that only may be prepared by you. 17 And ye shall observe the unleavened bread ; for on this selfsame day have I brought forth your armies out of the land of Egypt; therefore shall ye observe this day in youc generations as an ordinance for ever. 18 In the first month, on the fourteenth day of the month, at evening, ye shall eat un– leavened bread, until the one and twentieth day of the month at evening. 19 Seven days no leaven shall be found in your houses; for whosoever eateth that which is leavened, even that soul shall be cut oft' from the congregation of Israel, whether he be a stranger, or one bom in the land. 20 Nothing that is leavened shall ye eat; in all your habitations shall ye eat unleavened bread.* 21 ¶ And Moses called for all the elders of Israel, and said unto them. Draw out and take for yourselves lambs according to your families, and kill the passover sacrifice. 22 And ye shall take a bunch of hyssop, c This verse is well explained thus, " I am the Lord," I myself will do this, and not through a messenger.' It must not be lost sight of that the punishment of the Egyptians and the redemption of the Israelites were to be as lessons, to both the parties afiected thereby, of the greatness and irresistible power of the Lord; hence the slaying of the first–born was effected without the media– torial agency of Moses even as in the other plagues; and as Pharaoh and his wise men relied upon the power of their idols, these too were overthrown in the night of the deliverance of Israel, by Israel's God. "Judgment" stands for "judicial decrees," or punishment. [Page 80] EXODUS XII. BO. and dip in the blood that is in the basin, and strike the lintel and the two side–posts with the blood that is in the basin ; and none of you shall go out from the door of his house until the morning. 23 And the Lord will pass through to smitea the Egyptians ; and when he seeth the blood upon the lintel, and on the two side– posts, the Lord will pass over the door, and will not suffer the destroyer to come in unto, your houses to smite. 24 And ye shall observe this thing, as an ordinance for thee and for thy sons for ever. 25 And it shall come to pass, when ye be come into the land which the Lord will give you, according as he hath promised, that ye shall keep this service. 26 And it shall come to pass, when your children shall say unto you. What mean ye by this service? 27 That ye shall say, It is the sacrifice of the passover unto the Lord, who passed over the houses of the children of Israel in Egypt, when he smote the Egyptians, and our houses he spared ; and the people bent the head and bowed themselves. 28 And the children of Israel went away, and did as the Lord had commanded Moses and Aaron, so did they.* 29 ¶ And it came to pass at midnight, that the Lord smote all the first–born in the land of Egypt, from the first–born of Pharaoh that was to sit on his throne unto the first– born of the captive that was in the dungeon; and all the first–born of cattle. 30 And Pharaoh rose up in the night, he, and all his servants, and all the Egyptians; and there was a great cry in Egypt ; for there was not a house where there was not some one dead. 31 And he called for Moses and Aaron by night, and said. Rise up, get you forth from among my people, both ye and the children of Israel; and go, serve the Eternal, as ye have spoken.b 32 Also your flocks and your herds take, as ye have spoken, and be gone; and bless me also. 33 And the Egyptians were urgent upon a IJjS literally " to plague." b "Let all be as ye have spoken, even the cattle ye asked of me for sacrifices take, and only pray for me, for I too am first–born." — Rashi. 80 the people, to make haste to send them away out of the land; for they said, We are all dying. 34 And the people took their dough before it was yet leavened, their kneading–troughs being bound up in their clothes upon their shoulders. 35 And the children of Israel had done ac– cording to the word of Moses ; and they had asked of the Egyptians vessels of silver, and vessels of gold, and garments. 36 And the Lord had given the people favour in the eyes of the Egyptians, so that they gave unto them what they required; and they emptied out Egypt. 37 ¶ And the children of Israel journeyed from Ra'meses to Succoth, about six hundred thousand men on foot, besides children. 38 And a mixed multitude also went up with them; and flocks, and herds, a very large amount of cattle. 39 And they baked of the dough, which they had brought forth out of Egypt, un– levened cakes, for it was not levened; be– cause they were thrust out of Egypt, and could not tarry, neither had they prepared any provisions for themselves. 40 Now the time of the residence of the children of Israel, which they dwelt in Egypt, was four hundred and thirty years. 41 And it came to pass at the end of the four hundred and thirty years, and it happened even on the selfsame day, that all the hosts of the Lord went out from the land of Egypt. 42 A night to be observedc was this unto the Lord to bring them out from the land of Egypt : this is that night holy to the Lord, to be observed by all the children of Israel in their generations. 43 ¶ And the Lord said unto Moses and Aaron, This is the ordinance of the passover : no stranger shall eat thereof 44 But every man's servant that is bought for money, when thou hast circumcised him, then shall he eat thereof. 45 A resident foreigner and a hired ser– vant shall not eat thereof. 46 In one house shall it be eaten; thou shalt not carry forth aught of the flesh abroad c "Which the Lord watched and looked for to fulfil his promise to bring them out of the land of Egypt," R.\sin; others–explain, " In which he watched over the Israelites to preserve thorn s;ife amidst the plague." [Page 81] EXODUS XII. Xm. BESHALLACH. out of the house ; and no bone shall ye break in it. 47 All the congregation of Israel shall pre– pare it. 48 And when a stranger sojourneth with thee, and will prepare the passover to the Lord, let all his males be circumcised, and then let him come near and prepare it, and he shall be as one that is born in the land; but no uncircumcised persona shall eat thereof. 49 One law shall be to him that is home– born, and unto the stranger that sojourneth among you. 50 And all the children of Israel did so ; as the Lord had commanded Moses and Aaron, so did they. 51 ¶ And it came to pass on the selfsame day, that the Lord did bring forth the children of Israel out of the land of Egypt by their armies.* CHAPTER XIII. 1 ¶ And the Lord spoke unto Moses, saying, 2 Sanctify unto me all the first–born, what– soever openeth the womb among the children of Israel, both of man and of beast; it is mine. 3 And Moses said unto the people, Re– member this day, on which ye came out from Egypt, out of the house of bondage; for by strength of hand the Lord brought you out from here: and no levened bread shall be eaten 4 This day come ye out, in the month of Abib.b 5 And it shall be, when the Lord doth bring thee into the land of the Canaanites, and the Hittites, and the Emorites, and the Hivites, and the Jebusites, which he hath sworn unto thy fathers to give unto thee, a land flowing with milk and honey, that thou shalt perform this service in this month. 6 Seven days shalt thou eat unleavened bread, and on the seventh day shall be a feast to the Lord. 7 Unleavened bread shall be eaten these seven days; and there shall not be seen with thee any leavened bread, neither shall there be seen with thee any leaven in all thy boun– daries. 8 And thou shalt tell thy son on that day. a This inc10des even an uncircumcised Israelite. saying, This is done for the sake of that which the Lord did unto me when I came forth out of Egypt. 9 And it shall be unto thee for a sign upon thy hand, and for a memorial between thy eyes, in order that the law of the Lord may be in thy mouth; for with a strong hand hath the Lord brought thee forth out of Egypt. 10 And thou shalt keep this ordinance in its season, from year to year. 11 ¶ And it shall be when the Lord doth bring thee into the land of the Canaanites, as he hath sworn unto thee and to thy fathers, and giveth it to thee, 12 That thou shalt set apart all that open– eth the womb unto the Lord ; and every first– ling that cometh of a beast which thou shalt have, the males shall belong to the Lord. 13 And every firs¶ing of an ass shalt thou redeem with a lamb ; and if thou wilt not re– deem it, then shalt thou break its neck : and all the first–born of man among thy children shalt thou redeem.* 14 And it shall be when thy son asketh thee in time to come, saying. What is this? that thou shalt say unto him, By strength of hand the Lord brought us forth out of Egypt, out of the house of bondage ; 15 And it came to pass, when Pharaoh obstinately refused to let us go, that the Lord slew all the first–born in the land of Egypt, both the first–born of man, and the first–born of beast; therefore do I sacrifice to the Lord all that openeth the womb, being males ; but all the first–born of my children must I re– deem. 16 And it shall be for a sign upon thy hand, and for frontlets between thy eyes; that by strength of hand the Lord brought us forth out of Egypt. Haphtorah in Jeremiah xlvi. 13 to 27. SECTION XVI. BESHALLACH, rhc'2. 17 ¶ And it came to pass, when Pharaoh let the people go, that God did not lead them the way through the land of the Philistines, be– cause it was near; for God said, Lest perad– venture the people repent when they see war, and return to Egypt. 18 But God led the people about, by the The month in which the grain ripens in Egypt. 81 [Page 82] EXODUS XIII. XIV. BESHALLACH. way of the wilderness to the Red sea: and the children of Israel went up armed out of the land of Egypt. 19 And Moses took the bones of Joseph with him; for he had caused the children of Israel to swear, saying, God will surely visit you, and ye shall then carry up my bones away hence with you. 20 And they took their journey from Suc– coth, and encamped in Etham, at the edge of the wilderness. 21 And the Lord went before them by day in a pillar of cloud, to lead them the way ; and by night in a pillar of fire, to give light to them ; that they might go by day and by night : 22 He took not away the pillar of cloud by day, nor the pillar of fire by night, from before the people. CHAPTER XIV 1 ¶ And the Lord spoke unto Moses, say– ing, 2 Speak unto the children of Israel, that they turn back and encamp before Pi–hachi– roth, between Migdol and the sea; in front of Baal–zephon ; opposite to this shall ye en– camp by the sea. 3 And Pharaoh will say of the children of Israel, They are entangled in the land, the wilderness hath shuta them in. 4 And I will harden the heart of Pharaoh, that he shall follow after them ; and I will be honoured on Pharaoh, and on all his host; and the Egyptians shall know that I am the Lord; and they did so. 5 And it was told to the king of Egypt that the people had fled;b and the heart of Pharaoh and of his servants was changedc with respect to the people, and they said. What is this which we have done, that we have let Israel go from serving us? 6 And he made ready his chariot, and took his people with him. a Philippson trafislatcs, "The wilderness is closed against them," meaning, that they had not entered the pro– per district to effect their escape, but were roaming about at random without plan or concert. Philippson contends that his version is correct, because they had not yet entered the wilderness. The word "entangled" used here must be taken in the sense of "they had lost their way," near the sea–shore, without the possibility of an egress. b "Was roaming about." — Philippson. c "Turned against." — English version. 7 And he took six hundred chosen chariots, and all the chariots of Egypt, and captainsd over every one of them. 8 And the Lord hardened the heart of Pharaoh, the king of Egypt, and he pursued after the children of Israel ; and the children of Israel went out with a high hand.* 9 And the Egyptians pursued after them, and they overtook them encamping by the sea, all the horses and chariots of Pharaoh, and his horsemen, and his army, besides Pi– hachiroth, before Baal–zephon. 10 And when Pharaoh drew nigh, the chil– dren of Israel lifted up their eyes, and be– hold, the Egyptians were marching after them, and they were greatly afraid; and the children of Israel cried out unto the Lord. 11 And they said unto Moses, Is it because there were no graves in Egypt, that thou hast taken us away to die in the wilderness? what is this which thou hast done to us, to bring us forth out of Egypt ? 12 Is not this the word that we spoke unto thee in Egypt, saying, Let us alone, that we may serve the Egyptians? for it is better for us to serve the Egyptians than that we should die in the wilderness. 13 And Moses said unto the people. Fear ye not, stand still, and see the salvatione of the Lord, which he will do for you to–day; for as yef have seen the Egyptians to–day, ye shall not see them again any more for ever. 14 The Lord will fight for you, and ye shall hold your peace.* 15 ¶ And the Lord said unto Moses, Wherefore criest thou unto me? speak unto the children of Israel, that they go forward ; 16 But do thou lift up thy staff, and stretch out thy hand over the sea, and divide it; and the children of Israel shall go through the midst of the sea on dry ground. 17 And I, behold, I will harden the heart of the Egyptians, and they shall follow them : and I will get myself honour on Pharaoh, d "Those that fought in chariots upon all," Arnheim; who translates v¶hlff, i¶tahlish, always in the same man– ner. e " Deliverance," Onkelos. "Assistance," Mendels– sohn, and others. f The word ivn has been rendered, after Onkelos, as though it were IB'NO, "in the manner that;" iu this sense the prophecy has been literally fulfilled, which would not be, if we render it, "the Egyptians whom ye see;" though Arnheim and others translate in the last manner. [Page 83] EXODUS XIV. XV. BESHALLACH. ane on all his host, on his chariots, and on his horsemen. 18 And the Egyptians shall know that I am the Lord, when I have got myself honour on Pharaoh, on his chariots, and on his horse– men. 19 And the angel of God, that went before the camp of Israel, removed and went behind them ; and the pillar of cloud removed from before them, and stood behind them : 20 And it came between the camp of the Egyptians and the camp of Israel ; and it was a cloud and darkness to the first, but it gave light by night to these : and the one came not near unto the other all the night. 21 And Moses stretched out his hand over the sea; and the Lord drove back the sea with a strong east wind all that night, and made the sea dry land, and the waters were divided. 22 And the children of Israel went into the midst of the sea upon the dry ground : and the waters were a wall unto them on their right hand, and on their left. 23 And the Egyptians pursued, and went in after them, all Pharaoh's horses, his chari– ots, and his horsemen, to the midst of the sea. 24 And it came to pass in the morning watch, that the Lord looked unto the camp of the Egyptians with the pillar of fire and of the cloud, and brought into confusion the camp of the Egyptians ; 25 And he took off the wheels of their chariots, and caused them to move onward with difficulty; and the Egyptians said. Let us flee from the face of Israel ; for the Lord fighteth for them against the Egyptians.* 26 ¶ And the Lord said unto Moses, Stretch out thy hand over the sea, and the waters shall return over the Egyptians, over their chariots, and over their horsemen. 27 And Moses stretched forth his hand over the sea, and the sea returned, when the morning appeared, to its strength; while the Egyptians were fleeing against it; and the Lord overthrew the Egyptians in the midst of the sea. 28 And the waters returned, and covered the chariots, and the horsemen with all the host of Pharaoh that came after them into the sea : there remained of them not even one. 29 But the children of Israel walked upon dry ground in the midst of the sea; and the waters were unto them a wall on their right hand, and on their left. 30 Thus the Lord swed Israel on that day out of the hand of the Egyptians ; and Israel saw the Egyptians dead upon the shore of the sea. 31 And Israel saw that great power which the Lord had shown on the Egyptians : and the people feared the Lord, and they believed in the Lord, and in Moses his servant. CHAPTER XV. 1 ¶ Then sang Moses and the children of Israel this song unto the Lord, and thus did they say, I will sing unto the Lord, for he hath triumphed gloriously : the horse and his rider hath he thrown into the sea. 2 My strength and song is the Lord, and he is become my salvation: he is my God, and I will declare his praise,a the God of my father, and I will exalt him. 3 The Eternal is the lord of war; the Eter– nal is his name. 4 The chariots of Pharaoh and his host hath he huiied into the sea ; and the chosen of his captains are sunk in the Red Sea. 5 The depths have covered them; they went down to the bottom as a stone. 6 Thy right hand, Lord, is become glori– ous in power ; thy right hand, liORD, hath dashed in pieces the enemy. 7 And in the greatness of thy excellency hast thou overthrown those that rose up against thee ; thou didst send forth thy wrath, it consumed them as stubble. 8 And with the breath of thy nostrils the waters were heaped up together, the floods stood upright as a wall ; congealed were the depths in the heart of the sea. 9 The enemy said, I mil pursue, I will overtake, I will divide the spoil; my desire shall be satisfied upon them; I will draw my sword, my hand shall destroy them. 10 Thou didst blow with thy wuid, the sea covered them : they sunk as lead in mighty waters. 11 Who is like unto thee, Lord, among the mighty? who is like thee, glorious in holiness, fearful in praises, doing wonders ? 12 Thou didst stretch out thy right hand, the earth swallowed them. 13 Thou leadest forth in thy mercy the a Others translate, " I will build him a habitation." 83 [Page 84] EXODUS XV. XVI. BESHALLACH. people thou hast redeemed; thou guidest it in thy strength unto the habitation of thy holiness. 14 Nations hear it and tremble: sorrow seizeth the inhabitants of Palestine. 15 Then were troubled the dukes of Edom; the mighty men of Moab, trembling seizeth them ; faint–hearteda become all the inhabit– ants of Canaan. 16 Fear and dread shall fall upon them ; by the greatness of thy arm they shall be still as a stone ; till thy people pass over, O Lord, till this people pass over, which thou hast purchased. 17 Thou shalt bring them, and plant them on the mountain of thy inheritance, the place, Lord, which thou hast wrought for thy resi– dence, the sanctuary, Lord, which thy hands have established. 18 The Lord shall reign for ever and ever. 19 For the horse of Pharaoh went in with his chariots and with his horsemen into the sea, and the Lord brought again upon them the waters of the sea; but the children of Israel went on dry ground through the midst of the sea. 20 ¶ Then took Miriam the prophetess, the sister of Aaron, a timbrel in her hand ; and all the women went out after her with timbrels and with dances. 21 And Miriam began her song to them, Sing ye to the Lord, for he hath triumphed gloriously; the horse and his rider hath he thrown into the sea. 22 ¶ And Moses caused Israel to depart from the Red Sea, and they went out into the wilderness of Shur ; and they went three days in the wilderness, and found no water. 23 And they came to Marah; but they could not drink the waters of Marah, for they were bitter; therefore they called its name Marah.b 24 And the people murmured against Moses, saying, What shall we drink ? 25 And he cried unto the Lord; and the Lord showed him a tree, which he cast into the waters, and the waters were made sweet : there he made for them a statute and an ordi– nance, and there he proved them, 26 And he said, If thou wilt diligently a Lit. " They are melted," i. e. from fear. b Marah signifies " bitter." The throwing in of a tree in the water, to cure it, was another evidence of the power 84 hearken to the voice of the Lord thy God, and wilt do that which is right in his eyes, and wilt give ear to his commandments, and wilt keep all his statutes, I will put none of those diseases upon thee, which I have brought upon the Egytians; for I the Lord am thy physician.* 27 ¶ And they came to Elim, and there were twelve wells of water, and seventy palm–trees : and they encamped there by the water. CHAPTER XVI. 1 And they took their journey from Elim, and all the congregation of the children of Israel came unto the wilderness of Sin, which is between Elim and Sinai, on the fifteenth day of the second month after their departing out of the land of Egypt. 2 And the whole congregation of the chil– dren of Israel murmured against Moses and Aaron in the wilderness : 3 And the children of Israel said unto them. Would to God that we had died by the hand of the Lord in the land of Egypt, when we sat by the flesh–pot, when we ate bread to the full ; for ye have brought us forth into this wilderness, to kill this whole assembly with hunger. 4 ¶ Then said the Lord unto Moses, Behold, , I will let rain for you bread from heaven; and the people shall go out and gather a cer– tain portion every day, in order that I may prove it, whether it will walk in my law, or not. 5 And it shall come to pass, on the sixth day, when they prepare what they shall have brought in, that it shall be twice as much as they shall gather daily. 6 And Moses and Aaron said unto all the children of Israel, At evening, then shall ye know that it is the Lord who hath brought you out from the land of Egypt : 7 And in the morning, then shall ye see the glory of the Lord; since he heareth your murmurings against the Lord; and what are we, that ye murmur against us ? 8 And Moses said, When the Lord giveth you in the evening flesh to eat, and bread in the morning to the full; since the Lord hear– eth your murmurings which yc murmur of God to produce an effect with means by no means ade– quate ; not that there was any special power in the wood itself [Page 85] EXODUS XVI. BESHALLACH. against him: — what are we then? not against us are your murmurings, but against the Lord. 9 And Moses said unto Aaron, Say unto all the congregation of the children of Israel, Come near before the Lord ; for he hath heard your murmurings. 10 And it came to pass, as Aaron was speaking unto the whole congregation of the children of Israel, that they turned round to– ward the wilderness, and, behold, the glory of the Lord appeared in the cloud.* 11 ¶ And the Lord spake unto Moses, saying, 12 I have heard the murmurings of the children of Israel; speak unto them, saying, Toward evening ye shall eat flesh, and in the morning ye shall be filled with bread ; and ye shall know that I am the Eternal your God. 13 And it came to pass, that at evening the quails came up, and covered the camp; and in the morning there was a layer of dew round about the camp. 14 And when the layer of dew was gone up, behold, there was upon the face of the wilderness something fine in grains, small as the hoar–frost, on the ground. 15 And when the children of Israel saw it, they said one to another. It is manna, for they knew not what it was ; and Moses said unto them, This is the bread which the Lord hath given you to eat.a 16 This is the thing which the Lord hath commanded. Gather of it every man according to his eating ; an omer for every head, accord– ing to the number of your persons that every man hath in his tent, shall ye take. 17 And the children of Israel did so; and they gathered, some much, some little. 18 And when they measured it with an omer, he that had gathered much had nothing over, and he that had gathered little had no lack ; every man according to his eating, had they gathered. 19 And Moses said. Let no man leave of it till the morning. a Mendelssohn, after some authorities, renders Nin D like Nin nn with "What is this;" to which Moses natu– rally replies, " This is the bread," &c. But as we have no warrant to substitute d for rra, the word has been left as it appears at first view, "It is manna," which Arnheim thus explains: The Israelites were acquainted with the Arabic manna, and called this new product therefore, from its similarity, by the same term ; either becauae they knew no better name, or because they thought it identical. 20 But they hearkened not unto Moses; but some men left of it until morning, and it bred worms, and stank; and Moses was wroth with them. 21 And so they gathered it every morning, every man according to his eating; and when the sun waxed hot, it melted. 22 And it came to pass on the sixth day, that they gathered twofold bread, two omers for every one ; and all the rulers of the con– gregation came and told it to Moses. 23 And he said unto them, This is what the Lord hath spoken, A rest, a holy rest is unto the Lord to–morrow : that which je will bake bake to–day ,b and what ye will seethe seethe to–day; and all the remainder lay up for you to be kept until the morning. 24 And they laid it up till the morning, as Moses had bidden ; and it did not stink, nor was there any worm therein. 25 And Moses said. Eat it to–day; for a sabbathc is this day unto the Lord : to–day ye will not find it in the field. 26 Six days shall ye gather it; but on the seventh day, the sabbath, on it there shall be none. 27 And it came to pass on the seventh day, that there went out some of the people to gather; but they found nothing. 28 ¶ And the Lord said unto Moses, How long refuse ye to keep my commandments and my laws ? 29 See, that the Lord hath given you the sabbath, therefore he giveth you on the sixth day bread for two days; remain ye, every man in his place, let no man go out of his place on the seventh day. 30 So the people rested on the seventh day. 31 And the house of Israel called the name thereof Manna, (Man ;) and it was like cori– ander–seed, white, and its taste was like wafers made with honey. 32 And Moses said, This is the thing which the Lord hath commanded, One omer– full of it is to be kept for your generations ; in Moses, however, corrected their opinion, by saying that it was a miraculous gift of God. Rashi gives it, " This is a preparation of food." b The word " to–day" is not in the Hebrew, but it is implied in the imperative 13N &c., which form always refers to the action which is to be performed at once. The present version is after Onkelos and Rashi. c Properly, shahhath, "a rest," from nOBf, shahoth, "to cease;" hence "to refrain from labour," "to rest." [Page 86] EXODUS XVI. XVII. XVIII. YITHRO. order that they may see the bread which I gave you to eat in the wilderness, when I brought you forth out of the land of Egypt. 33 And Moses said unto Aaron, take a flask, and put therein an omer–full of manna, and lay it up before the Lord, to be kept for your generations. 34 As the Lord had commanded Moses, so did Aaron lay it up before the Testimony, to be kept. 35 And the children of Israel ate the manna forty years, until they came to an in– habited land; the manna they did eat, until they came unto the borders of the land of Canaan. 36 But the omera is a tenth part of an ephah.* CHAPTER XVII. 1 ¶ And all the congregation of the children of Israel journeyed from the wilderness of Sin, after their joumeyings, by the command– ment of the Lord; and they encamped in Rephidim, and there was no water for the people to drink. 2 And the people quarrelled with Moses, and said. Give us water that we may drink; and Moses said unto them, Why will ye quarrel with me? why will ye tempt the Lord? 3 And the people thirsted there for water ; and the people murmured against Moses, and said, For what purpose is it that thou hast brought us up out of Egypt, to kill meb and my children and my cattle with thirst? 4 And Moses cried unto the Lord, saying, What shall I do unto this people ? but little is wanting and they will stone me. 5 And the Lord said unto Moses, Pass on before the people, and take with thee some of the elders of Israel ; and thy staff, wherewith thou smotest the river, take in thy hand, and 6 Behold, I will be standing before thee there upon the rock at Choreb ; and thou shalt smite the rock, and there shall come out from it water, and the people shall drink; and a The contents of an cpliah is said by rabbinical autho– rity to bo 432 eggs; consequently an omor is 48¶ (fowfs) eggs. b The singular is used here, as in other places, to denote probably that one spoke for the community. So also in Genesis xxiii. 6, " Hear us, my lord." Moses did so before the eyes of the elders of Israel. 7 And he called the name of the place Massahc and Meribah ; because of the quarrel– ling of the children of Israel, and because they tempted the Lord, saying. Is then the Lord among us, or not ? 8 ¶ Then came Amalek, and fought with Israel in Rephidim. 9 And Moses said unto Joshua, Choose for us men, and go out, fight with Amalek ; to– morrow I will stand on the top of the hill with the staff of God in my hand. 10 And Joshua did as Moses had said to him, to fight with Amalek ; and Moses, Aaron, and Chur went up to the top of the hill. 11 And it came to pass, when Moses held up his hand, that Israel prevailed : and when he let down his hand, that Amalek prevailed. 12 But when the hands of Moses became heavy, they took a stone, and put it under him, and he sat thereon ; and Aaron and Chur suy)– ported his hands, one on one side, and the other on the other side; and his hands were steady until the going down of the sun. 13 And Joshua discomfited Amalek and his people with the edge of the sword.* 14 ¶ And the Lord said unto Moses, Write this for a memorial in the book,d and rehearse it in the ears of Joshua ; for I will utterly blot out the rememlirance of Amalek from under the heavens. 15 And Moses built an altar, and called its name Adonay Nissy (The Lord is my Banner). 16 And he said, Becausee the Lord hath sworn on his throne that the Lord will have war with Amalek from generation to genera– tion. Haphtorah in Judges iv. 4 to v. 31. The Portuguese com– mence at v. 1. SECTION XVII. YITHRO, nnv CHAPTER XVIII. 1 ¶ And Jithro, the priest of Midian, Moses' father–in–law, heard all that God had done c " Tempting and quarrel," from riDJ " to prove, to tempt," and an "to contend, to quarrel." d The book of ¶ic Records of Israel, wherein doubt– lessly all the occurrences of the nation had been preserved. e Arnheim, after Ralbag, (quoted in the name of his father,) renders, " Yea the hand on the throne of Yah (is stretched out) for a war with Amalek," &c. [Page 87] EXODUS XVIII. YITHRO. for Moses, and for Israel his people, that the Lord had brought forth Israel out of Egypt. 2 Then took Jithro, the father–in–law of Moses, Zipporah, the wife of Moses, after he had sent her back, 3 And her two sons ; of whom the name of the one was Gershom; for he said, I have been a stranger in a foreign land : 4 And the name of the other was Eliezer ;a for the God of my father was my help, and delivered me from the sword of Pharaoh. 5 And Jithro, the father–in–law of Moses, came with his sons and his wife unto Moses, unto the wilderness, where he was encamped at the mount of God. 6 And he sent word unto Moses, I thy father–in–law Jithro am coming unto thee, with thy wife, and her two sons with her. 7 And Moses went out to meet his father– in–law, and bowed himself, and kissed him; and they asked each other after their welfare ; and they went into the tent. 8 And Moses told his father–in–law all which the Lord had done unto Pharaoh and to the Egyptians on account of Israel ; all the hardship which had come upon them by the way, and how the Lord had delivered them. 9 And Jithro rejoiced over all the goodness which the Lord had done to Israel, thatb he had delivered it out of the handc of the Egyptians. 10 And Jithro said, Blessed be the Lord, who hath delivered you out of the hand of the Egyptians, and out of the hand of Pha– raoh, who hath delivered the people from un– der the hand of the Egyptians. 11 Now I know that the Eternal is great above all gods : for by the very thing wherein they sinned presumptuously was punishment brought upon them.d 12 And Jithro, the father–in–law of Moses, a From El, " God," and ezer, " help." b Onkelos renders \wx with " who had," &c., referring to the antecedent " Lord." c T " Hand," has several significations in Hebrew : first, the hand itself; then, " power," as in this instance ; or "means," (as in Exodus ix. 35,) "As the Lord had spoken through the hand of Moses;" "a fixed place, the margin of a river," (Exodus ii. 5,) and " portion," " share," " claim," (2 Samuel xix. 44,) &c. d After Onkelos. Rashi adds, " They endeavoured to destroy the Israelites by water, and they were lost in water." Philippson renders, " namely therein whereby they had sinned against them," meaning that God's su– offered a burnt–offering and sacrifices unto God; and Aaron came, with all the elders of Israel, to eat bread with the father–in–law of Moses, before God.* 13 And it came to pass on the morrow, that Moses sat to judge the people; and the people stood by Moses from the morning unto the evening. 14 And the father–in–law of Moses saw all that he did to the people; and he said, what is this thing that thou doest to the people ? why sittest thou thyself alone, and all the people standeth by thee from morning until evening ? 15 And Moses said unto his father–in–law, Because the people cometh unto me to inquire of God. 16 When they have a matter of dispute, they come unto me; and I judge between one and the other, and I make them know the statutes of God, and his laws. 17 And the father–in–law of Moses said unto him. The thing that thou doest is not good. 18 Thou wilt surely wear away, both thou, and this people that is with thee; for the thing is too heavy for thee; thou wilt not be able to perform it by thyself alone. 19 Now hearken unto my voice, I will give thee counsel, and may God be with thee, Be thou for the people a mediatore with God, that thou mayest bring the causes unto God. 20 And thou shalt explain to them the ordinances and the laws; and thou shalt make them know the way wherein they must walk, and the work that they must do. 21 Moreover, thou shalt select out of all the people able men, such as fear God, men of truth, hating (their own) gain;f and place these over them, as rulers of thousands, rulers of hundreds, rulers of fifties, and rulers of tens. periority was displayed, since the Egyptians and their gods prevailed not in the very acts of their presumption against Israel. The English version seems to have adopt– ed in some degree the same view. Arnheim, after Aben Ezra, renders " For he punished them because they had acted wickedly toward them." e Meaning, that Moses should represent the people with God, hear what he teaches, and then instruct those who had sent him. f This means, disinterested men, who in hearing causes brought before them will decide without reference whe– ther their own advantage be secured by their judgment or not. 87 [Page 88] EXODUS XVIII. XIX. YITHRO. 22 And let them judge the people at all times; and it shall be, that every great matr ter they shall bring unto thee, but every small matter they shall judge themselves: so shall it be easier for thee, when they shall bear with thee. 23 If thou wilt do this thing, and God commandeth it thee, then wilt thou be able to endure; and also the whole of this people will come to its place in peace.* 24 And Moses hearkened to the voice of his father–in–law, and did all that he had said. 25 And Moses chose able men out of all Israel, and placed them as heads over the people, rulers of thousands, rulers of hun– dreds, rulers of fifties, and rulers of tens. 26 And they judged the people at all times ; any difficult cause they brought unto Moses, but every small cause they judged themselves. 27 And Moses dismissed his father–in–law; and he went his way unto his own land.* CHAPTER XIX. 1 ¶ In the third month, after the children of Israel were gone forth out of the land of Egypt, the same day they came into the wilderness of Sinai. 2 For they had departed from Rephidim, and they came to the desert of Sinai, and en– camped in the wilderness; and Israel en– camped there opposite the mount. 3 And Moses went up unto God, and the Lord called unto him from the mount, saying, Thus shalt thou say to the house of Jacob, and tell the children of Israel : 4 Yea have yourselves seen what I have done unto the Egyptians, and how I bore you on eagles' wings,b and brought you unto myself 5 Now therefore, if you will truly obey my voice, and keep my covenant, then shall ye be unto me a peculiar treasure above all na– tions; for all the earth is mine: 6 And ye shall be unto me a kingdom of priests, and a holy nation ; these are the words which thou shalt speak unto the children of Israel. a the things which I have done to Egypt are not a tradition among you or brought to your nfitice by messen– ger or witness ; through many sins had they been guilty before they injured you; but I did not puuish them ex– cept for your sake. — Rashi. b " As the eagle bears aloft his young, over every obsta– 7 And Moses came and called for the elders of the people, and laid before them all these words which the Lord had commanded him. 8 And all the people answered unani– mously, and said, All that the Lord hath spoken we will do; and Moses returned the words of the people unto the Lord. 9 And the Lord said unto Moses, Behold, I will come unto thee in a thick cloud, for the sake that the people may hear when I speak with thee, and that also in thee they shall believec for ever; and Moses told the words of the people unto the Lord. 10 And the Lord said unto Moses, Go unto the people, and sanctify them to–day and to– morrow, and let them wash their clothes. 11 And they shall be ready against the third day ; for on the third day the Lord will come down, before the eyes of all the people, upon mount Sinai. 12 And thou shalt set bounds unto the people, round about, saying. Take heed to yourselves, that ye go not up into the mount, nor touch the border of it; whosoever touch– eth the mount shall surely be put to death. 13 Yet not a hand shall touch him, but he shall surely be stoned, or shot through ; whether it be beast or man, it shall not live; when the trumpet soundeth long, they may come up to the mount. 14 And Moses went down from the mount unto the people, and sanctified the people; and they washed their clothes. 15 And he said unto the people. Be ready against the third day; approach not unto a woman. 16 And it came to pass on the third day when it was morning, that there were thun– ders and lightnings, and a heavy cloud was upon the mount, and the voice of the trumpet was exceedingly loud; so that all the people that were in the camp trembled. 17 And Moses brought forth the people out of the camp to meet with God ; and they placed themselves at the foot of the mount. 18 And mount Sinai smoked in every part, because the Lord had descended upon it in fire; and the smoke thereof ascended as the cle, and carries them even across the sea, so have I brought you safely through the sea, and you were not injured." — DUBNO. c i. e. have trust or confidence in the truth of his mission. d Aben Ezra refers this to Aaron, his sous and the elders [Page 89] EXODUS XIX. XX. YITHRO. smoke of a furnace, and the whole mount quaked greatly. 19 And the voice of the cornet went on, and waxed louder and louder; Moses spoke, and God answered him with a loud voice.* 20 And the Lord came down upon mount Sinai, on the top of the mount; and the Lord called Moses up to the top of the mount, and Moses went up. 21 And the. Lord said unto Moses, Go down, charge the people, lest they break through unto the Lord to gaze, and many of them might perish. 22 And the priests also, who come near to the Lord, shall sanctify themselves; lest the Lord break forth among them. 23 And Moses said unto the Lord, The people cannot come up to mount Sinai; for thou hast charged us, saying, Set bounds about the mount and sanctify it. 24 And the Lord said unto him, Go, get thee down, and then shalt thou come up, thou, and Aaron with thee; but the priests and the people shall not break through to come up unto the Lord, lest he break forth among them. 25 So Moses went down unto the people, and spoke unto them. CHAPTER XX. 1 ¶ And God spoke all these words, say– ing, 2 ¶ I am the Lord thy God, who have brought thee out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of slavery.a 3 Thou shalt have no other gods before me. 4 Thou shalt not make unto thyself any graven image, or any likeness of any thing that is in heaven above, or that is on the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth. 5 Thou shalt not bow thyself down to a Heb. "House of servants" or "slwes," and means simply the state of bondage or slwery. According to Jewish opinions, "I am the Lord thy God" is the first commandment, and enjoins on us to believe in the Eter– nal alone, as God and Creator, who manifested himself to us when we were bondmen in Egypt, whence he redeemed us through the great deeds he wrought in our behalf. "Thou shalt have," &c. commences the second command– ment. b This means, " watchful of his glory, and unwilling to pardon idolatry." c "If the children hate me." — Rashbam. Onkelos M them, nor serve them; for I the Lord thy God am a jealousb God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children, unto the third and fourth generation of them that hatec me; 6 And showing mercy unto the thousandth generation of them that love me, and keep my commandments. 7 ¶ Thou shalt not taked the name of the Lord thy God in vain ; for the Lord will not hold him guiltless that taketh his name in vain. 8 ¶ Remember the sabbath day to keep it holy. 9 Six days shalte thou labour, and do all thy work. 10 But the seventh day is the sabbath in honour of the Lord thy God ; on it thou shalt not do any work, neither thou, nor thy son, nor thy daughter, thy man–servant, nor thy maid–servant, nor thy cattle, nor thy stranger that is within thy gates ; 11 Eor in six days the Lord made the heavens and the earth, the sea, and all that is in them, and rested on the seventh day; therefore the Lord blessed the sabbath day, and hallowed it. 12 ¶ Honour thy father and thy mother; in order that thy days may be prolonged upon the land which the Lord thy God giv– eth thee. 18 ¶ Thou shalt not kill. ¶ Thou shalt not commit adultery. ¶ Thou shalt not steal. ¶ Thou shalt not bear false witness against thy neighbour. 14 ¶ Thou shalt not covet thy neighbour's house. ¶ Thou shalt not covet thy neighbour's wife, nor his man–servant, nor his maid–servant, nor his ox, nor his ass, nor any thing that is thy neighbour's.* 15 ¶ And all the people perceivedf the paraphrases, "if the children persevere to sin after their fathers." d This means, that we shall not u¶er, "bear on our lips," the blessed Name. — "Vain" inc10des hoth falsely and uselessly/. e Others render, "mayest," or "canst:" still the sense is the same; meaning, that whatever labour is performed must be done in the six week–days, to the exc10sion of the sabbath. f The Hebrew word d'NT from nN"> " to see,", is evi– dently used here in the general sense, "to perceive," "to become aware of." 89 [Page 90] EXODUS XX. XXI. MISHPAHTIM. thunderings, and the lightnings, and the sound of the cornet, and the mountain smok– ing; and when the people saw it, they re– moved trembling, and stood afar off. 16 And they said unto Moses, Speak thou with us, and we will hear;a but let not God, speak with us, lest we die. 17 And Moses said unto the people, Fear not; for in order to prove you, did God come, and in order that his fear may be before your faces, that ye sin not. 18 And the people stood afar off, and Moses drew near unto the thick darkness where God was.* 19 ¶ And the Lord said unto Moses, Thus shalt thou say unto the children of Israel, Ye have seen that from heaven I have spoken with you. 20 Ye shall not make any thing with me ; gods of silver, and gods of gold ye shall not make unto yourselves. 21 An altar of earth shalt thou make unto me, and shalt sacrifice thereon thy burnt– offerings, and thy peace–offerings, thy sheep,b and thy oxen; in every place where I shall permit my name to be mentioned, I will come unto thee, and I will bless thee. 22 And if thou wilt make me an altar of stone, thou shalt not build it of hewn stone ; for if thou lift up thy tool upon it, thou hast pol10ted it. 23 Neither shalt thou go up by steps upon my altar, that thy nakedness be not laid open thereon. Haphtorah in Isaiah vi. 1 to 13. The Germans read to viii. 6, and add ix. 5 and 6. SECT. XVIII. MISHPAHTIM, D¶uatt'O. CHAPTER XXI. 1 ¶ And these are the laws of justice which thou shalt set before them. 2 If thou buy a Hebrew servant, six years a Onkelos gives, "We will accept," thus signifying their willingness to follow what might be taught them in the name of God, whose presence they feared henceforth to encounter. But Moses, in accepting this trust, assured them that the Lord's object in showing his glory, was merely that they might always remember this scene and sin not. b Rashi regards " thy sheep and thy oxen" as an ex– planation of the preceding words ; thus, " thy peace–offer– ings of thy sheep and of thy oxen." 90 shall he serve; and in the seventh he shall go out free for nothing. 3 If he came in by himself, he shall go out by himself; if he was the husband of a woman, then shall his wife go out with him. 4 If his master should give him a wife, and she bear him sons or daughters: the wife and her children shall belong to her master, and he shall go out by himself. 5 And if the servant should plainly say, I love my master, my wife, and my children ; I will not go out free : 6 Then shall his master bring him unto the judges, and he shall bring him to the door, or unto the door–post; and his master shall liore his ear through with an awl;and he shall serve him till the jubilee.c 7 ¶ And if a man sell his daughter for a maid–servant, she shall not go out as the men– servants go out. 8 If she please not her master, to whom hed hath assigned her, then shall he aid her to be redeemed; unto a strange nation he shall have no power to sell her, seeing he hath dealt faithlessly with her. 9 And if he should assign her unto his son, then shall he do unto her after the right of the daughters. 10 If he take himself another wife, her food, her raiment, and her duty of marriage, shall he not diminish. 11 And if he do not these three things unto her, then shall she go out free, without money. 12 ¶ He that smiteth a man, so that he die, shall surely be put to death. 13 And if he did not lie in wait, but God let it come into his hand, then will I appoint thee a place whither he shall ¶ee. 14 ¶ But if a man come presumptuously upon his neighl)our, to slay him with guile, from my altar shalt thou take him, that he may die. c Lit. " for ever ;" but servitude is hereafter ('Levit. XXV. 10) limited to the Jubi/ec, which is accordingly the eternity of bondage, beyond which it could not exist. d Arnheim makes the word " man" of verse 7, the nominative of all the verbs in verse 8, and renders the last, "since he acteth faithlessly by her;" meaning, in ease he sell her to a foreigner who cannot marry her, by which she becomes a bondwoman, which the children of Israel should never be. This is a strong proof of the high esteem females enjoyed among the early Israelites. [Page 91] EXODUS XXI. XXII. MISHPAHTIM. 15 ¶ And he that smiteth his fother, or his mother, shall surely be put to death. 16 ¶ And he that stealeth a man, and selleth him, and he be founda in his hand, shall surely be put to death. 17 ¶ And he that curseth his father, or his mother, shall surely be put to death. 18 ¶ And if men strive together, and one smite the other with a stone, or with the fist, and he die not, but keepeth his bed : 19 If he rise again, and walk abroad upon his crutch, then shall he that smote him be quit; only he shall pay for the loss of his time, and shall cause Imu to be thoroughly healed.* 20 ¶ And if a man smite his servant or his maid, with a rod, and he die under his hand, it shall be surely wenged. 21 Nevertheless, if he continue alive a day or two, it shall not be wenged; for he is his money. 22 ¶ If men strive, and hurt a woman with child, so that her children depart from her, and yet no farther mischief follow: he shall be surely punished, (with a fine,) accord– ing as the husband of the woman will lay upon him; and he shall pay this by the decision of the judges. 23 And if any mischief follow, then shalt thou give life for life, 24 Eye for eye,b tooth for tooth, hand for hand, foot for foot, 25 Burning for burning, wound for wound, bruise for bruise. 26 ¶ And if a man smite the eye of his ser– vant, or the eye of his maid, that it perish, he shall let him go free for the sake of his eye. 27 And if he strike out his man–servant's tooth, or his maid–servant's tooth, he shall let him go free for the sake of his tooth. 28 ¶ If an ox gore a man or a woman, that he die: then shall the ox be surely stoned, and his flesh shall not be eaten; but the owner of the ox shall be quit. 29 But if the ox were wont to gore in time past, and warning have been given to his a If witnesses have seen that he Has stolen and sold him, and he was found before the sale. — Eashi, after Sanhedrin, 85. b According to the laws as executed in Israel, (see Baba Kama, viii. § 1,) this injunction was understood as applying merely to make restitution in money for the in– jury inflicted. That this exposition is strictly conform– owner, and he hath not kept him in, and he killeth a man or a woman: the ox shall be stoned, and his owner also should of right be put to death ; 30 But there shall be laid oh him a sum of money in atonement, and he shall give the ransom of his life whatsoever may be laid upon him. 31 If he gore a son, or gore a daughter, ac– cording to this judgment shall be done unto him. 32 If the ox gore a man–servant or a maid– servant, thirty shekels of silver shall hea give to his master, and the ox shall be stoned. 33 ¶ And if a man open a pit, or if a man dig a pit and do not cover it, and an ox or an ass fall therein; 34 The owner of the pit shall make it good, he shall make restitution in money unto the owner thereof; and the dead beast shall be his. 35 ¶ And if one man's ox hurt the ox of another, that he die : then shall they sell the live ox, and divide his money; and the dead ox also they shall divide. 36 But if it be known that the ox were wont to gore in time past, and his OAvner hath not kejit him in : he shall surely pay ox for ox; and the dead shall belong to him.d 37 ¶ If a man steal an ox or a sheep, and kill it, or sell it: five oxen shall he restore for one ox, and four sheep for one sheep. CHAPTER XXII. 1 If a thief be found while breaking in, and be smitten so that he die, there shall no blood be shed for him. 2 If the sun be risen upon him, there shall be blood shed for him; he shall make full restitution ; if he have nothing, then shall he be sold for his theft. 3 If the thing stolen be actually found in his hand alive, whether it be ox, or ass, or sheep, he shall restore double.* 4 ¶ If a man cause a field or vineyard to be eaten oft', and he let his beasts enter, and they feed in another man's field: with the able to the sacred text, can be proved from the passage, Numbers xxxv. 31, "And yc shall not take a ransom for the life of a murderer who is guilty of death," which clearly means "from a murderer yc shall take no ransom, but ye may do it from one who inflicts a wound only." c The owner of the ox. d The English version ends here chap. xxi. 91 [Page 92] EXODUS XXII. MISHPAHTIM. best of his own field, and with best of his own vineyard, shall he make restitution. 5 ¶ If a fire break out, and meet with thorns, so that stacks of corn, or the standing corn, or the field, be consumed thereby, he that kindled the fire shall surely make resti– tution. 6 ¶. If a man do deliver unto his neigh– bour money or vessels to keep, and it be stolen out of the man's house : if the thief be found, he shall pay double. 7 If the thief be not found, then shall the master of the house be brought unto the judges, (to swear) that he have not stretched out his hand against his neighbour's goods. 8 For all manner of trespass, for ox, for ass, for sheep, for raiment, or for any manner of lost thing, of which hea can say. This is it, before the judges shall come the cause of both parties, and he, whom the judges may condemn, shall pay double unto his neigh– bour. 9 ¶ If a man deliver unto his neighbour an ass, or an ox, or a sheep, or any beast, to keep ; and it die, or be hurt, or driven away, no man seeing it : 10 Then shall an oath of the Lord be be– tween them both, that he have not stretched out his hand against his neighbour's goods; and the owner of it shall accept this, and he shall not make it good. 11 But if it be stolen from him, he shall make restitution unto the owner thereof. 12 If it be torn in pieces, then let him bring it as evidence ;b that which was torn he shall not make good. 13 ¶ And if a man borrow aught of his neighbour, and it be hurt, or die, the owner thereof not being with it, he shall surely make it good. 14 But if the owner thereof be with it, he shall not make it good ; if it be a hired thing, the loss is inc10ded in its hire.c 15 11 And if a man seduce a virgin that is not betrothed, and lie with her, he shall surely endow her to be his wife. a " The witness," i. e. which he can identify. — Aben Ezra. — From 6 to 8 is considered as relating to a case where the goods arc left without charge for keeping; hut from y to 12 where hire is paid for the earo required. bCompare with Amos iii. 12. Rashi and Onkelos: " He shall hring witnesses." c Meaning, the owner can only claim the money agreed upon for the hire, hut no farther restitution. This ver– 92 16 If her father refuse to give her unto him, he shall pay money according to the dowry of virgins. 17 ¶ Thou shalt not suffer a witch to live. 18 Whosoever lieth with a beast shall surely be put to death. 19 ¶ He that sacrificeth unto any god, swe unto the Lord only, shall be utterly de– stroyed. 20 And a stranger thou shalt not vex, and shalt not oppress him; for strangers ye were in the land of Egypt. 21 Ye shall not afflict any widow, or father– less child. 22 If thou afflict him in any wise ;d (for if he cry at all unto me, I will surely hear his cry:) 23 My wrath shall wax hot, and I will slay you with the sword; and your wives shall be widows, and your children fatherless. 24 ¶ If thou lend money to my people, to the poor by thee, thou shalt not be to him as a lender of money; thou shalt not lay upon him usury. 25 If thou take at all thy neighbour's raiment in pledge, thou shalt restore it unto him by the time the sun goeth down ; 26 For it is his only covering, it is his raiment for his skin ; wherein shall he sleep ? and it shall come to pass, when he crieth unto me, that I will hear; for I am gracious.* 27 ¶ The judges thou shalt not revile;e and a ruler among thy people thou shalt not curse. 28 The first of thy ripe fruits, and of thy liquors, shalt thou not delay to offer; the first–born of thy sons shalt thou give unto me. 29 In like manner shalt thou do with thy ox, with thy sheep; seven days it shall be with its dam; on the eighth day thou shalt give it me. 30 And holy men shall ye be unto me: and flesh that is torn of beasts in the field, shall ye not eat; to the dogs shall ye cast it. sion is according to Ben 'Uzziel and Mendelssohn ; literally, "it comes (in) with its hire." d Rashi regards this as an elliptical verse, thus : "If thou afflict him, thou shalt surely be punished, because, should he cry unto me, I will hear his cry." e " This is a prohibition both against blasphemy, and cursing the judges who sit in the place of God to do justice." — Rashi, after Sanhedrin, 67. [Page 93] EXODUS XXIII. MISHPAHTIM. CHAPTER XXIII. 1 ¶ Thou shalt not receive a false report : put not thy hand with the wicked to be an unrighteous witness. 2 ¶ Thou shalt not follow a multitude to do evil ; neither shalt thou speak in a cause, to incline after many, to wrest judgment. 3 Neither shall thou countenance a poor man in his cause. 4 ¶ If thou meet thy enemy's ox or his ass going astray, thou shalt surely bring it back to him again. 5 ¶ If thou see the ass of him that hateth thee lying under his burden, and wouldest for– bear to unload him, (thou must do so, but) thou shalt surely unload with him.* 6 ¶ Thou shalt not wrest the judgment of thy poor in his cause. 7 Keep thyself far from a false speech ; and him who hath been declared innocent and righteous thou shalt not slay ; for I will not justify the wicked. 8 And thou shalt take no gift ; for the gift blindeth the clear–sighted, and perverteth the words of the righteous. 9 And a stranger thou shalt not oppress; for ye know well the spirit of the stranger, seeing ye yourselves were strangers in the land of Egypt. 10 And six years shalt thou sow thy land, and shalt gather in the fruits thereof; 11 But the seventh year shalt thou let it rest and lie still ; that the poor of thy people may eat (of it) ; and what they leave the beasts of the field shall eat : in like manner shalt thou deal with thy vineyard, and with thy olive tree. 12 Six days shalt thou do thy work, and on the seventh day shalt thou rest ; that thy ox and thy ass may repose, and the son of thy hand–maid, and the stranger, may be refreshed. 13 And in all things that I have said unto you be on your guard; and of the name of other gods, ye shall make no mention, it shall not be heard out of thy mouth. 14 Three times shalt thou keep a feast unto me in the year. 15 The feast of unleavened bread shalt thou keep; seven days shalt thou eat unlear vened bread, as I commanded thee, in the time appointed of the month of Abib ; for in it thou camest out from Egypt: and none shall ap– pear before me empty. 16 And the feast of harvest, of the first– fruits of thy labours, which thou hast sown in thy field : and the feast of ingathering, at the conc10sion of the year, when thou gatherest in thy labours out of the field. 17 Three times in the year shall all thy males appear before the Lord, the Eternal. 18 Thou shalt not offer the blood of my sacrifice with leavened bread;a neither shall the fat of my festive sacrifice remain until morning. 19 The first of the first–fruits of thy land shalt thou bring unto the house of the Lord thy God. Thou shalt not seethe a kid in its mother's milk.* 20 ¶ Behold, I send an angel before thee, to keep thee on the way, and to bring thee unto the place which I have prepared. 21 Beware of him, and obey his voice, disobey him not ; for he will not pardon your transgression, because my name is in him. 22 But if thou wilt carefully hearken to his voice, and do all that I shall speak : then will I be an enemy unto thy enemies, and af– flict those that afllict thee. 23 For my angel shall go before thee, and bring thee in unto the Emorites, and the Hit– tites, and the Perizzites, and the Canaanites, the Hivites, and the Jebusites ; and I will cut them off". 24 Thou shalt not bow down to their gods, nor serve them, nor do after their deeds ; but thou shalt uttei'ly overthrow them, and com– pletely break down their statuary images. 25 And ye shall sei've the Lord your God, and he will bless thy bread, and thy water; and I will remove sickness from the midst of thee.* 26 ¶ There shall be no one casting her children, nor a ban–en woman, in thy land ; the number of thy days I will make full. 27 My terror I will send before thee, and will bring in confusion all the people to which thou shalt come; and I will make all thy ene– mies turn their back unto thee. 28 And I will send hornets before thee, and they shall drive out the Hivite, the Ca– naanite, and the Hittite, from Ix¶fore thee. 29 I will not drive them out from before thee in one year; lest the land become deso– a This means that the passover–lamb shall not be slain on the fourteenth of the first month, till all the leaven has been previously removed. [Page 94] EXODUS XXIV. MISHPAHTIM. late, and the beast of the field multiply against thee. 30 little by little will I drive them out from before thee, until thou be increased and canst possess the land. 31 And I will set thy bounds from the Eed Sea unto the sea of the Philistines, and from the desert unto the river; for I will deliver into your hand the inhabitants of the land, and thou shalt drive them out before thee. 32 Thou shalt not make a covenant with them, nor with their gods. 33 They shall not dwell in thy land, lest they cause thee to sin against me ; for thou mightest (be leda to) serve their gods, and this would surely be a snare unto thee. CHAPTER XXIV. 1 ¶ And unto Moses he said. Come up un– to the Lord, thou, and Aaron, Nadab, and Abihu, and seventy of the elders of Israel; and ye shall bow yourselves down afar off. 2 And Moses alone shall come near unto the Lord, but they shall not come nigh; and the people shall not go up with him. 3 And Moses came and told the people all the words of the Lord, and all the laws of justice ;b and all the people answered with one voice, and said. All the words which the Lord hath spoken will we do. 4 And Moses wrote down all the words of the Lord, and he rose up early in the morn– ing, and built an altar at the foot of the mount, and twelve pillars, according to the twelve tribes of Israel. 5 And he then sent the young men" of the children of Israel, and they offered burnt– offerings, and sacrified peace–offerings unto the Lord, of oxen. 6 And Moses took the half of the blood, and put it in basins; and (the other) half of the blood he sprinkled on the altar. 7 And he took the book of the covenant, a Mendelssohn ; Rashi, however, renders, " that thou mightest servo their gods, which," &c. b Those laws according to which judgment is to be pronounced by the judges. ¶ic word D'taaiy¶ in this sense, is rendered in the English version "judgments," which is the same used fur D'DiJB', properly "judicial pu– nishments." c "The first–born."— Onkelos and Rashi. d "In the vision of prophecy." (Sec Isaiah vi. 1.) — Aben Ezra. d y'¶i'1 nnni is correctly given by Arnheira, " that under his feet," i. e. the footstool, or, there where his 94 and read in the hearing of the people ; and they said. All that the Lord hath spoken will we do, and obey. 8 And Moses took the blood and sprinkled it on the people, and said, Behold the blood of the covenant, which the Lord hath made with you concerning all these words. 9 Then went up Moses, with Aaron, Nadab, and Abihu, and seventy of the elders of Israel. 10 And they sa–w the God of Israel ; and the place" under his feet was like a pwed work of brilliant sapphire, and like the colour of heaven in clearness. 11 And against the nobles of the children of Israel he stretched not forth his hand ; and they saw (the glory of) God, and did e:it and drink.' 12 ¶ And the Lord said unto Moses, come up to me to the mount, and remain there : and I will give thee the tables of stone, with the law, and the commandment which I have written, to teach them. 13 And Moses rose up, and his servant Jo– shua ; and Moses went uj) to the mount of God. 14 And unto the elders he said, Tarry ye for us here, until the time we come again un– to you; and, behold, Aaron and Chur are with you, whoever may have any cause to be decided, let him come unto them. 15 And Moses went up to the mount, and the cloud covered the mount.* 16 And the glory of the Lord abode upon mount Sinai, and the cloud covered it six days ; and he called unto Moses on the seventh day out of the midst of the cloud. 17 And the appearance of the glory of the Lord was like a ¶evouring fire on the top of the mount, before the eyes of the children of Israel. 18 And Moses went into the midst of the cloudy and ascended the mount ; and Moses was on the mount forty days and forty nights. Haphtorah in Jeremiah xxxiv. 8–22 and xxxiii. 25, 26. feet rested. So also the Septuagint, Ttai ri, i–rto roij ndSa; avT'ov f Onkelos paraphrases this verse : "And unto the chiefs of the children of Israel there happened no injury, and they beheld the glory of God, and they rejoiced in the favourable reception of their s.icrificcs, as though they ate and drank." l)ubno, after Kaniban : " They ate the poaco– ofTerings before the altar, at the foot of the mount, and they drank, making the occasion one of joy, and a holi– day ; for it is a duty to rejoice at the reception of the law ; see also Deuteronomy xxvii. 7, ' And thou shalt slay peace–oflferings, and eat them there.'" [Page 95] EXODUS XXV. TERUMAH. SECTION XIX. TERUMAII, nonn. CHAPTER XXV. 1 ¶ And the Lord spoke unto Moses, saying, 2 Speak unto the children of Israel, that they may bring me an offering;" from every man whose heart promjDteth him thereto shall ye take my offering. 3 And this is the offering which ye shall take from them : gold, and silver, and copper, 4 And blue, and purple, and scarlet yam, and linen thread, and goats' hair, 5 And rams' skins died red, and badgers' skins, and shittim wood,*" 6 Oil for lighting, spices for the anointing oU, and for the incense of spices, 7 Onyx stones, and stones for setting, for the ephod, and for the breastplate. 8 And they shall make me a sanctuary ; and I will dwell among them. 9 According to all that I show thee, the pattern of the tabernacle, and the pattern of all the instruments thereof, even so shall ye make it. 10 ¶ And they shall make an ark of shittim wood; two cubits and a half shall be its length, and a cubit and a half its bi'eadth, and a cubit and a half its height. 11 And thou shalt overlay it with pure gold, within and without shalt thou overlay it; and thou shalt make upon it a crown of gold round about. 12 And thou shalt cast for it four rings of gold, and put them on the four corners thereof; namely, two rings shall be on the one side of it, and two rings on the other side of it. 13 And thou shalt make stwes of shittim wood, and overlay them vnth gold. 14 And thou shalt place the stwes into the rings, ujDon the sides of the ark, that the ark may be borne with them. a riDlin, elsewhere given with " hewe–oflFering," is ex– plained by Rashi to mean " something separated from a mass," and it says here, " they shall set aside for me from their money a free–will offering." b Some render this word with " acacia wood," viz. that of the Acacia arabica, which is said to be very durable, light, but growing dark with age. The word is of Egyp– tian origin. — After PniLiPPSON. c The English version, after the Vulgate and 10ther, renders m£)3 with "mercy–seat," no doubt deriving the 15 In the rings of the ark shall the stwes remain; they shall not be removed therefrom. 10 And thou shalt put into the ark the testimony which I will give unto thee.=¶ 17 And thou shalt make a cover" of pure gold ; two cubits and a half shall be its length, and a cubit and a half its breadth. 18 And thou shalt make two cherubim of gold, of beaten work shalt thou make them, on the two ends of the cover. 19 And make one cherub on the one end, and the other cherub on the other end ; from the cover itself shall ye make the cherubim on the two ends thereof 20 And the cherubim shall be spreading forth their wings on high, overshado–vving the cover with their wings, with their faces turned one to the other; toward the cover shall the faces of the cherubim be directed. 21 And thou shalt put the cover above upon the ark ; and in the ark shalt thou put the testimony which I will give unto thee. 22 And I will meet with thee there, and I will speak with thee from above the cover, from between the two cherubim which are upon the ark of the testimony, all the things which I will command thee unto the children of Israel. 23 ¶ Thou shalt also make a table of shittim wood; two cubits shall be its length, and a cubit its breadth, and a cubit and a half its height. 24 And thou shalt overlay it with pure gold, and make thereto a crown of gold round about. 25 And thou shalt make unto it a rim of a hand's breadth round about; and thou shalt make a golden crown on its rim round alxiut. 26 And thou shalt make for it four ru16s of gold, and thou shalt put the rings on the four, corners that are on its four feet. 27 Close under the rim shall the rings be; as receptacles for the stwes, to bear the table. 28 And thou shalt make the stwes of shit– tim wood, and overlay them with gold; and the table shall be borne with them. word from 13d " to pardon," thus : " The place whence pardon is obtained." The Midrash Tanchuma agrees with this, saying, " Why was it called ri">i3D ? because it atoned for the sins niDDO of Israel." The Septuagint and Japheth (the last quoted by Aben Ezra) combine both ideas, "the cover of atonement," Philippson translates accordingly with " Siihnplatte." Rashi, however, gives it simply '1D3 "cover." In the course of this work it is probable that " mercy–seat" may be Used — as a para– phrase, however, not as a literal version of the word. 95 [Page 96] EXODUS XXV. XXVI. TERUMAH. 29 And thou shalt make its dishes, and its spoons, and it.¶J supporters,*and its purifying tubes, wherewith (the bread) is to be covered : of pure gold shalt thou make them. 30 And thou shalt set upon the table show– bread before me always.* 31 ¶ And thou shalt make a candlestick* of pure gold : of beaten work shall the candle– stick be made ; its shaft, and its branches, its bowls, its knobs, and its flowers, shall be out of one piece with it. 32 And six branches shall come out of its sides; three branches of the candlestick out of the one side, and three branches of the candlestick out of the other side. 33 Three bowls, almond–shaped, shall be on one branch, with a knob and a tiower; and three bowls almond–shaped on the other branch, with a knob and a flower : so on the six branches that come out of the candlestick. 3–t And on the candlestick itself shall be four bowls, almond–shaped, (with) its knobs and its flowers. 35 And there shall be a knob under the two branches that come out of the same, and a knob under the two branches that come out of the same, and a knob under the two branches that come out of the same; for the six branches that proceed out of the candlestick. 36 Their knobs and their branches shall be out of one piece with it ; all of it shall be one piece of beaten work of pure gold. 37 And thou vhalt make its seven lamps; and when they shall light its lamps it shall give light toward the body of it. 38 And its tongs, and its snuiT–dishes shall be of pure gold. 39 Out of a talent of pure gold shall he make it, with all these vessels. 40 And look that thou make them after their pattern, which thou wast shown on the mount.* CHAPTER XXVI. 1 ¶ The tabernacle also shalt thou make of ten curtains, of twisted linen thread, and a The supporters" are said to have been four stakes of gold standing upon the floor, two on each side of the table; they were grooved so as to receive the "purifying tubes," which were placed between one loaf of the show– bread and the other, so as to admit of a fresh passage of air between them ; others reverse the order, and render, "its tubes and its supporters." b More correctly, "chandelier." 96 blue, and purple, and scarlet yarn, with che– rubim, of wewer's*work shalt thou make them. 2 The length of each curtain shall be eight and twenty cubits, and the breadth of each curtain four cubits: there shall be one mea– sure for all the curtains. 3 Five of the curtains shall be coupled together, one to another; and the other five curtains shall be coupled, one to an– other. 4 And thou shalt make loops of blue on the edge of the one curtain which is on the out– side in the (one) coupling; and the like shalt thou make on the edge of the curtain which is the outmost in the second coupling. 5 Fifty loops shalt thou make on the one curtain, and fifty loops shalt thou make on the edge of the curtain that is in the second coupling; the loops shall be fixed opposite each other. 6 And thou shalt make fifty hooks of gold ; and thou shalt couple the curtains together one unto the other –¶–ith the hooks, and the tabernacle shall thus be one piece. 7 And thou shalt make curtains of goats' hair for a tent over the tabernacle; eleven curtains shalt thou make the same. 8 The length of each curtain shall be thirty cubits, and the breadth of each curtain four cubits: there shall be one measure for the eleven curtains. 9 And thou shalt couple five of the cur– tains bv themselves, and six of the curtains by themselves; and thou shalt double the sixth curtain toward the front side of the tabernacle. 10 And thou shalt make fifty loops on the edge of the one curtain that is the outmost in the (one) coupling, and fifty loops on the edge of the curtain of the second coupling. 11 And thou shalt make fifty hooks of cojv per; and thou shalt put the hooks into the loops, and couple the tent together, that it may be one piece. 12 And the part hanging over in the excess c i. e. The unknown maker, whoever he may be. This construction is very common in Hebrew. d 3Ern " wewer," is here used in contradistinction to DDT "the embroiderer." The f16ures in this instance were to be woven in, while in the other they were to be wrought with a needle, as the "embroiderer" does. The wewer is j called 3l7n from the fact that "thought" or "art" is re– quired to produce the f16ures in the loom ; therefore, per– [Page 97] EXODUS XXVI. TERUMAH. of the curtains of the tent," the half curtain which is over, shall hang down over the back part of the tabernacle. 13 And the cubit on the one side, and the cubit on the other side in the excess in the length of the curtains of the tent, shall be hanging down over the sides of the tabernacle on this side and on that side, to cover it. 14 And thou shalt make a cover for the tent of rains' skins dyed red, and a cover of badgers' skins above.* 15 ¶ And thou shalt make the boards for the tabernacle of shittim wood, standing up. 16 Ten cubits shall be the length of each board, and a cubit and a half shall be the breadth of each one board. 17 There shall be two tenons for every board, fitted in, one against the other: the like shalt thou make for all the boards of the tabernacle. 18 And thou shalt make the boards for the tabernacle; twenty boards for the south side, on the right. 19 And forty sockets of silver shalt thou make under the twenty boards; two sockets under the one board for its two tenons, and two sockets under the other board for its two tenons. 20 And for the other side of the tabernacle, for the north side, there shall be twenty boards : 21 And their forty sockets of silver; two sockets under the one board, and two sockets under the other board. 22 And for the back wall of the tabemor cle, westward, thou shalt make six boards. 23 And two boards shalt thou make for the corners of the tabernacle in the back wall. 24 And they shall be closely fitting to– gether beneath, and they shall be closely haps, "artificial wewer;" German, " Kunstweber;" the simple artisan is called jin. a That is : what exceeds the length of the former or tabernacle curtains, they being but ten, while the tent curtains were eleven, or forty cubits against forty–four, shall hang trailing down at the back of the tabernacle, while the other half, or two cubits in breadth, was to be doubled over and hung down in the front, over the en– trance curtain of the sacred structure, as a species of festoon. b Meaning : the boards were wrought so as to fit quite smoothly, one to the other ; and the upper end was cut in about an inch from each border, through which a ring, or clamp, was inserted to hold each two together. While N joined together on the top by means of one ring;'' thus shall it be for both of them; for the two corners shallthey be. 25 And so they shall be eight boards, and their sockets of silver, sixteen sockets; two sockets under the one board, and two sockets under the other board. 20 And thou shalt make bars of shittim wood; five, for the boards of the one side of the talxirnacle; 27 And five bars for the boards of the other side of the tabernacle, and five bars for the boards of the side of the tabernacle, for the back wall, westward. 28 And the middle bar in the midst of the boards, passing from the one end to the other end. 29 And the boards thou shalt overlay with gold, and their rings thou shalt make of gold, as receptacles for the bars; and thou shalt overlay the bars with gold. 30 And thou shalt rear up the tabernacle, according to the fashion thereof, which thou hast been sho¶ai on the mount.'–' 31 ¶ And thou shalt make a vail of blue, and purple, and scarlet yarn, and twisted Imen, of wewers' work shall it be made, with cherubim. 32 And thou shalt hang" it upon four pillars of shittim wood overlaid –n–ith gold; their hooks also shall be of gold ; upon four sockets of silver. 83 And thou shalt hang up the vail under the hooks ;**and thou shalt bring in thither within the vail the ark of the testimony ; and the vail shall di\dde unto you between the holy place and the holy of holies. 34 And thou shalt put the cover upon the ark of the testimony in the holy of holies. 35 And thou shalt set the table without the vail, and the candlestick over against the thus the tops of the boards were firmly joined, the bars next described were either inserted in the rings, on the outside of the boards, or through their centre, thus ren– dering the temporary structure one of great firmness. c Lit. "Thou shalt place." The same is also in v. 33. d Above we are told that the curtains, forming what is called the "tabernacle," should be coupled by means of golden hooks. This work was thrown over the boards after they were set up ; and as it rested over the front of the sanctuary, the hooks of course were at the end of the twentieth cubit thereof; consequently they divided the tabernacle proper into two unequal parts : the one of twenty cubits was the holy place ; the other of ten cubits, beyond the vail, the holy of holies. 97 [Page 98] EXODUS XXVI. XXVII. XXVIII. TETZAVVEH. table on the side of the tabernacle, tOward the south; and the table thou shalt put on the north side. 36 And thou shalt make a hanging for the door of the tent, of blue, and purple, and scarlet yarn, and twisted linen ; the work of the embroiderer 37 And thou shalt make for the hanging five pillars of shittim wood, and overlay them I, with gold, their hooks also shall be of gold ; and thou shalt cast for them five sockets of copper.* CHAPTER XXVII. 1 ¶ And thou shalt make the altar of shittim wood ; five cubits long, and five cubits broad, a foursquare shall the altar be, and three cubits shall be its height. 2 And thou shalt make its horns on its four corners, from itself shall its horns be ; ' and thou shalt overlay it with copper. 3 And thou shalt make its pots to receive its ashes, and its shovels, and its basms, and its foi'ks, and its fire–pans ; all its vessels thou ' shalt make of copper. . 4 And thou shalt make for it a grating, of a network of copper ; and thou shalt make upon the net four rings of coyper, on its four comers. ! 5 And thou shalt put it under the compass" of the altar beneath, and the net shall reach even to the half of the altar. 6 And thou shalt make stwes for the altar, stwes of shittim wood, and overlay them with copper. 7 And the stwes shall be put into the rings, and the stwes shall be upon the two sides of the altar, when they bear it.*" i 8 Hollow, of boards, shalt thou make it; as it was shown to thee on the mount, so shall they make it.* 9 ¶ And thou shalt make the court of the tabernacle: for the south side, on the right, the hangings for tiie court, of twisted linen, shall be a hundred cubits in length, for the one side. 10 And its pillars shall be twenty, with their twenty sockets of copper; the hooks of the pillars and their fillets shall be of silver. 11 And likewise for the north side in the length there shall be hangings one hundred cubits in length, and its pillars twenty with their twenty sockets of copper; the hooks of the pillars and their fillets shall be of silver. 12 And (for) the breadth of the court on the west side shall be fifty cubits of hangings ; their pillars shall be ten, and their sockets ten. 13 And the breadth of the court on the front side, eastward, shall be fifty cubits. 14 And fifteen cubits of hangings shall be on the one Aving; their pillars shall Ije three and their sockets three. 15 And on the other wing shall be fifteen cubits of hangings; their pillars shall be three, and their sockets three. 16 And for the gate of the court shall be a hanging of twenty cubits, of blue, and pur– ple, and scarlet yarn, and twisted linen, the work of the embroiderer; with four pillars for the same, and their four sockets.* 17 All the pillars round about the court shall be filleted with silver; their hooks shall be of silver, and their sockets of copper. 18 The length of the court shall be one hundred cubits, and the breadth fifty by fifty, and the height five cubits, of twisted linen, and the sockets for the same of copper. 19 All the vessels of the tabernacle in all the service thereof, and all its pins, and all the pins of the court, shall be of copper. Haphtorah in 1 Kings v. 26 to vi. 13. a i. e. A sort of gallery running round the altar, on irbich the priests stood in offering. SECTION XX. TETZAVVEH, r¶)ir\. 20 ¶ And thou shalt command the chil– dren of Israel, that they bring thee pure olive oil, beaten out, for the lighting, to cause a light to burn always. 21 In the taternacle of the congregation, without the vail, which is before the testi– mony, shall Aaron with his sons arrange it (for) from the evening to the morning, be– fore the Lord; as a statute for ever unto their generations, on behalf of the children of Israel. CHAPTER XXVIII. 1 ¶ And thou shalt let come near unto thee Aaron thy brother, and his sons with him, from among the children of Israel, that he may be a priest unto me; Aaron, Nadab b This implies, that at other times they shall be taken out, but from the ark they were never to be moved. [Page 99] EXODUS XXVIII. TETZAVVEH. and Abihu, Elazar and Ithamar, the sons of Aaron. 2 And thou shalt make holy garments for Aaron thy brother, for glory and for orna– ment. 3 And thou shalt speak unto all that are wisehearted, whom I have filled with the spirit of wisdom, that they may make gar– ments for Aaron, to sanctify him, that he may be a priest unto me. 4 And these are the garments which they shall make : a breastplate, and an ephod, and a robe, and a checkered coat, a mitre, and a girdle; and they shall make holy gannents for Aaron thy brother, and for his sons, to be a priest unto me. 5 And they shall take the gold, and the blue, and purple, and scarlet yarn, and the linen. 6 ¶" And they shall make the ephod, of gold, of blue, and of purple, of scarlet yarn,* and twisted linen, of wewer's work. 7 Two shoulder–pieces shall it have joined at the two edges thereof; by which it shall be joined together.'' 8 And the belt for girding, which is upon it, shall be of the same make, out of the same piece with itself; of gold, of blue, and purple, and scarlet yam, and twisted linen. 9 And thou shalt take two onyx stones, and engrave on them the names of the chil– dren of Israel : 10 Six of their names on the one stone, and the names of the remaining six on the other stone, according to the order of their birth. 11 With the work of an engi'wer in stone, like the engraving of a signet, shalt thou en– grave the two stones with the names of the children of Israel; fitted in settings of gold shalt thou make them. 12 And thou shalt put the two stones upon the shoulder–pieces of the ephod as stones of memorial unto the children of Israel; and Aaron shall bear their names before the Lord upon his two shoulders for a memorial.* a Where this word is used in the present version, it means "woollen" j"arn; the term is not employed how– ever in the Hebrew, which merely has always "blue, pur– ple, and scarlet." b Arnheim thinks that this means "to the breastplate," which was, as afterward directed, joined to the ephod; but Rashi understands it to convey that the shoulder– pieces should be sewed on the ephod, not woven with it in one piece. 13 ¶ And thou shalt make casings of gold ; 14 And two chains of pure gold, with knots at the ends, of wreathed work shalt thou make them, and thou shalt fasten the wreathed chains to the casings. 15 If And thou shalt make the breastplate of judgment, of wewer's work; after the work of the ephod thou shalt make it; of gold, of blue, and purple, and scarlet yam, and of twisted linen, shalt thou make it. 16 Four–square shall it be, double; a spaa in length, and a span in breadth. 17 And thou shalt set in it settings of stones, even four rows of stones : the first row, a sardius," a topaz, and an emerald; this shall be the first row. 18 And the second row, a carbuncle, a sapphire, and a diamond. 19 And the third row, an opal, a turquoise, and an amethyst. 20 And the fourth row, a chrysolite, and an onyx, and a jasper: they shall be fitted in golden casings when they are set in. 21 And the stones shall be according to the names of the children of Israel, twelve, according to their names ; (engraved) with the engraving of a signet, every one according to his name, shall they be for the twelve tribes. 22 And thou shalt make on the breas¶jlate chains with knots at the ends, of wreathed work, of pui'e gold. 23 And thou shalt make on the breastr plate two rings of gold, and shalt yint the two rings on the two ends of the breastplate. 24 And thou shalt put the two Avreathed chains of gold in the two rings, on the ends of the breastplate. 25 And the (other) two ends of the two wreathed chains thou shalt fasten on the two casings, and put them on the shoulder–pieces of the ephod on the outside thereof 26 And thou shalt make two rings of gold, and thou shalt put them on the two ends of the breastplate on its border, which is on the opposite side of the ephod, inward. c "Or ruby." The correct meaning of the names of the jewels in the breastplate is so uncertain that both Mendelssohn and Arnheim have left them untranslated. They are supported in this omission by the great diversity of opinion prevailing among commentators. The version given in the present text must therefore be looked upon as an approximation, developed in a note to Amheim's [Page 100] EXODUS XXVIII. XXIX. TETZAVVEH. 27 And thou shalt make two more rings of gold, and shalt put them on the two shoulder–pieces of the ephod underneath, to– ward its front part, close by its seam, above the girdle of the ephod. 28 And they shall fasten the breastplate by its rings unto the rings of the ephod with a lace of blue, that it may remain on the girdle of the ephod, and that the breastplate be not loosed from the ephod. 29 And Aaron shall bear the names of the children of Israel in the breastplate of judg– ment upon his heart, when he goeth in unto the holy place, for a memorial before the Lord continually. 30 And thou shalt put into the breastplate of judgment the Urim and the Thummim, and they shall be upon Aaron's heart, when he goeth in before the Lord ; and Aaron shall bear the judgment of the children of Israel upon his heart before the Lord continually.* 31 ¶ And thou shalt make the robe of the ephod altogether of blue woollen yarn. 32 And there shall be an opening in the top of it, in the midst thereof; it shall have a binding of woven work, round about its opening, as it is on the opening of an haber– geon, so shall it be thereon, that it be not rent. 33 And thou shalt make on its lower hem pomegranates of blue, and purple, and scarlet yai–n, round about its lower hem; and bells of gold between them round about: 34 A golden bell and a pomegranate, a golden bell and a pomegranate, on the lower hem of the robe round about. 35 And it shall be upon Aaron when he ministereth; and his sound shall be heard when he goeth in unto the holy place before the Lord, and when he cometh out, that he die not. 36 ¶ And thou shalt make a plate of pure gold, and grave upon it, like the engraving of a signet, Holy unto the Lord. 37 And thou shalt fiisten it on a blue lace, and it shall be upon the mitre ; upon the front of the mitre shall it be. 38 And it shall be upon Aaron's forehead; and Aaron shall atone for the iniquity of the holy things, which the children of Israel shall hallow in all their holy gifts; and it shall be upon his forehead always, that they may be received in favour before the Lord. 39 And thou shalt make the coat of linen 100 checkered, and thou shalt make a mitre of linen, and a girdle shalt thou make of em– broiderer's work. 40 And for Aaron's sons shalt thou make coats, and thou shalt make for them girdles ; and bonnets thou shalt make for them, for glory and for ornament. 41 And thou shalt clothe therewith Aaron thy brother, and his sons with him; and thou shalt anoint them, and consecrate" them, and sanctify them, that they may be priests unto me. 42 And thou shalt make them linen breeches to cover their nakedness ; from the loins even unto the thighs shall they reach. 43 And they shall be upon Aaron, and upon his sons, when they come in unto the tabernacle of the congregation, or when they come near unto the altar to minister in the holy place ; that they bear not iniquity, and die ; a statute for ever shall it be for him and for his seed after him.* CHAPTER XXIX. 1 ¶ And this is the thing that thou shalt do unto them to hallow them, to become priests unto me: Take one young bullock, and two rams without blemish, 2 And unleavened bread, and unleavened cakes, mingled with oil, and unleavened wafers, anointed with oil; of fine wheaten flour shalt thou make them. 3 And thou shalt put ¶ijem into one basket, and bring them near"' in the basket, with the bullock and the two rams. 4 And Aaron and his sons shalt thou bring near unto the door of the tabernacle of the congregation, and shalt wash them with Avater. 5 And thou shalt take the garments, and clothe Aaron with the coat, and the robe of the ephod, and the ephod, and the breast– plate, and gird him with the girdle of the ephod : 6 And thou shalt put the mitre upon his head, and thou shalt fasten the holy croAvn upon the mitre. 7 Then shalt thou take the anointing oil, and pour it upon his head, and anoint him. a Heb. " Fill their hand;" the consecr.ition is to say a gift, placed in the hand of a man, thus filling it with the same. b i. e. Near the altar as a sacrifice. [Page 101] EXODUS XXIX. TETZAVVEH. 8 And his sons shalt thou bring near, and clothe them with coats. 9 And thou shalt gird them with the gir– dles, Aaron and his sons, and bmd the bonnets on them ; and the priest's office shall be theirs for a perpetual statute : and thus shalt thou conseci'ate Aaron and his sons. 10 And thou shalt cause the bullock to be bi'ought before the tabernacle of the congre– gation : and Aaron and his sons shall lay their hands upon the head of the bullock. 11 And thou shalt kill the bullock before the Lord, by the door of the tabernacle of the congregation. 12 And thou shalt take of the blood of the bullock, and put it upon the horns of the altar with thy finger, and all the remaining* blood shalt thou pour out beside the bottom of the altar. 13 And thou shalt take all the fat that covereth the inwards, and the midriff above the liver, and the two kidneys, and the fat that is upon them, and burn them upon the altar. 14 But the flesh of the bullock, and his skin, and his dung, shalt thou bum with fire, without the camp : it is a sin–ofiering. 15 And the one ram shalt thou take; and Aaron and his sons shall lay their hands upon the head of the ram. 16 And thou shalt slay the ram, and thou shalt take his blood, and sprinkle it upon the altar round about. 17 And the I'am shalt thou cut in pieces, and wash his inwards, and his legs, and put them with his pieces, and with his head. 18 And thou shalt burn the whole ram upon the altar, it is a burnt–oifering unto the Lord; it is a sweet avour, an offering made by fire unto the Lord.* 19 And thou shalt take the other ram; ajid Aaron and his sons shall lay their hands upon the head of the ram. 20 Then shalt thou kill the ram, and take of his blood, and put it upon the tip*" of Aaron's right ear, and upon the tip of the right ear of his sons, and upon the thumb of their right hand, and upon the great toe of a The literal rendering would be " all the blood," the word " remaining" is supplied by Rashi, and is required by the context, as likewise in other parallel passages. b More correctly, the central prominent portion of the car, the anti–helix. their right foot, and sprinkle the blood upon the altar round about. 21 And thou shalt take of the blood that is upon the altar, and of the anointing oil, and sprinkle them upon Aaron, and upon his gamicnts, and upon his sons, and upon the garments of his sons with him : and he shall be hallowed, together with his garments, and his sons, and the garments of his sons with him. 22 And thou shalt take from the ram the fat and the rump, and the fat that covereth the inwards, and the midrifi" above the liver, and the two kidneys, and the fat that is upon them, and the right shoulder; lor it is a ram of consecration ; 23 And one loaf of bread, and one cake of the oiled bread, and one wafer, out of the basket of the unleavened bread that is before the Lord. 24 And thou shalt put all this upon the hands of Aaron, and upon the hands of his sons; and thou shalt make with them a waving before the Lord. 25 And thou shalt then take them from their hands, and burn them upon the altar upon the burnt¶ofiering ; for a sweet savour before the Lord, it is an ofiering made by fire unto the Lord. 26 And thou shalt take the breast of the ram of the consecration that belongeth to Aaron, and make therewith a waving" before the Lord; and it shall belong to thee as thy portion. 27 And thou shalt sanctify the breast which hath been wwed, and the shoulder which hath been lifted up, which was wwed, and which was hewed up, of the ram of the con– secration, of that which belongeth to Aaron, and of that which belongeth to his sons : 28 That they shall belong to Aaron and to his sons, as a statute forever, from the chil– dren of Israel ; for it is a hewe–oifering ; and a hewe–offering it shall remain from the chil– dren of Israel, from the sacrifices of their peacc– oflferings, as their hewe–offering unto the Lord. 29 And the holy garments belonging to Aaron shall be for his sons after him, to c The owner of the sacrifice placed the pieces on his hands, and the priest put his under the other's, and they together wwed the sacrifice to the four comers of heaven, lifted and lowered it ; this is the " waving and lifting up" spoken of in the text. 101 [Page 102] EXODUS XXIX. XXX. TETZAVVEH. anoint them therein, and to consecrate them therein. 30 Seven days shall that one of his sons put them on who is to be priest in his place, who is to go into the tabernacle of the con– gregation to minister in the sanctuary. 31 And the ram of the consecration shalt thou take, and seethe his flesh in a holy place. 32 And Aaron with his sons shall eat the flesh of the ram, and the bread that is in the basket, by the door of the tabernacle of the congregation. 33 And they shall eat those things where– with the atonement was made, to consecrate them and to sanctify them; but a stranger shall not eat thereof, because they are holy. 34 And if aught of the flesh of the conse– cration sacrifice, or of the bread, remain unto the mornmg, then shalt thou bum the re– mainder with fire ; it shall not be eaten, be– cause it is holy. 35 And thou shalt do unto Aaron, and to his sons thus, all as I have commanded thee; seven days shalt thou consecrate them. 36 And a bullock shalt thou offer every day for a sin–offering as an atonement:" and thou shalt cleanse the altai–, in as much as thou makest an atonement upon it ; and thou shalt anoint it, to sanctify it. 37 Seven days shalt thou make an atone– ment upon the altar and sanctify it ; and the altar shall be most holy; whatsoever'' toucheth the altar shall be holy.'"' 38 ¶ And this is what thou shalt offer upon the altar : Two lambs of the first year for every day, continually. 39 The one lamb shalt thou offer in the morning ; and the other lamb shalt thou offer toward evening. 40 And a tenth part of fine flour mingled with the four¶i part of a hin of beaten oil, and the fourth part of a hin of wine for a drink–offering, shall be for the one lamb. 41 And the other lamb shalt thou offer to– ward evening; according to the meat–offering of the mormng, and according to its drink– offering shalt thou do unto it, for a sweet savour, an offering made by fire unto the Lord. a After Rashi. But Aben Ezra renders, " in addition to the atonement," referring to the two rams mentioned above. b Aben Ezra quotes an opinion, which is partly that of Onkelos, that this should be rendered, " whoever toucheth 102 42 A continual bunit–offering throughout your generations (shall this be) at the door of the tabernacle of the congregation before the Lord; where I will meet with you, to speak unto thee there. 43 And I will meet there with the children of Israel, and it shall be sanctified by my glory. 44 And I will sanctify the tabernacle of the congregation, and the altar: and both Aaron and his sons wall I sanctify, that they may be priests unto me. 45 And I will dwell among the children of Israel, and I will be to them for a God. 46 And they shall know that I am the Eternal, their God, who brought them forth out of the land of Egypt, that I might dwell among them; I am the Lord their God. CHAPTER XXX. 1 ¶ And thou shalt make an altar to burn in– cense upon,of shittim wood shalt thou make it. 2 A cubit shall be its length, and a cubit its breadth ; foursquare shall it be, and two cubits shall be its height ; from itself shall its horns be. 3 And thou shalt overlay it A\'ith pure gold, its top, and, its sides round about, and its horns ; and thou shalt make unto it a crown of gold round about. 4 And two rings of gold shalt thou make for it Ijcneath its crown, on its two comers shalt thou make them, upon both its sides; and they shall be as i–eceptacles for the stwes to bear it by means of them. 5 And thou shalt make the stwes of shit– tim wood, and overlay them with gold. 6 And thou shalt put it before the vail that is before the ark of the testimony, before the mercy–seat that is over the testimony, where I will meet with thee. 7 And Aaron shall burn thereon incense of spices; every morning when he dresseth the lamps, shall he burn it.* 8 And when Aaron lighteth the lamps to– ward evening, shall he burn it; a perpetual incense before the Lord, throughout your generations. 9 Ye shall not offer thereon any strange" the altar must be holy," exc10ding those who are unclean from touching thereon. Arnheim translates in the same manner. c i. e. Any other incense than that commanded here– after, V. 34. (See also Levit. x. 1.) [Page 103] EXODUS XXX. KI TISSAH. incense, or burnt–sacrifice, or meat–offering; and a drink–offering shall ye not pour thereon. 10 And Aaron shall make an atonement upon its horns once in a year ; with the blood of the sin–offering of the day of atonement," once in the year, shall he make atonement upon it, throughout your generations; it is most holy unto the Lord. Haphtorah in Ezekiel xliii. 10 to 27. SECTION XXI. KI TISSAH, NttTI O. 11 ¶ And the Lord spoke unto Moses, saying, 12 When thou takest the sum of the chil– dren of Israel of those who are to be num– bered of them, then shall they give every man a ransom for his soul unto the Lord, when they number them; that thei–e be no plague among them, when they numl¶er them. 13 This they shall give, every one that passeth among those that are numbered, half a shekel after the shekel of the sanctuary ; twenty gerahs to the shekel ; the half of the shekel shall be the tribute to the Lord. 14 Every one that passeth among those that are numbered, from twenty years old and above, shall give the tribute unto the Lord. 15 The rich shall not give more, and the poor shall not give less than the half of a shekel, as a tribute unto the Lord, to make an atonement for your souls. 16 And thou shalt take the money of the atonement from the children of Israel, and shalt employ it for the service of the taber– nacle of the congregation; and it shall be unto the children of Israel as a memorial be– fore the Lord, to make an atonement for your souls. 17 ¶ And the Lord spoke mi to Moses, saying, 18 Thou shalt also make a lwer of copper, with its foot of copper, to wash withal : and thou shalt set it between the tabernacle of the congregation and the altar, and thou shalt put therein water. 19 And Aaron and his sons shall wash out of it their hands and their feet. a See Leviticus xvi. 18, where it is ordained that on the Day of Atonement the blood of a steer and a goat should be sprinkled on this altar; at other times nothing but in– cense was burnt on it. 20 When they go into the tabernacle of the congregation, they shall wash themselves with water, that they die not ; or when they come near to the altar to minister, to burn an offering made by fire unto the Lord. 21 And they shall wash their hands and their feet, that they die not; and it shall be to them a statute for ever, even to him and to his seed throughout their generations. 22 ¶ And the Lord spoke unto Moses, saying, 23 And thou, take unto thyself principal spices; of pure myrrh five hundred shekels, and of sweet cinnamon, its half' shall be two hundred and fifty shekels, and of sweet cala– mus two hundred and fifty shekels, 24 And of cassia five hundred shekels, after the shekel of the sanctuary, and of olive– oil one hin. 25 And thou shalt make of it an oil of holy anointing, a mixture, compounded after the art of the apothecary: an oil of hoi}" anointing shall it be. 20 And thou shalt anoint therewith the tabernacle of the congregation, and the ark of the testimony, 27 And the table and all its vessels, and the candlestick and its vessels, and the altar of incense, 28 And the altar of burnt–offering with all its vessels, and the lwer and its foot. 29 And thou shalt sanctify them, and they shall be most holy; whatsoever toucheth them shall be holy. 30 And Aaron and his sons shalt thou anoint, and consecrate them to be priests unto me. 31 And unto the children of Israel shalt thou speak, saving. An oil of holy anointing shall this be unto me throughout your gene– rations. 32 Upon the flesh of man shall it not be poured, and after its proportion shall ye not make any thing like it; it is holy, and holy shall it be unto you. 33 Whosoever compoimdeth the like of it, or whosoever putteth any of it upon a stran– ger, shall be cut off from his people. 34 ¶ And the Lord said unto Moses, Take b "The half of what is brought of it shall be two hun– dred shekels, which gives the weight of the whole equal to that of the myrrh." — Talmud Keritotu. 103 [Page 104] EXODUS XXX. XXXI. KI TISSAH. unto thee spices, balm, and onycha, and gal– banum, spices, with pure frankincense: of each shall there be an equal" weight. 35 And thou shalt make it an incense, a mixture after the art of the apothecary, well mingled'' together, pure and holy. 36 And thou shalt pound some of it fine, and offer of it before the testimony in the taljer– nacle of the congregation, whei'e I will meet with thee ; most holy shall it be unto you. 37 And as for the incense which thou shalt make, according to its proportion, shall ye not make any unto yourselves : holy shall it be unto thee for the Lord. 38 Whosoever shall make the like of it, to smell thereon, shall be cut off from his people. CHAPTER XXXI. 1 ¶ And the Lord spoke unto Moses, say– ing, 2 See, I have called by name Bezalel the son of Uri, the son of Chur, of the tribe of Judah: 3 And I have filled him with the spirit of God, in wisdom, and in understanding, and in knowledge, and in all manner of workman– ship, 4 To devise works of art, to work in gold, and in silver, and in cojijper, 5 And in the cutting of stones, to set them, and in the car¶'ing of wood, to work in all manner of workmanship. 6 And behold, I have also given with him Aholial), the son of Achissamach, of the tribe of Dan, and in the heart of all that are wise– hearted have I put wisdom ; and they shall make all that I have commanded thee; 7 The tabernacle of the congregation, and the ark of the testimony, and the cover that is thereupon, and all the vessels of the taber– nacle ; a After Onkelos and Talmud ; but Aben Ezra translates, "Each shall be prepared separately." b Aben Ezra considered nSoD as derived from nSo "salt," thus, "salted," that is, "bestrewed with salt of Sodom, or nitre." Rosenmiiller, as quoted by Arnheim, considers this kind of salt referred to under the words "pure, lioly," in contradistinction to coni7uon salt. The use of salt of Sodom with the incense is traditional. c " Although I have ordered thee to charge them con– cerning the building of the tabernacle, the Sabbath must not be underva10ed in thy eyes ; for though you are busily engaged in the labour of building, the Sabbath must on no ateount be violated to do the least of this work." — Rashi. 104 8 And the table and its vessels, and the pure candlestick with all its vessels, and the altar of incense ; 9 And the altar of burnt–offering with all its vessels, and the lwer and its foot ; 10 And the cloths of service, and the holy garments for Aaron the priest, and the gar– ments of his sons, to minister therein; 11 And the anointing oil, and the incense of spices for the holy place: all as I have commanded thee shall they do. 12 ¶ And the Lord said unto Moses as foUoweth, 13 And thou shalt speak unto the children of Israel, saying, Above all," my sabbaths shall ye keep; for a sign it is between me and you throughout your generations; that ye may know that I am the Lord who doth sanctify you. 14 And ye shall keep the sabbath, for it is holy unto you; every one that defileth it shall surely be put to death; for whosoever doeth any work thereon, that soul shall be cut off from among his people. 15 Six days may work be done; but on the seventh is the sabbath of rest, holy to the Lord : whosoever doeth any work on the sab– bath–day, shall surely be put to death. 16 And the children of Israel shall keep the sabbath, to observe the sabbath through– out their generations, for a perpetual cove– nant. 17 Between me and the children of Israel it shall be a sign for ever; for in six days the Lord made the heavens and the earth, and on the seventh day he rested, and was re– freshed.''* 18 ¶ And he gave 10ito Moses, when he had finished speaking with him upon mount Sinai, the two tables of the testimony, tables of stone, inscribed with the finger of God. d This, like many other expressions in Scripture, must be taken merely as expressing divine acts by human words. Mendelssohn renders freely "and attained his aim," but this is scarcely the sense of the word csyi. Philippson renders curiously, "and was by himself," i. e. "happy in his own contemplation," rendering the word literally as derived from nrphesh, "soul." Perhaps Men– delssohn translated it freely as he did from the same view of the subject. But even the word "rested" is as little applicable as "refreshed," since the Creator has neither labour nor fat16ue; but it is all f16urative. Arnheim gives "3 in this verse with "that," and not "for," mean– ing that the Sabbath is the token that we believe that God created all in specific time. [Page 105] EXODUS XXXII. KI TISSAH CHAPTER XXXII. 1 And when the people saw that Moses delayed to come down from the mount, the people assembled themselves together around Aaron, and they said unto him, Up, make us gods, that shall go Ijefore us ; for of this man Moses, who hath brought us up out of the land of Egypt, we know not what is become of him. 2 And Aaron said unto them. Take out the golden ear–rings, which are in the ears of your wives, of your sons, and of your daugh– ters, and bring them unto me. 3 And all the people took out the golden ear–rings which were in their ears, and brought them unto Aaron. 4 And he took them from their hand, and fashioned it in a mould, and he made of it a molten calf; and they said. These are thy gods, Israel, that have brought thee up out of the land of Egypt. 5 And when Aaron saw this, he built an altar before it; and Aaron called out, and said, A feast unto the Lord is to–morrow. 6 And they rose up early on the morrow, and offered burnt¶offermgs, and brought near peace–offerings;" and the people sat down to eat and to drink, and rose up to play. 7 ¶ And the Lord spoke unto Moses, Go, get thee down; for thy people, which thou hast brought up out of the land of Egypt, hath become corrupt: 8 They have turned aside quickly from the way which I have commanded them; they have made themselves a molten calf; and they have bowed themselves to it, and have sacrificed unto it, and have said. These are thy gods, Israel, that have brought thee up out of the land of Egypt. 9 And the Lord said unto Moses, I have seen this people, and, behold, it is a stiiF– necked people. 10 And now let me alone, and my wrath shall wax hot against them, and I will make a In the preceding verse, Aaron is represented as tolling the people that on the morrow there should be a festival unto the Lord, no doubt expecting the return of Moses, which would occasion a renewed fidelity to their great Deliverer. But early the next morning, the frantic people assembled round the statue of their idol, shout– ed, sacrificed, played, rioted, sang, in the manner of the heathen, forgetful of the events which their own eyes had seen. Aaron, however, must not be supposed an end of them ; and I will make of thee a great nation. 11 Thereupon Moses besought the Lord his God, and said, Why, Lord, shall thy wrath wax hot against thy people, that thou hast brought forth out of the land of Egypt, with great power and with a mighty hand? 12 Wherefore should the Egyptians say thus. For mischief did he bring them out, to slay them in the mountains, and to destroy them from the face of the earth? Turn from thy fierce wrath, and repent thee of the evil decreed against thy people. 13 Remember Abraham, Isaac, and Israel, thy servants, to whom thou didst swear by thy own self, and speak unto them, I wiil multiply your seed as the stars of heaven; and all this land that I have spoken of will I give unto your seed, and they shall inherit it for ever. 14 And the Lord bethought himself of the evil which he had spoken to do unto his people. 15 ¶ And Moses turned about, and went down from the mount with the two tables of the testimony in his hand; tables inscribed on both their sides; on the one side and on the other were they inscribed. 16 And the tables were the work of God, and the writing was the writing of God, en– graved upon the tables. 17 And Joshua heard the noise of the peo– ple in its shouting, and he said unto Moses. There is a noise of war in the camj). 18 And he said. It is not the voice of a shout for mastery, neither is it the voice of a cry for defeat; the noLse of singing do I hear. 19 And it came to pass, when he came nigh unto the camp, and he saw the calf, and the dancing : that the anger of Moses waxed hot, and he cast from his hands the tables, and broke them at the foot of the mount. 20 And he took the calf which they had made, and burnt'' it in fire, and ground it to a powder, and he strewed it upon the as having farther participated in the sin than making the calf. b Arnheim adds " partly," and supposes that the body of the calf was a frame–work of wood, and the gold merely a covering for it. Philippson, however, after Michlol Yoi'HI, thinks that Moses melted the calf first, then re– duced it by beating and rolling to plates of the utmost possible thinness, which he then mixed with water, as described in the text. 105 [Page 106] EXODUS XXXIT. XXXIII. KI TISSAH. water, and made the children of Isi–coel drink of it. 21 And Moses said unto Aaron, "What hath this people done unto thee, that thou hast brought upon it so great a sin ? " 22 And Aaron said, Let not the anger of my lord wax hot : thou knowest the people, that it is bent on mischief. 23 And they said unto me. Make us gods that shall go before us; for of this man Moses, who brought us up out of the land of Egypt, we know not what hath become of him. 24 And I said unto them. Who hath any gold ? They took it off themselves and gave it to me, and I cast it into the fire, and there came out this calf 25 And Moses saw the people that it had become unruly ; for Aaron had made it unruly for a disgrace among their opponents. 26 Moses then placed himself in the gate of the camp, and said. Whoever is on the Lord's side, let him come unto me ! and there assembled themselves unto him all" the sons of Levi. 27 And he said unto them, Thus saith the Eternal, the God of Israel, Put ye, every man his sword by his side, and go ye hither and thither, from gate to gate in the camp, and slay ye eveiy man his brother, and every man his companion, and every man his relar tive. 28 And the children of Levi did according to the word of Moses: and there fell of the people on that day about three thousand men. 29 And Moses said, Consecrate yourselves to–day to the Lord, yea even every man on his son, and on his bi'other; and to bestow upon you this day a blessing. 30 And it came to pass on the morrow, that Moses said unto the people. Ye have sin– ned a great sin : and now I will go up unto the Lord; peradventure I may obtain an atonement for your sin. 31 And Moses returned unto the Lord, a Arnheim wishes to understand under "all" not the whole, but the far greater majority, so as to reconcile it with verse 29, which Rashi expounds as referring to step– brothers and sons, belonging to other tribes. b Elliptical ; meaning, " If thou forgivest, it is well ; but if not," &c. This passage proves that no one can be permitted to assume the guilt of another. c This verse, crjually with the passage commencing with verse 12, is exceedingly difficult of interpretation ; it is therefore intended to give merely an idea of the mean– IOC and said, Oh, this people hath sinned a great sin, and they have made themselves gods of gold. 32 Yet now, if thou wilt forgive their sin — ;¶ but if not, blot me out, I pray thee, from thy book which thou hast written. 33 And the Lord said unto Moses, Whoso– ever hath sinned against me, liim will I blot out from my book. 34 And now go, lead the people unto the place of which I have spoken unto thee ; be– hold, my angel shall go before thee; but on the day when I visit I will visit their sin upon them. 35 And the Lord sent a plague among the people, because that they had made the calf which Aaron made. CHAPTER XXXIII. 1 ¶ And the Lord said unto Moses, Depart, go up from here, thou and the people that thou hast brought up out of the land of Egypt, unto the land which I swore unto Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob, saying. Unto thy seed will I give it; — 2 And I will send before thee an angel; and I will drive out the Canaanite, the Emor– ite, and the Hittite, and the Perizzite, the Hivite, and the Jebusite ; — 3 Unto a land flowing with milk and ho– ney ; for I will not go up in the midst of thee, because thou art a stiffnecked people; lest I consume thee on the way. 4 And when the people heard these evil tidings, they mourned; and no man did put his ornaments on him. 5 For the Lord had said unto Moses, Say unto the children of Israel, Ye are a still– necked people ; should I go" up one moment, in the midst of thee, I would consume thee ; now therefore put off thy ornaments from thee, and I shallknow what I will do unto thee. 6 The children of Israel then stripped ing in this note. God had said that his own visible glory should not go with the people on their journey, an angel, a messenger, was all they could expect; as his own pre– sence would consume them, should they sin again, they being stiffnecked, or disobedient. Their ornaments should be laid aside as an evidence that they were under the dis– pleasure of Hewen ; this humiliation, however, should not swe them from farther punishment ; for God would know how to make them feel in future the weight of their sin. (See above, xxxii. 34.) [Page 107] EXODUS XXXIII. XXXIV. KI TISSAH. themselves of their ornaments (they wore) from (the time they were at) Mount Horeb. 7 And Moses took the tent, and pitched it without the camp, afar off from the camp, and called it, Tabernacle of the congregation ; and it came to pass, that every one who sought (instruction of) the Lord went out unto the tabernacle of the congregation, which was without the camp. 8 And it came to pass, that when Moses went out unto the tent, all the people would rise up, and stand every man at the door of his tent, and look after Moses, until he was gone into the tent. 9 And it came to pass, that as Moses entered into the tent, the pillar of cloud de– scended, and –stood at the door of the tent, and spoke with Moses. 10 And when all the people saw the pillar of cloud stand at the door of the tent : then all the people rose up and prostrated them– selves, every man at the door of his tent. 11 And the Lord spoke unto Moses face to face, as a man speaketh unto his friend; and then he returned into the camp ; but his ser– vant, Joshua the son of Nun, a young man, departed not out of the tent. 12 If And Moses said unto the Lord, See, thou sayest unto me. Bring up this people ; but thou hast not let me know whom thou wilt send with me : and yet thou hast said, I have chosen thee by name, and thou hast also found grace in my eyes. 13 Now, therefore, I pray thee, if I have found grace in thy eyes, do make me know thy way, that I may know thee, in order that I may "find grace in thy eyes ; and consider that "this nation is thy people. 14 And he said, My presence shall go in advance, and I will give thee rest. 15 And he said unto him. If thy presence go not (with us.) carry us not up from here. 16 For wherem shall it be known in any wise that I have found grace in thy eyes, I with thy people ? is it not in that thou goest with us'? so shall we be distinguished, I and thy people, from all the people that are upon the face of the earth.* 17 II And the Lord said unto Moses, Also this thing that thou hast spoken will I do ; for thou hast found grace in my eyes, and I have chosen thee by name. 18 And he said, Let me see, I beseech thee, thy glory. 19 And he said, I will cause all my good– ness to pass before thy fiice, and I will pro– claim," by name, the Loud tefore thee ; and I will be gracious to whom I will be gracious, and I will show mercy to whom I will show mercy. 20 And he said, Thou canst not see my face ; for no man can see me, and live. 21 And the Lord said, Behold, there is a place by me, and thou shalt stand upon the rock: 22 And it shall come to pass, while my glory passeth by, that I will put thee in the cleft of the rock, and I will cover thee with my hand, until I have passed by. 23 And then I will take away my hand, and thou shalt see my back parts; but my face shall not be seeu.* CHAPTER XXXIV. 1 ¶ And the Lord said unto Moses, Hew thyself two tallies of stone like unto the first; and I will write upon these tables the words which were on the first tables, which thou didst break. 2 And be ready by the mommg, and come up in the morning unto mount Sinai, and present thyself there to me on the top of the mount. 3 And no man shall come up with thee, neither let any man be seen throughout all the mount; neither let the flocks or herds feed near this mount. 1 4 And he hewed two tables of stone like unto the first, and Moses rose up early in the I morning, and went up unto mount Sinai, as the Lord had commanded him ; and he took m his hand the two tables of stone. 5 And the Lord descended in the cloud, and stood with hun there, and proclaimed, by– name, the Lord. 6 And the Lord passed by before him, and proclaimed. The Lord is the immutable, eter– nal Being, the omnipotent God, merciful and gracious, long–suffering and abundant in benefi– cence and truth; a Arnheim renders : " And I will proclaim before thee ; the name, Eternal, and how I am gracious to whom I am : gracious, and how I have mercy on him to whom I show 1, mercy;" and he explains the verse: "This is the nature of this Divine Name, and this is also my way, for the know– ledge of which thou hast prayed." [Page 108] EXODUS XXXIV. KI TISSAH. 7 Keeping mercy unto the thousandth (ge– nei'ation,) forgiving iniquity and transgression and sin, but who will by no means clear the guilty; visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children, and upon the children's children, unto the third and to the fourth generation. 8 And Moses made haste, and bowed his head toward the earth, and prostrated himself 9 And he said, If now I have found grace in thy eyes, Lord, let the Lord, I pray thee, go among us ; even because*it is a stiifnecked people ; and pai'don thou our iniquity and our sin, and take us for thy heritage.* 10 And he said, Behold, I make a cove– nant: before all thy people will I perform wonders, such as have not been done on all the earth, nor in any nation; and all the peo– ple amongst whom thou art shall see the work of the Lord; for it is a terrible thing that I will do with thee. 11 Observe thou that which I command thee this day ; behold, I will drive out before thee the Emorite, and the Canaauite, and the Hittite, and the Perizzite, and the Hivite, and the Jebusite. 12 Take heed to thyself, lest thou make a covenant with the inhabitants of the land against which thou goest up, lest it be for a snare in the midst of thee ; 13 But their altars shall ye destroy, and their statues shall ye break, and their groves shall ye cut down. 14 For thou shalt worship no other god; for the Lord whose name is Watchful, is a watchful God. 15 Make thou then no covenant with the inhabitants of the land ; lest that, if they go astray after their gods, and sacrifice unto their gods, any one call thee, and thou eat of his sacrifice ; 16 And lest thou take of his daughters unto thy sons ; and when his daughters go astray after their gods, they make thy sons also go astray after their gods. 17 Thou shalt not make unto thyself any molten gods. 18 The feast of unleavened bread shalt thou a After Arnheim, who comments : Moses prayed that God himself should go before them, not send an angel, who would inexorably punish, (xsiii. 21,) for he had no power to pardon. But the glory of God guiding them, they would be under his immediate providence, and he, 108 keep ; seven days shalt thou eat unleavened bread, as I have commanded thee, in the time of the month of Abib ; for in the month of Abib thou wen test forth out of Egypt. 19 All that openeth the womb is mine; and every firs¶ing that is a male among thy cattle, whether ox or lamb. 20 But the firs¶ing of an ass shalt thou re– deem with a lamb; and if. thou redeem him not, then shalt thou break his neck ; all the first–bom of thy sons shalt thou redeem ; and none shall appear before me empty. 21 Six days thou may est work, but on the seventh day shalt thou rest : even in plough– ing time and in harvest shalt thou rest. 22 And the feast of weeks shalt thou ob– serve, with the first–fruits of the wheat har– vest ; and the feast of ingathering at the clos– ing of the year. 23 Thrice in the year shall all thy males appear before the Lord, the Eternal, the God of Israel. 24 For I will cast out nations before thee, and enlarge thy borders ; yet shall no man desire thy land, when thou goest up to appear in the presence of the Lord thy God thrice in the year. 25 Thou shalt not ofier the blood of my sacrifice with leaven; neither shall be left unto the morning the sacrifice of the feast of the passover. 26 The fii'st of the first–fruits of thy land shalt thou bring unto the house of the Lord thy God ; thou shalt not seethe a kid in his mother's milk.* 27 ¶ And the Lord said unto Moses, Write thee down these words ; for after the tenor of these words have I made with thee a covenant and with Israel. 28 And he remained there with the Lord forty days and forty nights; bread he did not eat, and water he did not drink ; and he wrote upon the tables the words of the cove– nant, the ten commandments. 29 And it came to pass, when Moses came down from mount Sinai, with the two tables of the testimony in Moses' hand, when he came down from the mount, that Moses knew the Merciful, would thus forgive, according to his good– ness and loving grace toward sinners. Rashi, however, renders '3 like dn thus : " If it be a stiffnecked people, do thou pardon." The sense in cither case is still the same. [Page 109] EXODUS XXXIV. XXXV. VAYAKHEL. not that the skin of his face shone," because I he had spoken with him. 30 And Aaron and all the children of ! Israel saw Moses, and, behold, the skin of his face shone : and they were afraid*" to come nigh unto him. 31 But Moses called unto them, and then returned unto him Aaron and all the prmces of the congregation: and Moses spoke to them. 32 And afterward all the children of Israel came nigh : and he commanded them all that which the Lord had spoken with him on ' mount Sinai.*i 33 And when Moses had done speaking jl with them, he put a vail over his face. !j 34 But when Moses went in before the [; Lord to speak with him, he took the vail oiF, i until he came out; and then he came out, i; and spoke unto the childi'en of Israel that which he had been commanded. 35 And the children of Israel saw the face of Moses, that the skin of Moses' face shone : and Moses put the vail again over his face, until he went in to speak with him. Haphtorah i. King's xviii. 1–39 : some commence at verse 20. SECTION XXII. VAYAKHEL, hnp'X CHAPTER XXXV 1 ¶ And Moses gathered together all the congregation of the children of Israel, and said unto them, These are the things which the Lord hath commanded, that ye should do them. 2 Six days shall work be done, but on the seventh day there shall be to you a holy day, a sabbath of rest to the Lord: whosoever doeth woi'k thereon shall be put to death. 3 Ye shall not kindle any fire throughout your habitations upon the sabbath day. 4 ¶ And Moses said unto all the congrega– tion of the children of Israel, as followeth. This is the thing which the Lord hath com– manded, saying, 5 Take ye from among you an offering a Properly, " sent forth rays;" the skin being 10minous, and beaming. b " Come and see how great is the power of sin. Before they had stretched forth their hand to sin, what does the Bible say ? ' And the glory of the Lord was like a de– vouring fire on the top of the mount, before the eyes of the children of Israel;' and they neither feared nor trem– unto the Lord; whosoever is of a willing heart, let him bring it, an offering of the Lord : gold, and silver, and copper, 6 And blue, and purple, and scarlet yam, and linen thread, and goats' hair, 7 And rams' skins dyed red, and badgers' skins, and sliittim wood, 8 And oil for the lighting, and spices, for the anointing oil, and for the incense of spices, 9 And onyx stones, and stones for setting, for the ephod, and for the breastplate. 10 And all the wise–hearted among you shall come, and make all that which the Lord hath commanded ; 11 The tabernacle, its tent, and its cover– ing, its hooks, and its boards, its bars, its pil– lars, and its sockets, 12 The ark, and its stwes, with the mercy– seat, and the vail of the separation, 13 The table, and its stwes, and all its vessels, and the show–bread, 14 And the candlestick for the lighting, and its vessel, and its lamps, with the oil for the lighting, 15 And the altar of incense, and its stwes, and the anointing oil, and the incense of spices, and the hanging for the door at the entrance of the tabernacle, 16 The altar of burnt–offering, with its grating of copper, its stwes, and all its vessels, the lwer and its foot, 17 The hangings of the court, its pillai–s, and its sockets, and the hanging for the door of the court, 18 The pins of the tabernacle, and the pins of the court, and their cords, 19 The cloths" of service, to do service therewith in the holy place, the holy gar– ments for Aaron the priest, and the garments of his sons, to minister in as pi'iests. 20 And all the congregation of the chil– dren of Israel departed from the presence of Moses.''' 21 And they came, ever¶' man whose heart stirred him up ; and every one whom his spirit made willing, brought the Lord's offering for the work of the tabernacle of the bled ; but now, since they had made the calf, even before the rays of glory of Moses they feared and trembled." — Rashi. c The cloths of service were not the priestly garments, but those used for the covering of the sacred vessels when the Israelites were on their journey, as is commanded in the fourth chapter of Numbers. (See Rashi.) 109 [Page 110] EXODUS XXXV. XXXVI. VAYAKHEL. congregation, and for all its sersnce, and for the holy garments. 22 And they came, the men with the wo– men; whoever was willing–hearted, brought bracelets," and ear–rings, and finger–rings, and tablets, all kinds of ornaments of gold, and every man that offered an offering of gold unto the Lord. 23 And every man, with whom was found blue, and purple, and scarlet yarn, and linen thread, and goats' hair, and rams' skins dyed red, and badgers' skins, brought them. 24 Every one that did offer an offering of silver and copper brought it as the Lord's offering ; and every one mth whom was found shittim wood for any work of the service, brought it. 25 And all the women that were wise– hearted spun with their hands, and they brought that which they had spun, of the blue, and of the purple, and of the scarlet yam, and of the linen thread. 26 And all the women whose hearts stirred them up in wisdom spun the goats' hair. 27 And the princes brought the onyx stones, and the stones for setting, for the ephod, and for the breastplate; 28 And the spice and the oil, for lighting, and for the anointing oil, and for the incense of spices. 29 Every man and woman, whose heart made them willing to bring for all manner of work, whicli the Lord had commanded to be made, by the hand of Moses, even that brought the children of Israel as a free–will offering unto the I¶pRD.* 30 ¶ And Moses said unto the children of Israel, See, the Lord hath called by name Bezalel the son of Uri, the son of Chur, of the tribe of Judah ; 31 And he hath filled him with the spirit of God, in wisdom, in understanding, and in knowledge, and in all manner of workman– ship; 32 And to devise'' works of art, to work in gold, and in silver, and in copper, a Mendelssohn renders, "Ear–rings, and nose–rings, and finger–rings, and bracelets." These words, however, are of somewhat doubtful signification, like many other technical terms of but rare occurrence in Scripture. b " To devise in his heart works of art, the like of which had never been seen; and as there are artificers in gold who cannot work in silver, and workers in stone who can– not work in wood, it is said of Bezalel that he was perfect 110 33 And in the cutting of stones, to set them, and in the carving of wood, to make any manner of work of art. 34 And to teach hath he put in his heart, both to him, and to Aholiab, the son of Achis– samach, of the tribe of Dan. 35 He hath filled them with wisdom of heart, to execute all manner of work, of the engraver, and of the designing weaAcr, and of the embroiderer, in blue, and in purple, in scarlet yarn, and in linen thread, and of the– wewer, of those that do every species of work, and of those that devise works of art. CHAPTER XXXVI. 1 And Bezalel and Aholiab, and every wise–hearted man, in whom the Lord hath put wisdom and understanding to know how to do every manner of work for the service of the sanctuary, shall make all, just as the Lord hath commiuided. 2 And Moses called for Bezalel and Aho– liab, and every Avise–hearted man in whose heart the Lord had put wisdom, every one whose heart stirred him up to come near unto the work to do it: 3 And they received from Moses the whole of the offering, which the children of Israel had brought for the work of the service of the sanctuary, to make it; and these brought unto him yet more free–will offerings morning after morning. 4 And then came all the wise men, that wrought all the work of the sanctuary, every man from his own work which they were doing. 5 And they said unto Moses, thus. The people bring more" than is required for the service of the work, which the Lord hath commanded to make. 6 And Moses gave the command, and they caused it to be proclaimed throughout the camp, saying, Let neither man nor woman do any more Avork for the oflering of the sanc– tuary; so the people were restrained from bringing (more.) in all ; and moreover he could teach ; although there are many wise men who have a difficulty in instructing others." — Aben Ezr.\. c A singular, though nowise uncommon, state of the public mind ! At first instructed by the Lord, they rebel and worship an idol ; then again convinced of the truth of God, they testify their renewed adherence by the dis– play of a liberality which needed restraining for its excess. [Page 111] EXODUS XXXVI. VAYAKHEL. 7 And the stuff prepared*was sufficient for all the work to make it, and there was some over.* 8 ¶ And all the wise–hearted men, among those who wrought the work, made the taber– nacle of ten curtains ; of twisted linen thread, and blue, and purple, and scarlet yarn; with cherubim, of wewer's work, made he them. 9 The length of each curtain was twenty– eight cubits, and the breadth of each curtain four cubits: there was one measure for all the curtains. 10 And he coupled together five of the curtains one to another: and the other five curtains he coupled one to another. 11 And he made loops of blue on the edge of the one curtain, which was the outside in the coupling : the like he made on the border of the curtain, which was the outmost on the second coupling. 12 Fifty loops made he on the one curtain, and fifty loops made he on the edge of the curtain which was in the second coupUng: the loops were fixed opposite to each other. 13 And he made fifty hooks of gold; and he coupled the curtains together one mito the other with the hooks, and the tabernacle*' be– came thus one piece. 14 ¶ And he made curtains of goats' hair for a tent over the tabernacle; eleven curtains made he the same. 15 The length of each curtain was thirty cubits, and four cubits was the breadth of each curtain : there was one measure for the eleven curtains. 16 And he coupled five of the curtains by themselves, and six of the curtains by them– selves. 17 And he made fifty loops on the edge of the curtain that was the outmost in the coup– ling, and fifty loops made he on the edge of the curtain of the second coupling. 18 And he made fifty hooks of copper, to a It must not be forgotten that the things brought for the use of the workmen were at first prepared and worked up to the proper shape in the tents of the donors. Moses, therefore, properly proclaimed that the people should pre– pare no more, and consequently should bring no more than was already in the hands of the receivers. Otherwise nON¶O might mean "property," as it is used in that sense in Genesis xxxiii. 14; Exodus xxii. 10; 1 Samuel XV. 9. b The inner curtains, which formed the roof of the tabernacle proper, were called technically "the tabema– couple the tent together that it might be one piece. 19 And he made a covering for the tent of rams' skins dyed red, and a covering of bad– gers' skins above.* 20 ¶ And he made the boards for the tabernacle, of shittim wood, standing up, 21 Ten cubits was the length of each board, and one cubit and a half was the breadth of each one board. 22 There were two tenons for every board, fitted in, one against the other: the like made he for all the boards of the tabernacle. 23 And he made the boards for the taber– nacle; twenty boards for the south side, on the right. 24 And forty sockets of silver made he under the twenty boards ; two sockets under the one board for its two tenons, and two sockets under the other board for its two tenons. 25 And for the other side of the taber– nacle, for the north side, he made twenty boards : 20 And their forty sockets of silver; two sockets under the one board, and two sockets under the other board. 27 And for the back wall of the taber– nacle, westward, he made six boards. 28 And two boards made he for the comers of the tabernacle in the back wall. 29 And they were closely fitting beneath, and they were closely joined together on the top, by means of one ring; thus he did to both of them, for both the comers. 30 And so there were eight boards, and their sockets of silver, sixteen sockets, two sockets under every board. 31 And he made bars of shittim wood; five, for the lx)ards of the one side of the tabernacle ; 32 And five bars for the boards of the other side of the tabernacle, and five bars for cle," as they formed an essential and visible portion of the sacred structure; but the curtains of goats' hair were called " the tent," as they served merely to protect the more perishable ones which they covered. c The boards were provided with two tenons, a part of the thickness of the boards being cut away, so that when they were inserted in the sockets calculated to receive them, they covered exactly the surface; the boards were thus fixed in their sockets, which formed a continuous row, in the same manner as the steps of a ladder are in the side–pieces. 111 [Page 112] EXODUS XXXVI. XXXVII. VAYAKHEL. the boards of the tabernacle for the back wall, westward. 33 And he made the middle bar to pass through the midst of the boards from the one end to the other end. 34 And the boards he overlaid with gold, and their rings he made of gold, as recepta– cles for the bars, and he overlaid the bars with gold. 35 And he made the vail of blue, and pur– ple, and scarlet yarn, and twisted linen; of wewer's work made he it, with cherubim. 36 And he made thereunto four pillars of shittim wood, and overlaid them with gold, their hooks also were of gold; and he cast for them four sockets of silver. 37 And he made a hanging for the door of the tabernacle, of blue, and purple, and scarlet yarn, and twisted linen; the work of the embroiderer; 38 And its five pillars with their hooks: and he overlaid their tops and made their fillets with gold; and their five sockets were of copper. CHAPTER XXXVII. 1 ¶ And Bezalel made the ark of shittim wood: two cubits and a half was its length, and a cubit and a half its breadth, and a cubit and a half its height. 2 And he overlaid it with pure gold within and without, and made for it a crown of gold round about. 3 And he cast for it four rings of gold, for the four corners thereof; even two rings on the one side of it, and two rings on the other side of it. 4 And he made stwes of shittim wood, and overlaid them with gold. 5 And he put the stwes into the rings upon the sides of the ark, to bear the ark. 6 And he made a cover of pui–e gold : t¶'D cubits and a half ws its length, and one cubit and a half its breadth. 7 And he made two cherubim of gold, of a The cherubim were made out of one piece with the cover, but not wrought separately, and afterward soldered on. they were standing on cither end, their faces being turned toward each other, yet so that they looked down– ward upon the ark. It is said that the height of the wings of the cherubim from the cover was ten hands' breadth. b The crown spoken of in the preceding verse was fixed on the rim mentioned here. It is doubtful whether 112 beaten work made he them, on the two ends of the cover ; 8 One cherub was on the one end, and the other cherub on the other end; out of the cover itself made he the cherubim on the two ends thereof 9 And the cherubim were spreading forth their wings on high, overshadowing with their wings the cover, with their faces one to the other; toward the cover were the faces of the cherubim directed. 10 ¶ And he made the table of shittim wood : two cubits was its length, and a cubit its breadth, and a cubit and a half its height; 11 And he overlaid it with pure gold, and made thereto a crown of gold round about. 12 And he made unto it a rim of a hand's breadth round about, and made a golden crown on its rim'' round about. 13 And he cast for it four rings of gold, and he put the rings on the four comers, that were on the four feet thereof 14 Close under the rim were the rings, as receptacles for the stwes to bear the table. 15 And he made the stwes of shittim wood, and overlaid them with gold, to bear the table. 16 And he made the vessels which were upon the table, its dishes, and its spoons, and its supporters, and its purifying tubes wherewith (the bread) was covered, of pure gold.* 17 ¶ And he made the candlestick of pure gold: of beaten work" made he the candle– stick, its shaft, and its branches, its bowls, its knobs, and its flowers, were out of one piece with it. 18 And six branches were coming out of its sides; three branches of the candlestick out of its one side, and three branches of the candlestick out of the other side thereof 19 Three bowls, almond–shaped, were on one branch, with a knob and a flower; and three bowls, almond–shaped, were on the other branch, with a knob and a flower; so the rim reached above the table or was placed beneath the top ; but the probabilities are in favour of its having been placed above. c Like the cover of the ark, so was the candlestick, or more properly " the chandelier," made out of a solid piece of gold ; that is to say, the parts were not made separately and afterward soldered together, but it was beaten out, and the branches ornamented and cut into shape by means of instruments. [Page 113] EXODUS XXXVII. XXXVIII. VAYAKHEL. on the six branches that were coming out of the candlestick. 20 And on the candlestick itself were four bowls almond–shaped, with its knobs, and its flowers : 21 And a knob was under two branches that came out of the same, and a knob under two branches that came out of the same, and a knob under two branches that came out of the same," for the six branches that proceeded out of it. 22 Their knobs and their branches were out of one piece with it; all of it was one piece of beaten work, of pure gold. 23 And he made its seven lamps, and its snuffers, and its snuif–dishes, of pure gold. 24 Of a talent of pure gold made he it, and all its vessels. 25 ¶ And he made the altar of incense of shittim wood : its length was a cubit, and its breadth a cubit; it was foursquare, and two cubits was its height; from itself were its horns.'' 26 And he overlaid it with pure gold, its top, and its sides round about, and its horns : and he made unto it a crown of gold round about. 27 And two rings of gold he made for it beneath its crown, on its two corners, upon both its sides, as receptacles for the stwes to bear it by means of them. 28 And he made the stwes of shittim wood, and overlaid them with gold. 29 And he made the holy anointing oil, and the pure incense of spices, according to the work of the apothecary.* CHAPTER XXXVIII. 1 ¶ And he made the altar of burnt–offer– ing of shittim wood: five cubits was its length, and five cubits its breadth; it was foursquare, and three cubits was its height. 2 And he made its horns on its four comers, from itself were its horns ; and he overlaid it with copper. a The knob¶were on the centre shaft of the candle– stick, and from each of them sprung two branches, one on each side, so that each knob supported one pair. b The horns, or prominent points coming out of the corners of the altar of incense, as well as that of burnt– offering, were carved out of the body of the wood, but not made separately and afterwards joined on. c Mirrors of highly polished copper were employed be– fore the introduction of looking–glasses; and it is recorded P 3 And he made all the vessels of the altar, V the pots, and the shovels, and the basins, and the forks, and the fire–pans: all its vessels made he of copper. 4 And he made for the altar a grating, a network of copper, under its compass beneath, even 10ito the half of it. 5 And he cast four rings on the four corners of the grating of copper, as receptacles for the stwes. 6 And he made the stwes of shittim wood, and overlaid them with copper. 7 And he put the stwes into the rings on the sides of the altar, to bear it by means of them ; hollow, of boards, made he it. 8 ¶ And he made the lwer of copper, and its foot of copper, of the mirrors' of the assem– bled women, who had assembled in troops at the door of the tabernacle of the congregation. 9 ¶ And he made the court : on the south side, on the right, the hangings of the court were of twisted linen, of one hundred cubits; 10 Their pillars were twenty, with their twenty sockets of copper; the hooks of the pillars and their fillets were of silver. 11 And for the north side one hundred cubits; their pillars were twenty, with their twenty sockets of copper; the hooks of the pillars and their fillets were of silver. 12 And for the west side were hangings of fifty cubits; their pillars were ten, and their sockets ten ; the hooks of the pillars and their fillets of silver. 13 And for the front side, eastward, fifty cubits. 14 Hangings, of fifteen cubits, were on the one wing; their pillars were three, and their sockets three. 15 And for the other wing, on both sides of the gate of the court, were hangings of fif– teen cubits; their pillars were three, and their sockets three. 16 All the hangings of the court round about were of twisted linen. 17 And the sockets for the piUars were of that even these necessary articles for the arranging of the female attire were cheerfully given by the women, who came in troops to offer this contribution to the residence of their God. From the phraseology employed it would appear that the copper thus obtained is not inc10ded in the gross weight recorded chap, xxxviii. 29; since, among the articles made thereof, the lwer and its foot are not mentioned. 113 [Page 114] EXODUS XXXVIII. XXXIX. PEKUDAY. copper; the hooks of the pillars and their fillets of silver; and the overlaying of their tops was of silver; and all the pillars of the court were filleted with silver.* 18 And the hanging for the gate of the court was the work of the eml¶roiderer, of blue, and purple, and scarlet yam, and twisted linen: and twenty cubits was the length, and the height, in the breadth, was five cubits, answeiing to the hangings of the court. 19 And the pillars for the same were four, with their four sockets of copper ; their hooks were of silver, and the overlaying of their tops and their fillets of silver. 20 And all the pins of the tabernacle, and of the court round about wei'e of copper. Haphtorah in 1 Kings vii. 13 to 26. The Germans read from vii. 40 to 50. SECTION XXIII. PEKUDAY, mpS. 21 ¶ These are the accounts (of the articles furnished) for the tabernacle, even of the tal¶ernacle of the testimony, which were comited, according to the commandment of Moses, the service of the Levites, by the hand of Ithamar, the son of Aaron, the priest. 22 And Bezalel the son of Uri, the son of Chur, of the tribe of Judah, made all that the Lord had commanded Mo.¶es. 23 And with him was Aholiab, son of Achissamach, of the tribe of Dan, an engraver, and a skilful wewer, and an embroiderer in blue, and in purple, and in scarlet yarn, and in linen thread. 24 ¶ All the gold that was applied to the work in all the work of the sanctuary, to wit, the gold of the offering," was twenty and nine talents, and seven hundred and thirty shekels, after the shekel of the sanctuary. 25 And the silver of those that were num– bered of the congregation was one hundred talents, and a thousand seven hundred and a The word used here, in v. 29, and in xxxv. 22, is naun : whereas in the preceding passages nonn is used. The Hebrew is peculiarly rich in the terms necessary to express the ideas connected with the worship of the sanctuary, so as to distinguish every shade of meaning; but in English it is next to impossible to convey these peculiarities by single words. Arnheira, however, renders the latter word "tribute," as has been done at times in this version, and the former, the one employed in this 114 seventy and four shekels, after the shekel of the sanctuary : 26 A bekah for CA¶ery head, that is, half a shekel, after the shekel of the sanctuary, for" every one that went to be numbered, from twenty years old and upward, for six hun– dred thousand and three thousand and five hundred and fifty. 27 And the hundred talents of sih'er serA¶ed to cast the sockets of the sanctuary, and the sockets of the Aail; one hundred sockets to the himdred talents, a talent for every socket. 28 And of the thousand scA¶en hundred scA¶enty and five shekels he made hooks for the pillars, and overlaid their tops and filleted them. 29 And the copper of the offering AA'as scA'enty talents, and two thousand and four hundred shekels. 30 And he made therewith the sockets of the door of the tabernacle of the congregation, and the altar of cojjper, and the grating of copper for it. and all the A–essels of the altar ; 31 And the sockets of the court round about, and the sockets of the court gate, and all the pius of the tabernacle, and all the pins of the court I'ound about. CHAPTER XXXIX. 1 And of the blue, and purple, and scarlet yarn, they made the cloths of serA'ice, to do the service in the holy place ; and they made the holy gaiments which AA–ere for Aaron, as the Lord had commanded Moses.* 2 And he made the ephod, of gold,. blue, and purple, and scarlet yarn, and tAvisteil linen ; 3 And they did beat the gold into thin plates, and cut it into Avires, to work it in the blue, and in the purple, and in the scarlet yarn, and in the linen, AAith wewer's AA'ork. 4 They made shoulder–pieces for it, joined on ; on both its edges was it thus joined'' to– gether. passage, "sacred gifts;" but the latter term is arbi– trary. b The shoulder–pieces of the ephod were made sepa– rately and sewed on afterward. The ephod itself appears to have been a species of cloak which reached to the heels, but required the support of the shoulder–pieces, through which it was joined by means of the chains and rings to the breastplate, and the belt which fastened it round the body of the wear'r. [Page 115] EXODUS XXXIX. PEKUDAY. 5 And the belt for girding it on, that was upon it, was of the same piece with itself, of the same make ; of gold, blue, and purple, and scarlet yarn, and twisted linen ; as the Lord had commanded Moses. 6 ¶ And they wrought the onyx stones en– closed in casings of gold, engraved with the engraving of a signet, after the names of the children of Israel. 7 And he put them on the shoulder–pieces of the epliod, as stones of memorial to the children of Israel ; as the Lord had command– ed Moses. 8 ¶ And he made the breastplate with wea– ver's work, like the work of the ephod ; of gold, blue, and purple, and scarlet yarn, and twisted linen. 9 It was foursquare, double did they make the breastplate : it was a span in length, and a span in breadth, double. 10 And they set in it four rows of stones : the first row, a sardius, a topaz, and an eme– rald : this was the first row. 11 And the second row, a carbuncle, a sai> phire, and a diamond. 12 And the third row, an opal, a turquoise, and an amethyst. 13 And the fourth row, a chrysolite, an onyx, and a jasper : they were fitted in golden casings when they were set in. 14 And the stones were according to the names of the children of Israel, twelve, ac– cording to their names, (engraved) with the engraving of a signet, every one according to his name, for the twelve tribes. 15 And they made upon the breastplate chains with knots*at the ends, of wreathed work, of pure gold. 16 And they made two casings of gold, and two gold rings, and put the two rings on the two ends of the breastplate. 17 And they put the two wreathed chains of gold in the two rings on the ends of the breastplate. 18 And the two ends of the two wi'eathed chains they fastened on the two casings, and they put them on the shoulder pieces of the ephod, on the outside thereof a These wreathed chains had a knot at the end, so that they did not slip through the rings of the breastplate and ephod. b The rings on the girdle of the ephod were so placed as to be opposite those on the lower seam of the breastplate, 19 And they made two rings of gold, and put them on the two ends of the breastplate, on its border, which was on the opposite side of the ephod, inward. 20 And they made two more golden rings, and put them on the two shoulder–pieces of the ephod underneath, toward its front part, close by its seam, above the girdle of the ephod. 21 And they fastened the breastplate by its rings unto the rings of the ephod with a lace of blue, that it might remain on the girdle of the ephod, and that the breastplate might not be loosed from the ephod j**as the Loud had commanded Moses.* 22 ¶ And he made the robe of the ephod of woven work, altogether of blue woollen yam. 23 And there was an opening in the midst of the robe, as the opening of an habergeon, with a binding round about the opening, that it should not be rent. 24 And they madQ upon the lower hem of the robe pomegranates of blue, and purple, and scarlet yam, twisted. 25 And they made bells of pui'e gold ; and they put the bells between the pomegranates upon the lower hem of the robe, round about, between the pomegranates; 26 A bell and a pomegranate, a bell and a pomegranate, round about the lower hem of the robe to minister therein ; as the Lord had commanded Moses. 27 ¶ And they made the coats of linen, of woven work, for Aaron and for his sons, 28 And the mitre of linen, and the gooilly bonnets of linen, and liuen breeches of twisted linen thread. 29 And the girdle of twisted linen, and blue, and purple, and scarlet yam, the work of the embroiderer ; as the Lord had commanded Moses. 30 ¶ And they made the plate of the holy crown of pure gold, and wrote upon it a writ– ing, like the engraving of a signet. Holt to THE Lord. 31 And they put on it a lace of blue, to place it upon the mitre above , as the Lord had commanded Moses. and when the blue lace was passed through them, the two garments became united together. c The plate was tied on both ends and at the centre to laces of blue woollen yarn, and hung on the top of the mitre, so that it rested on the forehead of the wearer. 115 [Page 116] EXODUS XXXIX. XL. PEKUDAY. 32 ¶ Thus was finished all the work of till! tabernacle of the tent of the congregation ; and the children of Israel had made it accord– ing to all that the Lord had commanded Moses, so had they made it.''' 33 ¶ And they brought the tabernacle unto Moses, the tent, and all its vessels, its hooks, its boards, its bars, and its pillars, and its sockets, 34 And the covering of rams' skins dyed red, and the covering of badgers' skins, and the vail of the separation ; 35 The ark of the testimony, and its stwes, and the mercy–seat ; 36 The table, and all its vessels, and the showbread ; 37 The pure candlestick," with its lamps, the lamps to be set in order thereupon, and all its vessels, and the oil for the" lighting, 38 And the golden altar, and the anointing oil, and the incense of spices, and the hanging for the door of the tabei–nacle ; 39 The copper altar, and the grating of copper which belonged to it, its stwes, and all its vessels, the lwer and its foot; 40 The hangings of the court, its pillars and its sockets, and the hanging for the courtr gate, its cords, ai\d its pins, and all the vessels of the service of the tabernacle, for the tent of the congregation ; 41 The cloths of service to do the service in the holy place, and the holy garments for Aaron the priest, and the garments of his sons, to minister therein. 42 All, just as the Lord had commanded Moses, so had the children of Israel done all the work. 43 And Moses did look over all the work, and, behold, they had done it as the Lord had commanded, even so had they done it : and Moses blessed them.* CHAPTER XL. 1 ¶ And the Lord spoke unto Moses, saying, 2 On the first day of the first numth s10ilt thou set up the tabernacle of the tent of the congregation. a Others render, " The candlestick of pure gold." But asthe feminine mntan docs not agree with the masculinc am, it must refer to the word mjo, perhaps from its being made of pure gold. b " This means, a protection, for it was a separation." — 116 3 And thou shalt put therein the ark of the testimony, and separate*" the ark with the vail. 4 And thou shalt bring in the tal)le, and arrange the order of the showbread upon it; and thou shalt bring in the candlestick, and light the lamps thereof 5 And thou shalt set the altar of gold for the incense before the ark of the testimony; and thou shalt put up the hanging at the door to the tabernacle. 6 And thou shalt set the altar of burntr offering before the door of the tabernacle of the tent of the congregation. 7 And thou shalt set the lwer between the tabernacle of the congregation and the altar, and thou shalt put Avater therein. 8 And thou shalt set up the court round about, and put up the hanging at the gate of the court! 9 And thou shalt take the anointing oil, and anoint the tabernacle, and all that is therein ; and thou shalt hallow it, with all its vessels, and it shall be holy. 10 And thou shalt anoint the altar of burnt–oflering, and all its vessels; and thou shalt sanctify the altar, and the altar shall be most holy. 11 And thou shalt anoint the lwer with its foot, and sanctify it. 12 And thou shalt bring near Aaron and his sons unto the door of the tabernacle of the congregation, and wash them with water. 13 And thou shalt clothe Aaron with the holy garments; and thou shalt anoint 10m, and sanctify him, that he may be a priest unto me. 14 And his sons shalt thou bring near, and clothe them with coats : 15 And thou shalt anoint them, as thou hast anointed their father, that they may be priests unto me; and this shall be, that their anointing shall be unto them for an everlasting priesthood throughout their gene– rations. 16 And Moses did so; all, just as the Lord had commanded him, so did he.* Rashi. That is to say, by hanging up the vail, by means of which the portion for the ark was separated from the remainder of the sanctuary, it was pniteetod fioui the ap– proach of those who came into the holy place. [Page 117] EXODUS XL. PEKUDAY. 17 ¶ And it came to pass in the first month in the second year, on the first of the month, that the tabernacle was reared up. 18 And Moses reared up the tabernacle, and placed its sockets, and set up its boards, and put in its bars, and reared up its pillars. 19 And he spread the tent' over the taber– nacle, and put the covering of the tent'' over it above; as the Lord had commanded Moses. 20 ¶ And he took"" and put the testimony into the ark, and placed the stwes on the ark; and he put the mercy–seat upon the ark above. 21 And he brought the ark into the taber– nacle, and set up the vail of the separation, and made therewith a separation for the ark of the testimony; as the Lord had commanded Moses. 22 ¶ And he put the table in the taber– nacle of the congregation, upon the side of the tabernacle, northward, without the vail. 23 And he arranged upon it the order of bread*¶ before the Lord ; as the Lord had com– manded Moses. 24 ¶ And he placed the candlestick in the tabernacle of the congregation, opposite the table, on the side of the tabernacle, south– ward. 25 And he lighted the lamps befoi'e the Lord; as the Lord had commanded Moses. 26 ¶ And he placed the golden altar in the tabernacle of the congregation before the vail. 27 And he burnt thereon the incense of spices; as the Lord had commanded Moses.''' 28 ¶ And he put up the hanging at the door to the tabernacle. 29 And the altar of burnt–offering he placed by the door of the tabernacle of the tent of the congregation, and offered upon it the burnt–offermg and the meat–offering; as the Lord had commanded Moses. 30 ¶ And he set the lwer between the a This means the curtains of goats' hair over the fine ones, called the "tabernacle." — RAsnr. b The skins of animals which served as a covering. c He took the tables of the Testimony from the wooden ark, which was in the tent of Moses, and brought them into the tabernacle. — Hamban. (See Exodus xxxiii. 7, and Deuteronomy x. 1–3.) tabernacle of the congregation and the altar, and put water there, for washing. 31 And MocSes" and Aaron and his sons washed therefrom their hands and their feet. 32 When they went in unto the tabernacle of the congregation, and when they came near unto the altar, they washed themselves; as the Lord had commanck'd Moses. 33 ¶ And he reared up the court round about the tabeniacle and the altar, and put up the hanging of the gate of the court; and so did Moses finish the work.* 34 ¶ And the cloud covered the tent of the congregation, and the glory of the Lord filled the taljernacle. 35 And Moses wasnot able to enter into the tent of the congregation; because the cloud abode thereon, and the glory of the Lord filled the tabernacle. 36 And when the cloud was taken up from over the tabernacle, the children of Israel were wont to go onward in all their journey– ings. 37 But if the cloild was not taken up, then they journeyed not till the day that it was taken up. 38 For the cloud of the Lord was upon the tabernacle by day, and a fire was by night on it, before the eyes of all the house of Israel, throughout all their journeyings. Haphtorah, according to the Germans, in 1 Kings vii. 51 to viii. 21. The Portuguese read from vii. 40 to 50. Maphtere for Shekalim in Exodus xxx. 11 to 16. Haphtorah for Shekalim in 2 Kings xii. 1 to 17. The Portu– guese commence at xi. 17. Maphtere for Zachor in Deuteronomy xxv. 17 to 19. Haphtorah for Zachor in 1 Samuel xv. 2 to 34. The Portu– guese commence v. 1. Maphtere for Parah in Numbers xix. 1 to 22. Haphtorah for Parah in Ezekiel xxxvi. 16 to 38. The Por– tuguese end at v. 36. Maphtere for Ilachodcsh in Exodus xii. 1 to 20. Haphtorah for Ilachodcsh in Ezckicl xlv. 16 to xlvi. 18 The Portuguese road from xlv. 18 to xlvi. 15. d The DnS "I"!;? "the order of bread," here employed, explains what is given above merely as oi;? "its order;" for which reason it is rendered above, verse 4, " the order of showbread." e During the week of consecration, and then only, Moses officiated as priest, for which reason he was for the time also bound to wash hands and feet at the lwer. 117 END OF EXODUS. [Page 118] THE BOOK OF LEVITICUS, VAYIKRA, iSnpn. CONTAININ6 THE ORDINANCES FOR THE SACRIFICES, SANCTUARY, PURIFICATIONS, FESTIVALS, &c. SECTION XXIV. VAYIKRA, Nnpn. CHAPTER I. 1 ¶ And the Lord called unto Moses, and spoke unto liim out of the tabernacle of the congregation, saying, 2 Speak unto the children of Israel, and say unto them, If any one of you wish to bi'ing an oflering unto the Lord : of the cattle, either of the herds, or of the Hocks, shall ye bring your offering. 3 If his offering be a burnt–sacrifice of the herds, then shall he offer a male without ble– mish : unto the door of the tabernacle of the congregation shall he bring it, that it may be favouraljly received for him before the Lord. 4 And he shall lay his hand upon the head of the burnt–offering; and it shall be accepted for him to make atonement for him. 5 And he shall kill the young steer before the Lord: and the sons of Aaron the priests shall bring near the blood, and they shall sprinkle the blood round about upon the altar ¶iat is by the door of the tabernacle of the congregation. 6 And he shall ¶ay the burnt–offering, and cut it into its pieces. 7 And the sons of Aaron the priest shall put fire upon the altar, and lay the wood in order upon the fire; 8 And the sons of Aaron the priests shall lay in order the parts, the head, and the fat," upon the wood that is on the fire which is upon the altar; 9 But its inwards and its legs shall he wash in water; and the priest shall bum the a Some translate 119 with "midriff:" the word itself is of rare nrcurroncc, hence not of a decided signification; but it is translated here according to the old authorities b All the sacrifices called " most holy," required to be slain on the north side of the altar of burnt– these are the burnt, sin, trespass, and national peace–offerings. whole on the altar, as a burnt–sacrifice, au offering made by fire, of a sweet savour unto the Lord. 10 ¶ And if his offering be of the flocks, of the sheep, or of the goats, for a burnt–sacri– fice: then shall he offer a male without ble– mish as the same. 11 And he shall kill it on the side of the altar, northward,'' before the Lord; and the sons of Aaron the priests shall sprinkle its blood upon the altar round about. 12 And he shall cut it into its pieces, with its head and its fat; and the priest shall lay them in order on the wood that is on the fire which is upon the altar; 13 But the inwards and the legs shall he wash with water; and the priest shall bring near the whole, and burn it upon the altar; it is a burnt–sacrifice, an offering made by fire, of a sweet savour unto the Lord.* 14 ¶ And if of fowls be the burnt–sacrifice for his offermg to the Lord : then shall he bring his offering of turtle–doves, or of young pigeons. 15 And the priest shall bring it near" unto the altar, and pinch off its head, and burn it on the altar; and the blood thereof shall be wrung out on the wall of the altar. 16 And he shall remove its crop with its feathers, and cast it beside the altar on the east part, at the place of the ashes. 17 And he shall cleave it by its wings, but shall not divide it asunder; and the priest shall burn it upon the altar, upon the wood that is on the fire : it is a burnt–sacrifice, an offering made by fire, of a sweet savour unto the Lord. cThe term aipn has been for the most part rendered in this version with "to bring near," that is, to the altar where all sacriticial rites were performed; and when simply remdered with " bring," it has the same sense. Otherwise the term " offer" has also been used , as it is the root of the word prp " offering." [Page 119] LEVITICUS II. III. VAYIKRA. CHAPTER II. 1 ¶ And when any person wish to offer a meat–offering unto the Lord: then shall his offering be of fine flour; and he shall pour upon it oil, .and put thereon frankincense ; 2 And he shall bring it to one of the sons of Aaron the priest ; and he shall take there– from his handful of its flour, and of its oil, with all its frankincense ; and the priest shall bum the memorial of it upon the altar, as an offering made by lire, of a sweet savour unto the Lord. 3 And what is left of the meatoffering shall belong to Aaron and to his sons : it is a most holy thing, from the fire–offerings of the Lord. 4 ¶ And if thou bring an oblation of a meat–offering baked in the oven, it shall be of fine flour, unleavened cakes mingled with oil, or unleavened wafers anointed with oil. 5 ¶ And if thy oblation be a meat–offering baked in a pan, it shall be made of fine flour mingled with oil, unleavened. 6 Thou shalt break it in pieces, and pour thereon oil ; it is a meat–offering.* 7 ¶ And if thy oblation be a meat–offering baked in the deep pan, it shall be made of fine flour with oil. 8 And thou shalt bring the meat–offermg, which shall be made of these things, unto the Lord; and the oflerer shall present it unto the priest, who shall bring it near unto the altar. 9 And the priest shall take up from the meat–offering its memorial, and shall burn it upon the altar: it is an offering made by fire, of a sweet savour unto the Lord. 10 And that which is left of the meat– offering shall belong to Aaron and his sous : it is a most holy thing, from the fire–offerings of the Lord. 11 No meat–offering, which ye shall bring unto the Lord, shall be prepared leavened; for of whatever is leaven, or of any honey, ye shall not sacrifice an offering made by fire unto the Lord. 12 As an oblation of the first–fruits shall a Arnheim renders here and elsewhere, "And that on the," &c. b Others, "caul." c The first sacrifice offered daily upon the altar, was the daily burnt–offering; and before it had been placed on the ye offer them unto the Lord; but on the altar shall they not come for a sweet savour. 13 And every oblation of thy meat–offering shalt thou season with salt; and thou shalt not suffer the salt of the covenant of thy God, to be lacking from thy meatoffering : with all thy offerings shalt thou ofler salt. 14 ¶ And if thou ofler a meat–offering of the first–fruits unto the Lord: of ripe ears of com dried by the fire, of pounded corn out of full ears, shalt thou offer the meat–offerings of thy first–fruits. 15 And thou shalt put upon it oil, and lay thereon frankincense : it is a meat–offering. 16 And the priest shall burn its memorial, from its pounded corn, and from its oil, with all its frankincense : it is an offering made by fire unto the Lord.* CHAPTER III. 1 ¶ And if his oblation be a sacrifice of peace–offering, if he offer it of the herds, whether it be a male or female, he shall offer it without blemish before the Lord. 2 And he shall lay his hand upon the head of his offermg, and kill it at the door of the tabernacle of the congregation : and the sons of Aaron the priests shall sprinkle the blood upon the altar round about. 3 And he shall offer of the sacrifice of the peace–offering, as a fire–offering unto the Lord, the fat that covereth the inwards, and all the fat that is upon the inwards, 4 And the two kidneys, and the fat that is on them, which is on the flanks," and the midriff''' above the liver, with the kidneys, shall he remove it. 5 And Aaron's sons shall bum it on the altar, upon the burnt–offering," which is upon the wood that is on the fire : it is an offering made by fire, of a sweet savour unto the Lord. 6 ¶ And if of the flocks be his offering for a sacrifice of peace–offering unto the Lord, male or female, without blemish, shall he offer it. 7 If he offer a sheep for his offering, then shall he brin"; it near before the Lord. fire, no other sacrifice could be burnt there; hence the phrase "upon the burnt–offering which is upon the wood." Rashi, however, renders hy like na':¶ "besides;" still the sense is the same in both cases. 119 [Page 120] LEVITICUS III. IV. VAYIKRA. 8 And he shall lay his hand upon the head of his offering, and kill it before the taber– nacle of the congregation: and the sons of Aaron shall sprinkle its blood upon the altar round about. 9 And he shall offer of the sacrifice of the peace–offering, as a fire–offering unto the Lord, the best part" thereof, the whole rump, hard by the backbone shall he take it off; and the fat that covereth the inwards, and all the fat that is upon the inwards; 10 And the two kidneys, and the fiit that is upon them, which is on the flanks, and the midriff above the liver, with the kidneys, shall he remove it. 11 And the priest shall burn it upon the altar: it is the food of the offering made by fire unto the Lord. 12 ¶ And if a goat be his offering, then shall he bring it near before the Lord. 13 And he shall lay his hand upon its head, and kill it before the tabernacle of the congregation: and the sons of Aaron shall sprinkle its blood upon the altar round about. 14 And he shall offer thereof his offering, as a fire–offering unto the Lord, the fat that covereth the inwards, and all the fat that is upon the inwards, 1–5 And the two kidneys, and the fat that is upon them, which is on the flanks, and the midriff above the liver, with the kidneys shall he remove it. 16 And the priest shall burn them upon the altar; as the food of the oflering made by fire for a sweet savour, is.all the fiit unto the Lord. 17 A perpetual statute shall it be for your generations throughout all your dwellings : no fat nor blood shall ye eat.* CHAPTER IV. 1 ¶ And the Lord spoke unto Moses, say– in?, 2 Speak unto the children of Israel, saying. If any person do sin through 16norance against any of the prohibitions'' of the Lord which ought not to be done, and do any of them ; a This is explained by the next words, "the best part, that is the whole rump;" or as the moderns have it, "the whole fat tail," referring to the Syrian sheep, the tail of which is broad and fat. b Both the negative and positive precepts are command– ments; wherefore the first may also be properly called niyo " precepts." c This is explained, that the high–priest'.t sin must be 3 If the anointed priest do sin to bring guiltiness" on the people: then shall he Ijring near for his sin, which he hath committed, a young bullock without blemish, unto the Lord, for a sin–offering. 4 And he shall bring the bullock unto the door of the tabernacle of the congregation before the Lord; and he shall lay his hand upon the head of the bullock, and kiH"" the bullock before the Lord. 5 And the anointed priest shall take some of the bullock's blood, and bring it into the tabernacle of the congregation : 6 And the priest shall dip his finger in the blood; and he shall sprinkle of the blood seven times before the Lord, before the vail of the sanctuary. 7 And the priest shall put some of the blood upon the horns of the altar of the in– cense of spices before the Lord, which is in the tabernacle of the congregation ; and all the (remaining) blood of the bullock shall he pour out at the bottom of the altar of burnt–ofler– ing, which is at the door of the tabei–nacle of the congregation. 8 And all the fat of the bullock of the sin– offering shall he take off from the same : the fiit that covereth the inwards, and all the fat that is upon the inwards, 9 And the two kidneys, and the fat that is upon them, which is on the flanks, and the midriff above the liver, with the kidneys, shall he remove it; 10 As it is taken off from the bullock of the sacrifice of peace–oft'ering ; and the priest shall burn the same upon the altar of burnt– offering. 11 And the skin of the bullock, and all his flesh, with his head, and with his legs, and his inwards, and his dung, 12 Even the whole bullock, shall he carry forth without the camp, unto a clean place, to where the ashes are poured out, and burn him on the wood with fire ; upon where the ashes are poured out shall he be burnt. 13 ¶ And if the whole congregation ol" like the sin of the ciders spoken of in the nest section ; i. e., that he give a wrong decision, which the people fol– low, by which thoy incur guilt. d The word ODE' means not merely to kill, but to pro– duce death by cutting the throat, as practised in Israel. This explanations holds good wherever the word '–kill" occurs when speaking of sacrifices, or of animals slain for the ordinary use of the people. [Page 121] LEVITICUS IV. VAYIKRA. Israel sin through 16norance, and a thing be hidden from the eyes of the assembly," and they do any one of all the prohibitions of the Lord which ought not to be done, and they become guilty ; 14 When now the sin becometh known, through which they have sinned : then shall the congregation offer a young bullock for a sin–offering, and shall Ijring him before the tabernacle of the congregation. 15 And the elders of the congregation shall lay their hands upon the head of the bullock before the Lord ; and they shall kill the bul– lock before the Lord. 16 And the anointed priest shall bring some of the bullock's blood into the taberna– cle of the congregation : 17 And the priest shall dip his finger in some of the lilood, and sprinkle it seven times before the Lord, before the vail. 18 And some of the Ijlood shall he put upon the horns of the altar which is before the Lord, that is in the tabernacle of the con– gregation ; and all the (remaining) blood shall he pour out at the bottom of the altar of burnt–offering, which is at the door of the tabernacle of the congregation. 19 And all his tat shall he take from him, and burn it upon the altar. 20 And he shall do with the bullock as he did with the bullock of the sin–offering; so shall he do with this: and the priest shall make an atonement for them, and it shall be forgiven unto them. 21 And he shall carry forth the bullock to without the camp, and burn him as he burnt the first bullock ; it is a sin–offering of the congregation. 22 ¶ If a ruler should sin, and do any one of the prohibitions of the Lord his God which ought not to be done, through 16norance, and become guilty –¶ 23 If now his sin, wherein he hath sinned, come to his knowledge : he shall bring as his offering, a goat, a male, without blemish ; 21 And he shall lay his hand upon the head of the goat, and kill it on the place a This is explained, that the assembled judges decide erroneously concerning any one of the acts for which excision (mj) is denounced, that it is permitted, and the people do according to this erroneous decision, thus sin– where they kill the burntroffering before the Lord; it is a sin–offering. 25 And the priest shall take some of the blood of the sin–offering with his finger, and put it upon the horns of the altar ol" burnt– offering; and (the remainder of) its blood he shall pour out at the bottom of the altar of burnt¶ofiering. 20 And all its fat shall he burn upon the altar, as the hit of the sacrifice of peace–offer– ing; and the priest shall make an atonement for him concerning his sin, and it shall be forgiven unto him.* 27 ¶ And if any person of the common people should sin through 16norance, by his doing any one of the prohibitions of the Lord, which ought not to be done, and become guilty; 28 If now his sin, which he hath committed, come to his knowledge : then shall he bring as his offering, a goat, a female, without blemish, for his sin which he hath committed; 29 And he shall lay his hand upon the head of the sin–offering, and slay the sin–ofler– ing on the place of the burnt–offering. 30 And the priest shall take some of the blood thereof with his finger, and put it upon the horns of the altar of burnt–oflering; and all the (remaining) blood thereof shall he pour out at the bottom of the altar. 31 And all the fiit thereof shall he remove, as the fat is removed from off the sacrifice of peace–offering; and the priest shall burn it upon the altar for a sweet sa\our unto the Lord ; and the priest shall make an atonement for him, and it shall be forgiven unto him. 32 ¶ And if he bring a sheep for a sin– offering, a female without ])k'mish shall he bring it. 33 And he shall lay his hand upon the head of the sin–offering, and slay it ibr a sin– offering on the place where they kill the burnt– offering. 34 And the priest shall take some of the l:)lood of the sin–offering with his finger, and put it upon the horns of the altar of liurnt–offer– ing; and all the (renuuning) blood thereof shall he pour out at the bottom of the altar : ning against a vital principle through 16norance, upon the instruction of their highest rel16ious authority. b Mendelssolin translates this expression, wherever it oc– curs, " And he becomes aware of his guilt," or as above, "they become aware of their guilt." 121 [Page 122] LEVITICUS IV. V. VAYIKRA. 35 And all the fat thereof shall he remove, as the fat of the sheep is removed from the sacrifice of the peace–ofliering ; and the priest shall bum the same upon the altar, upon the oflerings made by fire unto the Lord; and the priest shall make an atonement for him for his sin that he hath committed, and it shall be forgiven unto him. CHAPTER V. 1 ¶ And if any person sin, because he heareth the voice of adjuration, and he is a witness, since he hath either seen or knoweth something; if he do not tell it, and thus bear his iniquity ; 2 Or if there be a person who toucheth any unclean thing, whether it be the carcass of an unclean beast, or the carcass of unclean cattle, or the carcass of an unclean creeping thing, and it escape his recollection ; but (he becom– eth aware that) he is unclean, and hath (thus) incurred guilt; 3 Or if he touch the uncleanness of man, whatsover uncleanness of the kind it be by which he can be defiled, and it escape his re– collection ; but he becometh aware of it, and (that¶Ji he hath (thus) incurred guilt ; 4 Or if any person swear, by pronouncing with his lips" to do evil, or to do good (to him– self,) in whatsoever it be that a man pro– nounceth with an oath, and it escape his recollection ; but he becometh aware of it that he hath incurred guilt by any one of these : 5 And it shall be, if he have incurred guilt by any one of these (things,) that he shall con– fess that concerning which he hath sinned ; 6 And he shall bring his trospass–oflering unto the Lord for his sin which he hath com– mitted, a female from the flocks, a sheep or a goat, for a sm–oflering; and the priest shall make an atonement for him concerning his sin. 7 And if his means be not sufBcieut for a sheep, then shall he bring as his offering (for the trespass) which he hath committed, two turtle–doves, or two young pigeons, unto the LoKi); one for a sin–offering, and the other for a burnt–offering. 8 And he shall bring them unto the priest, and he shall (jller that which is for the sin– a Philippson renders, " Or if a person swear thought– lessly to Jo," &c. Rashi seems to assent to this construc– tion by enmnienting, "with the lips, but not tiie heart." 122 offering first, and pinch off its head by the back of its neck, but shall not divide it asunder : 9 And he shall sprinkle some of the blood of the sin–offering upon the wall of the altar; and the rest of the blood shall be Avrung out at the bottom of the altar; it is a sin– offering. 10 And the second shall he prepare as a bunit–offering, according to the prescribed order; and the priest shall make an atone– ment for him for his sin which he hath com– mitted, and it shall be forgiven unto him.* 11 ¶But if his means be not sufficient for two turtle–doves, or two young pigeons, then shall he bring as his offering for that which he hath sinned, the tenth part of an ephah of fine flour for a sin–offering ; he shall not put upon it any oil, nor shall he put thereupon any frankincense; for it is a sin–offering. 12 And he shall bring it to the priest ; and the priest shall take from it his handful, as its memorial, and burn it on the altar, upon the fire–offerings of the Lord: it is a sin– oflering. 13 And the priest shall make an atonement for him concerning his sin that he hath com– mitted in one of these, and it shall be for– given unto him ; and it shall belong to the priest, as the meat–offering. 14 ¶ And the Lord spoke unto Moses, saying, 15 If any person commit a trespass, and sin through 16norance, against the holy things of the Lord : then shall he bring as his tres– pass–oflering unto the Lord a ram without blemish out of the flocks, in va10e of two shekels of silver, after the shekel of the sanc– tuary, for a trespass–offering. 13 And that, in which he hath sinned against the holy thing, shall he pay, anil shall add its fifth part thereto, and give it unto the priest; and the priest shall make an atone– ment for him with the ram of the trespass– ofiering, and it shall l)e forgiven unto him. 17 ¶ And if any person sin, and conunit anyone of the prohibitions of the Lord which ought not to be done; and he know**not whether he have incurred guilt, and so liear his iniquity : b i. e. It is probable that he has unawares committed ii capital sin, without being certain whether it be so : f. e. that both lawful and prohibited food had been before him. [Page 123] LEVITICUS V. VI. TZAV. 18 Then shall he bring a ram without blemish out of the flocks, of the usual va10e, for a trespass–offering, unto the priest; and the priest shall make an atonement for him concerning his sin of 16norance, wherein he hath erred and knoweth it not, and it shall be forgiven unto him. 19 It is a trespass–offering : he hath in tres– passing trespassed against the Lord.' 20 ¶ And the Lord spoke unto Moses, saying, 21 If any person sin, and commit a tres– pass against the Lord ; if he, namely, lie unto his neighbour in that which was delivered to him to keep, or in a loan, or in a thing taken away by violence, or if he have wit– held the wages of his neighbour ; 22 Or if he have found something which was lost, and lie concerning it, and swear falsely; in any one of all these which a man can do, to sin thereby : 23 Then shall it be, when he hath sinned, and is conscious of his guilt, that he shall re– store what he hath taken violently away, or the wages which he hath –snthheld, or that which was delivered to him to keep, or the lost thing which he hath found,* 24 Or any one thing about which he may have sworn falsely; and he shall restore it in its principal, and the fifth part thereof shall he add thereto; unto him to whom it apper– taineth shall he give it, on the day when he confesseth his trespass. 25 And his trespass–offering shall he bring unto the Lord, a ram without blemish out of the flocks, of the usual va10e, for a trespass– offering, unto the priest: 26 And the priest shall make an atone– ment for him before the Lord, and it shall be forgiven unto him, for any one thing of all that he may have done to trespass thereby. Haphtorah in Isaiah xliii. 21 to xliv. 23. SECTION XXV. TZAV, IV. CHAPTER VI. 1 ¶ And the Lord spoke unto Moses, saying. a In the Eng. ver. the fifth chapter ends here. b Lit. " Upon the place of burning." c i. e. The altar. d This word must be so understood : the meat–offering is brought to the altar ; the greater part is given to the 2 Command Aaron and his sons, saving. This is the law of the bunit–offering : It is the burnt–offering, which shall be burning'' upon the altar all night unto the morning, and the fire of the altar shall be burning on it." 3 And the priest shall jnit on his linen garment, and linen breeches shall he put upon his flesh, and he shall lift up the ashes which the fire hath made by consuming the burnt– offeiing on the altar, and he shall place them beside the altar. 4 And he shall take off his gannents, and put on other garments, and carry forth the ashes to without the camp, unto a clean place. 5 And the fire upon the altar shall he burning on it, it shall not be put out, and the priest shall burn wood on it every morning; and he shall lay in order upon it the burnt– offering, and he shall bum thereon the fat of the peace–offerings. 6 A perpetual fire shall be burning upon the altar; it shall not go out. 7 ¶ And this is the law of the meat–offering : (one of) the sons of Aaron shall bring it near before the Lord, in front of the altar. 8 And he shall lift up from it his handful, of the flour of the meat–offering, and of its oil, and all the frankincense which is upon the meat–offering, and he shall burn it upon the altar, for a sweet savour, as its menrorial,'' unto the Lord. 9 And what is left thereof shall Aaron and his sons eat : imleavened shall it be eaten in a holy place; in the court of the tabernacle of the congregation shall they cat it. 10 It shall not be baked leaven; as their portion have I given it from my offerings made by fire; it is most holy, as is the sin– offering, and as is the trespass–offering. 11 All the males among the children of Aaron shall eat of it, as a fixed portion for ever in your generations from the fire–offer– ings of the Lord: every one that touchcth thereon shall be holy.* 12 ¶ And the Lord spoke unto Moses, saying, 13 This is the offering of Aaron and of his sons, which they shall offer unto the Lord on the day when he is anointed : the tenth part priest ; but the portion offered on the altar is, as it were, that which causeth the offerer to be remembered on high. Philippson translates the word as " the part to praise therewith." 123 [Page 124] LEVITICUS VI. VII. TZAV. of an eplmh of fine Hour for a meat–offering I perpetually; lialf of it in the morning, and the other half of it in the evening. 14 In a pan, with oil, shall it be made, well sodden" shalt thou bring it; twice baked, a meat–offering of broken pieces, shalt thou offer it for a sweet savour unto the Lord. 15 And the priest that shall be anointed in his stead among his sons shall offer it : it is a statute for ever, unto the Lord; it shall be wholly burnt. 16 And every meat–offering of a priest shall be wholly burnt, it shall not be eaten. 17 Tf And the Lord spoke unto Moses, saying, 18 Speak unto Aaron and to his sons, say– ing. This is the law of the sin–offering : On the place where the bumt–offering is killed shall the sin–offering be killed before the Lord; it is most holy. 19 The priest who maketh atonement with its blood shall eat it : in a holy place shall it be eaten, in the court of the tabernacle of the congregation. 20 Whatsoever may touch the flesh there– of shall be holy: and if there should be sprinkled any of its blood upon a garment, whatever it hath been sprinkled on shalt thou wash out in a holy place. 21 And any earthen vessel wherein it may– have been boiled shall be broken : and if it have been boiled in a copper vessel, it shall be both scoured and rinsed with water. 22 Every male among the priests may eat thereof: it is most holy. 23 And evei'y sin–offering whereof any of the blood is brought into the tal¶ernacle of the congregation to make atonement therewith in the holy place, shall not be eaten; it shall be burnt in Are. CHAPTER VII. 1 ¶ And this is the law of the trespass– offering: It is most holy. 2 On the place where they kill the burnt– oflcring shall they kill the trespass–oflering ; a So Ilaslii explains the word n33"iO " soildcn sufficient in hot water;" after which it was baked in an oven, broken in pieces, and baked again in the pan. Others explain this term with " softened with oil." Hut this beinjj one of the words which occur in but one passage, it is difficult to state its precise signification. b This is variously explained, so as to agree with the 124 and the blood thereof shall be sprinkled upon the altar round about. 3 And all its fat shall be oflered up; the rump, and the fat that covereth the inwards, 4 And the two kidneys, and the fat that is on them, which is on the flanks, and the mid– riff above the liver, with the kidneys shall he remove the same : 5 And the priest shall burn them upon the altar for an offering made by lire unto the Lord; it is a trespass–offering. 6 Every male among the priests may eat thereof; in a holy ylace shall it be eaten : it is most holy. 7 As the sin–offering is, so is the trespass– offering ; there is one law for them : the priest that maketh atonement thercwith, his shall it be. 8 And the priest that offereth any man's burnt–offering, — the skin of the burnt–offering which he hath oflered shall belong to this priest alone. 9 And every meat–offering that is baked in the oven, and all that is dressed in the deep pan, and in the flat pan, shall belong to the priest that offereth it alone.'' 10 And every meat–oftering which is min– gled with oil, or dry, shall belong to all the sons of Aaron, to one as much as the other."'' 11 ¶f And this is the law of the sacrifice of peace–offering, which one may happen to offer unto the Lord. 12 If he ofler it for a thanksgiving, then shall he ofler with the sacrifice of thanksgiv– ing unleavened cakes mingled with oil, and unleavened wafers anointed with oil, and fine flour, well sodden, made into cakes mingled with oil. 13 Together with cakes of leavened bread shall he bring his offering, Avi¶i the sacrifice of his thanksgiving peace–offoring. 14 And he shall ofler thereof one out of every oblation for a hewe–oflering unto the Lord; to the priest that sprinkleth the blood of the peace–oflering — to him shall it belong. 15 And the flesh of the sacrifice of his next verse. First, that it is the abso10te property of (ho officiating priest, to distribute it at his option among his fellows; secondly, that it belongs to the family division of the sacrificcr who may have the duties to perform on the day of the sacrifice. Arnheim and others render verse 10, "Hut," &c., thus making a distinction between the various kinds of sacrifices. [Page 125] LEVITICUS VII. TZAV. thanksgiving peace–offoring shall he eaten the same day that it is offered; he shall not leave any of it until the morning. 16 But if the sacrifice of his offering be a vow, or a vo10ntary offering, it shall bo eaten the same day that he oflereth his sacrifice: and on the morrow also shall what is left thereof be eaten. 17 But what is left of the flesh of the sacri– fice, on the third day shall it be burnt with fire. 18 And if the intention" was to eat of the flesh of the sacrifice of his peace–offering on the third day, it shall not be fiivourably re– ceived ; to him who offereth it shall it not be ac– counted ; it shall be an abomination, and the person that eateth of it shall bear his iniquity. 19 And the flesh, that toucheth on any unclean thing, shall not be eaten, with fire shall it be burnt : and as for the flesh, every one that is clean may eat thereof 20 But the person that eateth the flesh of the sacrifice of peace–offering, that pertaineth unto the Lord, having his uncleanness upon him, even that person shall be cut off from his jjeople. 21 And any person that toucheth any un– clean thing, as the uncleanness of man, or on any unclean beast, or on any abominable un– clean thing, and eateth of the flesh of the sacrifice of peace–offering, which pertaineth unto the Lord, even that person shall be cut off from his people. 22 And the Lord spoke unto Moses, say– 23 Speak unto the children of Israel, say– ing. Every manner of fat, of ox,"*or of sheep, or of goat shall ye not eat. 24 And the fat of a beast that dieth of itself, and the fat of that which is torn by beasts, may be used for any manner of work, but ye shall in no wise eat of it. 25 For whosoever eateth the fat of the cattle, of which one can offer an offering made by fire unto the Lord, even the person that eateth it shall be cut off from his people. 26 Moreover ye shall eat no manner of a After Rashi, in accordance with Zebachim, folio 28 a. See also Wesseli's note to this verse, where he proves that it would be incorrect to render "if any of the flesh, &c. be eaten." b These are the species of which a sacrifice can be brought; consequently, the fat of the deer–kind is per– mitted. blood, in any of your dwellings, whether it be of fowl or of cattle." 27 Whatsoever person it be that eateth any manner of blood, OAcn that person shall be cut off from his people. 28 ¶ And the IjORd spoke unto Moses, saying,¶ 29 Speak unto the children of Israel, say– ing. He thatoflereth the sacrifice of his pcace– oflering unto the Lord shall bring his oblation unto the Lord from the sacrifice of his peace– oftering. 30 His own hands shall bring it, as the fire–offerings of the Lord; the fat with the breast shall he bring, the breast that it may be wwed for a wwe–oflfering before the Lord. 31 And the priest shall burn the fat upon the altar; but the breast shall belong to Aaron and to his sons. 32 And the right shoulder shall ye give unto the priest for a hewe–oflfering, of the sacrifices of your peace–offerings. 33 The one that ofiereth the blood of the peace–offerings, and the fat, among the sons of Aaron, shall have the right shoulder for his part. 34 For the breast which hath been wwed and the shoulder which hath been lifted up have I taken from the children of Israel from the sacrifices of their peace–offerings; and I have given them unto Aaron the priest and unto his sons as a fixed portion**for ever from the children of Israel. 35 This is the portion of the anointing" of Aaron, and of the anointing of his sons, from the fire–offerings of the Lord, on the day when he brouglit them near to become priests unto the Lord; 36 Which the Lord commanded to give mito them, on the day that he anointed them, from the children of Israel, as a fixed portion for ever throughout their generations. 37 This is the law of the burnt–offering, of the meat–oftering, and of the sin–offering, and of the trespass–offering, and of the consecra– tion–offering, and of the sacrifice of the peace– offering ; c The blood, however, of all four–footed animals, as well as of birds, is interdicted, without distinction, whether the individual be fit for sacrifice or not. d The word pn, otherwise rendered "statute," is here given, after Mendelssohn, with "fixed portion." (See Genesis xlvii. 22.) e i. e. Hb, in consequence of his being anointed. 125 [Page 126] LEVITICUS VII. VIII. TZAV. 38 Which the Lord commanded Moses on mount Sinai, on the day that he commanded the chikh'en of Israel to offer their ohlations unto the Lord, in the wilderness of Sinai.* CHAPTER VIIL 1 ¶ And the Lord spoke unto Moses, say– ing, 2 Take Aaron and his sons with him, and the garments, and the anointing oil, and the bullock for the sin–offering, and the two rams, and the basket of unleavened bread ; 3 And all the congregation shalt thou as– semble together unto the door of the taber– nacle of the congregation. 4 And Moses did as the Lord had com– raanded him ; and the assembly came together unto the door of the tabernacle of the con– gregation. 5 And Moses said unto the congregation. This is the thing which the Lord hath com– manded to do. 6 And Moses brought near Aaron and his sons, and washed them with water. 7 And he put upon him the coat, and girded him with the girdle, and clothed him with the robe, and put upon him the ephod, and he girded him with the belt of the ephod, and bound it unto him therewith. 8 And he put on him the breastplate; and he put in the breastplate the Urim and the Thummim. 9 And he put the mitre upon his head; and he placed upon the mitre, toward the front thereof, the golden plate, the holy crown; as the Lord had commanded Moses. 10 And Moses took the anointing oil, and anointed the tabernacle and all that was therein, and sanctified them. 11 And he sprinkled thereof upon the altar seven times; and he anointed the altar and all its vessels, also the lwer and its foot, to sanctify them. 12 And he poured of the anointing oil upon Aaron's head, and he anointed him, to sanc– tify him. a This is the manner in which Arnhcira and Wesseli explain onv used hero and in verses 19 and 23, it hav– ing in all those instanecs a disjunctive accent. Mendels– sohn, however, after Torath Kohanim, both translates "and Moses slow and took the blood," and comments that probably during the week of consecration the killing of the sacrifices was required to be done by Moses, perhaps to show the people the manner of killing the same, as 126 13 And Moses brought near the sons of Aaron, and clothed them with coats, and girded them with girdles, and bound the bon– nets on them; as the Lord had commanded Moses.* 14 And he brought near the bullock of the sin–offering: and Aaron and his sons laid their hands upon the head of the bullock of the sin–offering. 15 And some one" slew him; and Moses took the blood, and put it upon the horns of the altar round about with his finger, and purified the altar, and the (remaining) blood he poured out at the bottom of the altar, and sanctified it, to make henceforth atonement upon it. 16 And he took all the fat that was upon the inwards, and the midriff of the Uver, and the two kidne3S, and their fat, and Moses burnt them upon the altar. 17 But the bullock, and his hide, and his flesh, and his dung, he burnt with fire with– out the camp; as the Lord had commanded Moses. 18 And he brought near the ram of the burnt–offering; and Aaron and his sons laid their hands upon the head of the ram. 19 And some one killed him; and Moses sprinkled the blood upon the altar round about. 20 And the ram he'' cut into the proper pieces; and Moses burnt the head, and the pieces, and the fat. 21 And he washed the inwards and the legs in water; and Moses burnt the whole ram upon the altar : it was a burnt–sacrifice for a sweet savour, an offering made by fire unto the Lord; as the Lord had commanded Moses.* 22 And he brought near the other ram, the ram of consecration; and Aaron and his sons laid their hands upon the head of the ram. 23 And some one slew him; and Moses took some of his blood, and put it upon the tip of Aaron's right ear, and upon the thumb he performed all the other duties of the service to show them all the laws thereof. b Wesseli and Arnheini remark that the cutting up and the washing of the sacrifice wore probably performed by another person, as above, verse 15; as they do not properly belong to the act of sacrificing, and could there– fore be done by a person not connected with the priest– hood. [Page 127] LEVITICUS VIII. IX. SIIEMINEE. of his right hand, and upon the great toe of his right foot. 24 And he brought near Aaron's sons, and Moses put some of the blood upon the tijj of their right ear, and upon the thumb of their right hand, and upon the great toe of their right foot; and Moses sprinkled the blood upon the altar round about. 25 And he took the fat, and the rump, and all the fat that was upon the inwards, and the midrifi' of the liver, and the two kid– neys, and their fat, and the right shoulder; 26 And out of the basket of unleavened bread, that was before the Lord," he took one unleavened cake, and one cake of oiled bread, and one wafer, and he put them on the fat, and upon the right shoulder: 27 And he placed the whole upon the hands of Aaron, and upon the hands of his sons, and made with them a waving before the Lord. 28 And Moses then took these things from off their hands, and burnt them on the altar upon the burnt¶offering : they were a conse– cration–offering for a sweet savour, a fire–offer– ing were they unto the Lord. 29 And Moses took the breast, and made therewith a Avaving before the Lord; from the ram of consecration was it given to Moses as his portion; as the Lord had commanded Moses.* 30 And Moses took some of the anointing oil, and of the blood which was upon the altar, and sprinkled the same upon Aaron, and upon his garments, and upon his sons, and upon the garments of his sons with him ; and he sanctified Aaron, his garments, and his sons, and the garments of his sons with him. 31 And Moses said unto Aaron and to his sons, Boil ye the flesh at the door of the tabei–nacle of the congregation; and there shall ye eat it with the bread that is in the basket of the consecration; as I have com– manded, saying, Aaron and his sons shall eat it. 32 And that which is left of the flesh and of the bread shall ye burn with fire.* 33 And from the door of the tabernacle of a Meaning, the basket which had been placed near the altar, as by this means it was more in the presence of God than in any other place. b Lit. "Shall he (the consecrator) fill your hand." the congregation shall ye not go forth seven days, until the days of your consecration be at an end; for seven days shall your conse– cration last.*" 34 As they have done this day, so hath the Lord commanded to do farther, to make an atonement for you. 35 And at the door of the tabernacle of the congregation shall ye abide day and night seven days, and keep the charge of the Lord, that ye die not; for so have I been com– manded. 36 And Aaron and his sons did all the tilings which the Lord had commanded by the hand of Moses. Haphtorah in Jeremiah vii. 21 to viii. 3 and ix. 22, 23. SECTION XXVI. SHEMINEE, TOty. CHAPTER IX. 1 ¶ And it came to pass on the eighth day that Moses called Aaron and his sons, and the elders of Israel ; 2 And he said unto Aaron, Take unto thy– self a young calf for a sin–offering, and a ram for a burnt–offering, without blemish, and brmg them near before the Lord. 3 And unto the children of Israel shalt thou speak, saying, Take ye a he–goat for a sin–offering; and a calf and a sheep, both of the first year, without blemish, for a burnt– offering ; 4 Also a bullock and a ram for jieace–offer– ings, to sacrifice before the Lord, and a meat– oflering mingled with oil; for this day the Lord will appear unto you. 5 And they brought that which Moses had commanded before the tabernacle of the con– gregation : and all the congregation drew near and stood before the Lord. 6 And Moses said, This thing which the Lord hath commanded shall ye do : and then will the glory of the Lord appear unto you. 7 And Moses said unto Aaron, Draw near unto the altar, and prepare thy sin–offei'ing, and thy burnt–offering, and make an atone– ment for thyself, and for the people ; and pre– pare the offering of the people, and make an c This phrase lp3 p Sj;' is said to moan a steer of two years, so likewise "ram" signifies one two years old; but when the words hi)f and a¶D "calf" and "sheep" aro used, they mean animals one year old. 127 [Page 128] LEVITICUS IX. X. SIIEMINEE. atonement for them; as the Lord hath com– manded. 8 And Aaron drew near nnto the altar; and he slew the calf of the sin–offering, which wasfor himself. 9 And the sons of Aaron brought the blood unto him ; and he dipped his finger in the blood, and put it upon the horns of the altar; and the (remaining) blood he poured out at the bottom of the altar 10 And the fat, and the kidneys, and the midrifi' from the liver of the sin–offering, he burnt upon the altar; as the Lord had com– manded Moses. 11 And the flesh and the hide he burnt with fire without the camp. 12 And he slew the burnt–offering; and the sons of Aaron presented unto him the blood, and he sprinkled it upon the altar round about. 13 And the burnt–offering they presented unto him, in its proper pieces, together with the head: and he burnt them upon the altar. 14 And he washed the inwards and the legs; and he burnt them upon the burnt– offering on the altar. 15 And he brought near the people's offer– ing ; and he took the goat of the sin–offering which belonged to the people, and slew it, and made atonement*with its blood, as the first. 16 And he brought near the burnt–offering, and offered it according to the prescribed manner.* 17 And he brought near the meat–offering, and he filled his hand thereof, and burnt it upon the altar, beside the burnt–sacrifice of the morning. 18 lie slew also the bullock and the ram, the sacrifice of i)eace–oflering which belonged to the people: and the sons of Aaron pre– sented unto him the blood, and he sprinkled it upon the altar round al)Out, 11) Also the fat of the bullock, and of the ram, the rump, and that which covereth the a Onkelos thus renders inxtarri, and views it as express– ing that the priest made of it a sin–offering by sprin– kling the blood : the word hlixnl, however, is not in the text, and is merely understood. So also above, vi. 19, and elsewhere. b The guilt of the sons of Aaron (more correctly Aha– ron) evidently consisted in their bringing incense upon a censer which had not been commanded, as it was merely 128 inwards, and the kidneys, and the midriff of the liver; 20 And they put these pieces of fat upon the breasts, and he burnt the fat upon the altar; 21 And with the breasts and the right shoulder Aaron made a waving before the Lord; as Moses had commanded. 22 And Aaron lifted up his hands toward the people, and blessed them ; and came down after he had offered the sin–offering, and the burnt–oflering, and peace–offerings. 23 And Moses and Aaron went into the tabernacle of the congregation, and came then out, and blessed the people : and the glory of the Lord appeared unto all the people. * 24 And there came forth a fire from before the Lord, and consumed upon the altar the burnt–offering and the fat; and when all the people saw this, they shouted, and fell on their faces. CHAPTER X. 1 And Nadab and Abihu, the sons of Aaron, took each his censer, and they put therein fire, and put thereon incense: and they brought near before the Lord a strange fire,*" which he had not commanded them. 2 And there went out a fire from before the Lord, and consumed them, and they died before the Lord. 3 Then said Moses unto Aaron, This is what the Lord hath spoken, saying. On those who are near unto me will I be sanctified, and before all the people will I be glorified; and Aaron held his peace. 4 And Moses called unto Mishael and El– zaphan, the sons of 'Uzziel, the uncle of Aaron, and said unto them. Come near, carry your jjrethren from before the sanctuary to without the camp. 5 And they came near, and carried thena in their coats to without the camp; as Moses had spoken. 6 And Moses said unto Aaron, and unto Elazar and inito Ithaniar, his sons. The hair to be sacriflccd on the altar which was within the sanc– tuary, and then but twice every daj–. And while they were engaged in this unacceptable ministry, they were slain in the tabernacle by the mysterious fire. The words "consumed them" must, however, be understood, not as a perfect burning, but as merely enough to cause death, or else they could not have been carried forth to be buried in their garments. [Page 129] LEVITICUS X. XL SHEMINEE. of your head you shall not let grow long, and your garments you shallnot rend, that ye die not, and that he be not wroth upon the whole congregation; but your lirethren, the whole house of Israel, may bewail the burn– ing which the Lord hath kindled. 7 And from the door of the tabernacle of the congregation shall ye not go out, lest ye die; for the anointing oil of the Lord is upon you; and they did according to the word of Moses. 8 ¶ And the Lord spoke unto Aaron, saying, 9 Wine or strong drink" shalt thou not drink, neither thou, nor thy sons with thee, when ye go in unto the tabernacle of the con– gregation, lest ye die : it shall be a statute for ever throughout your generations. 10 So that ye may be able to distinguish between holy and unholy, and between the unclean and the clean ; 11 And that ye may be able to teach the children of Israel all the statutes which the Lord hath spoken unto them by the hand of Moses.* 12 ¶ And Moses spoke unto Aaron, and unto Elazar and unto Ithamar his sons, that were left, Take ye the meat–offering that is left of the fire–offerings of the Lord, and eat it unleavened beside the altar ; for it is most holy. 13 And ye shall eat it in a holy place, be– cause it is thy fixed portion, and the fixed portion of thy sons, from the fire–offerings of the Lord; for so have I been commanded. 14 And the bi'east which hath been wwed and the shoulder which hath been lifted up, shall ye eat in a clean place, thou, and thy sons, and thy daughters with thee ; for as thy fixed portion, and the fixed portion of thy sons, have they been given from the sacrifices of peace–offerings of the children of Israel. 15 The shoulder which is wwed and the a From the fact that this section follows immediately the one containing the death of Aaron's sons, it was the opinion of R¶ibbi Ishmacl, that they had entered the sanc– tuary in a state of drunkenness; be this as it may, it is an energetic prohibition against the use of any intoxicating drink, by priests or judges, before they engage in their solemn duties. b Aaron no doubt meant to exhibit to Moses, that as he had not enumerated the sin–oflfering among the things to be eaten, (verse 12,) it would have been wrong for him to cat thereof, while his sons were yet unburicd ; and he there– fore had it burnt, as it cou!d not lawfully be kept till the R wwe which is lifted up, shall they bring, with the fat of the fire–offering, to make therewith a Avaving before the Lord; and then shall it be thine, and thy sons with thee, as a fixed portion for ever; as the Lord hath com– manded.* 10 And the goat of the sin–offering Moses sought dil16ently, and behold, it was burnt: and he was angry with Elazar and Ithamar, the sons of Aaron who had been left, and said, 17 Wherefore have je not eaten the sin– offering in the holy place, seeu16 that it is most holy, and that he hath given it to you to bear the iniquity of the congregation, to make atonement for them before the Lord ? 18 Behold, its blood was not brought with– in the holy place : ye should then have eaten it in the holy place, as I commanded. 19 And Aaron spoke unto Moses, Behold, this day have they offered their sin–offering, and their burnt–oflering before the Lord; and things as these have befallen me: and if I had eaten the sin–offering to–day,'' would it have been pleasing in the eyes of the Lord ? 20 And when Moses heai'd this, it was pleasing in his eyes.* CHAPTER XL 1 ¶ And the Lord spoke unto Moses and to Aaron, saying unto them, 2 Speak unto the children of Israel, saying, These ai'e the beasts which ye may eat among all the beasts" that are on the earth. 3 Whatsoever divideth the hoof, and is cloven–footed, and cheweth the cud, among the beasts, that may ye eat. 4 But these shall ye not eat, of those that chew the cud, or of those that divide the hoof: the camel ; because he cheweth the cud, but divideth not the hoof; he is unclean unto you. 5 And the cony; because he cheweth the next day. And though he had conc10ded wrongly, still Moses was satisfied ; as ho had acted from pure intentions. —After Wesseli. c T\:¶7\2 in this and subsequent verses is rendered by Amheim " fourfooted," i. e. animals. Usually it is given with " cattle," that is, the domestic ones, in opposition to rrn "the beast" which roams wild. But as "beast" in English inc10des both the wild and domestic animal, the word has been used to express both rrn and mn3, from the difficulty of translating them always with the proper synonyme. [Page 130] LEVITICUS XI. SHEMINEE. cud, but divideth not the hoof; he is unclean unto you. 6 And the hare; because he cheweth the cud, but divideth not the hoof; he is unclean unto you. 7 And the swine; because he divideth the hoof, and is cloven–footed, but he cheweth not the cud ; he is unclean unto you. 8 Of their flesh shall ye not eat, and their carcass shall ye not touch ; they are unclean unto you. 9 These may ye eat, of all that are in the waters : All that have fins and scales in the waters, in the seas, and in the rivers, them may ye eat. 10 But all that have not fins and scales in the seas, and in the rivers, of whatever mov– cth in the waters, and of any living thing which is in the waters, shall be an ajjominar tion unto you : 11 And an abomination shall they remain unto you; of their flesh shall ye not eat, and their carcasses ye shall have in abominar tion. 12 Whatsoever hath not fins and scales in the waters, shall be an abomination unto you. 13 And these shall ye have in abomination among the fowls; they shall not be eaten, they are an abomination : The eagle," and the ossifrage, and the osprey, 14 And the vulture, and the kite after his kind ; 15 Every rwen after his kind; 16 And the ostrich, and the night–hawk, and the cuckoo, and the hawk after his kind ; 17 And the little owl, and the cormorant, and the great owl, 18 And the swan, and the pelican, and the gier–eagle, 19 And the stork, the heron after his kind, and the lapwing, and the bat. 20 All flying insects that walk upon four feet, shall be an aljomination unto you. 21 Yet these may ye cat, among all the a The meaning of some of the birds' names, like that of the stones in the breastplate, are of very uncertain signi– fication. (Sec also Deut. xiv. 1'2–lS.) b All these arc species of the locust — the particular kinds arc not known ; hence they arc left untranslated, as has been done by Mendelssohn and Arnheim. The same uncertainty prevails concerning the animals mentioned in verses 30 and 31. 180 flying insects that walk on four feet, which have spring–legs al)ove their feet, to leap there'vvith upon the earth. 22 These of them may ye cat : The locust after its kind, and the solam'' after its kind, and the chargol after its kind, and the chagab after its kind. 23 But all flying insects, which have four feet, shall be an abomination unto you; 24 And through these shall ye be rendered unclean : whosoever toucheth the carcass of them shall be unclean until the evening; 25 And whosoever beareth aught of their carcass shall wash his clothes, and be unclean until the evening. 26 Every species of beast,*¶ which divideth the hoof and is not cloven–footed nor cheweth the cud, is miclean unto you : every one that toucheth the same shall be imclean. 27 And all that walk upon their paws, among all manner of beasts that walk on four feet, are unclean unto you ; whosoever touch– eth their carcass shall be unclean until the evening. 28 And he that beareth their carcass shall wash his clothes, and be unclean vmtil the evening : unclean shall they be unto you. 29 ¶i And these shall be unclean unto you among the creeping things that creep upon the earth : the weasel, and the mouse, and the tortoise after its kind, 30 And the hedgehog, and the chame– leon, and the lizard, and the snail, and the mole. 31 These shall be unclean to you among all that creci¶: whosoever doth touch them, when they are dead, shall be unclean until the evening. 32 And every thing upon which any jiart of them, when they are dead, doth fiill, shall be unclean ; whether it be any vessel of wood, or raiment, or skin, or sack, every vessel wherewith any work can be done, nuist be put into water, and it shall be unclean until the evening, when it shall be clean.* 33 And every earthen vessel whereinto c In this the prohibition is rendered general, that any animal which has a hoof that is not divided through, though it be partiiilly split, shall bo unclean. The touch– ing to render man unclean, refers to the carcass, not the living animal, as appears from the whole tenor of the pre– cept given here with regard to uncleanness arising from touching uiicle.m animals. Verse 27 interdicts all animals that have neither mark of cleanness before given. [Page 131] LEVITICUS XI. XII. TAZREEANG. any part of them falleth, whatsoever is in it shall be unclean ; and itself shall ye break. . 34 All kinds of food which may be eaten," on which water cometh, shall be unclean : and all drink that may be drunk, shall be render– ed unclean in every vessel. 35 And every thing whereupon any part of their carcass falleth, shall be unclean ; an oven,*" or ranges for pots, shall be broken down, they are unclean; and unclean shall they be unto you. 36 Nevertheless, a fountain, or pit, rcceptar cles for water, shall be clean ;" but he'' that toucheth their carcass shall be unclean. 37 And if any part of their carcass fall upon any somng–seed which hath been" sown, it shall be clean. 38 But if any water be put upon the seed, and any part of their carcass fall thereon, it shall be unclean unto you. 39 ¶ And if any cattle die, which is allow– ed to you as food : he that toucheth its car– cass shall be unclean until the evening. 40 And he that eateth of its carcass shall wash his clothes, and be unclean until the evening ; he also that beareth its carcass shall wash his clothes, and be unclean until the evening. 41 And every creepu16 thing that creepeth upon the earth is an abomination, it shall not be eaten. 42 Whatsoever goeth upon the belly, and whatsoever goeth upon four feet, down to whatsoever hath many feet among all creep– ing things that creep upon the earth, shall ye not eat ; for they are an abomination. 43 Ye shall not make yourselves abomina– ble mth any creeping thing that creepeth; and ye shall not make yourselves unclean with them, that ye should be defiled thereby. 44 For I am the Lord your God; ye shall therefore sanctify yourselves, and ye shall be holy ; for I am holy : neither shall ye make yourselves unclean with any manner of creep– ing thing that creepeth upon the earth.* 45 For I am the Lord that have brought you up out of the land of Egypt, to be your a " This refers to the preceding verse ; whatever food on –which water has been put, as also all manner of drink which shall happen to be in the unclean vessel, shall be rendered unclean." — ILvsm. b Tradition defines these to mean movable earthen ovens and ranges. God; ye shall therefore Ix; holy, for 1 am holy. 46 This is the law of the beasts, and ol the fowl, and of every livmg creature that moveth in the waters, and of every creature that creepeth u2)on the earth : 47 To distinguish between the unclean and the clean, and between the beast that may be eaten and the beast that may not be eaten. Haphtorah in 2 Samuel vi. 1 to 19. The Germans read to vii. 3, and the Italians to verse 17. SECTION XXVII. TAZREEANG, V''\¶r\. CHAPTER XII. 1 ¶ And the Lord spoke unto Moses, saymg, 2 Speak unto the children of Israel, saying, K a woman have conceived seed, and bom a male child : then shall she be unclean seven days, even as in the days of the separation for her infirmity shall she be unclean. 3 And on the eighth day shall the flesh of his foreskin be circumcised. 4 And thirty and three days shall she then continue in the blood of her purification ; any thmg hallowed shall she not touch, and into the sanctuary shall she not come, imtil the days of her purification be at an end. 5 But if she bear a female child, then shall she be unclean two weeks, as in her separa– tion; and sixty and six days shall she con– tinue in the blood of the purification. 6 And at the completion of the days of her purification, for a son, or for a daughter, she shall bring a sheep of the first year for a burnt–oftering, and a young p16eon, or a turtle–dove, for a sin–oflering, unto the door of the tabernacle of the congregation, unto the priest. 7 And he shall bring it near before the Lord, and make an atonement for her, and she shall be cleansed from the issue of her blood; ¶iis is the law for her that hath given birth to a male or to a female. 8 And if her means will not suffice for a c " Even should a carcass lie therein." — Arnheim. d " Though lie be at the time in a fountain or pit of water." — Kasiii. e In a way that it can be sown in a dry state." — Jonathan. 131 [Page 132] LEVITICUS XII. XIII. TAZREEANG. lamb, then shall she take two turtle–doves, or two young pigeons, the one for a burnt¶ ofiering, and the other for a sin–offering; and the priest shall make an atonement for her, and she shall be clean. CHAPTER XIII. 1 ¶ And the Lord spoke unto Moses and unto Aaron, sajdng, 2 If a man shall have in the skin of his flesh a swelling," a rising, or a bright spot, and it might become'' in the skin of his flesh the plague of leprosy : then shall he be brought unto Aaron the priest, or unto one of his sons the priests. 3 And if the priest shall see the plague in the skin of the flesh, and the hair in the plague be turned white, and the appearance of the plague be deeper than the skin of his flesh : it is a plague of leprosy ; and (so soon as) the priest shall see him, he shall pro– nounce him unclean. 4 But if it be a white bright spot in the skin of his flesh, and its appearance be not deeper than the skin, and the hair be not turned white : then shall the priest shut up the plague seven days. 5 And the priest shall see him on the seventh day; and, behold, if the plague have remained unchanged in its appearance, the plague have not spread in the skin : then shall the priest shut him up seven days more.* 6 And the priest shall see him again on the seventh day; and, behold, if the plague be somewhat pale, and the plague have not spread in the skin : then shall the priest pro– nounce him clean ; it is a rising, and he shall wash his clothes, and be clean. 7 But if the rising should spread abroad in the skin, after he hath been seen by the priest for his cleansing, he shall be seen again by the priest. 8 And if the priest see that, behold, the ' rising have spread abroad in the skin, then Ij shall the px'iest pronounce him unclean : it is ! leprosy. 9 ¶f If the plague of leprosy happen to be on a man, then shall he be Ijrought unto the priest; 10 And the priest shall see, and, behold, if there be a white swelling in the skin, and the hair in it have turned Avhite, or" there be a trace of healthy'*flesh in the swelling : 11 It is an inveterate leprosy in the skin of his flesh, and the jjriest shall pronounce him unclean ; he shall not shut him up, for he is unclean. 12 And if the leprosy break out abroad in the skin, and the leprosy cover all the skin of (him that hath) the plague from his head even to the feet, so far as the eyes of the priest can see : 13 If now the priest should see, that, be– hold, the lei)rosy have covered all his flesh, he shall pronounce the plague clean; it is all turned white, he is clean. 14 But on the day that healthy flesh ap– peareth therein, he shall be unclean. 15 And the priest shall see the healthy flesh, and pronounce him to be unclean ; the healthy flesh is unclean, it is the leprosj–. 16 Or if the healthy flesh turn again, and be changed unto white, he shall come unto the priest ; 17 And if the priest see him, and, behold, the plague be turned into white : then shall the priest pronounce the plague" clean, he is clean."'' 18 ¶ And if there be a person who hath had in his skin an inflammation, and hath been healed, 19 And if there be on the jjlace of the in– flammation a Avhite swelling, or a white and dark red' bright spot, he shall be shown to the priest; a This is according to the version of Mendelssohn. Arnheim renders ririDD " tetter," or a tetter–like affection. Jonathan gives it with 'iji'¶p" peeling," "scale," or "scab." Philippson translates rixt? simply with " spot," and com– ments that this is the first symptom of leprosy : this view explains quite naturally the " depression" spoken of in the next verse. b Both Mendelssohn and Arnheim translate rrni as here given : it means then, that so soon as there is an ap– pearance which might terminate in leprosy, the patient shall be brought to the priest for inspection. c Tradition requires us to render "or," as Mendelssohn docs. Arnheim and others give it with "and." d Others translate this with "raw flesh." e "Plague" stands for "him who hath the plague." f This version of " dark red" is after Mendelssohn, who views after the Rabbins, Dioix and pipT as the inten– sives of oiN and pT, therefore "dark red, dark green." The verse should then be explained, that there be upon the place where a wound or a sore has been in the skin a swelling or spot not decidedly white, but intermingled with dark red streaks, which peculiar appearance is a dis– tinctive mark of Icprosy, not of a .carof the wound, if the other signs, the depression of the skin and the white hair, should be present. The same is the case with the next section. [Page 133] LEVITICUS XIII. TAZREEANG. 20 And if the priest see, and, behold, its appearance be lower than the skin, and the hair thereof have been turned white : then shall the priest pronounce him unclean, it is the plague of leprosy broken out m the in– flammation. 21 But if the priest see it, and, behold, there be no white hair therein, and if it be not lower than the skin, and it be pale: then shall the priest shut him up seven da3–s. 22 And if it now spread abroad in the skin, then shall the priest pronounce him un– clean: it is the jDlague (of leprosy). 23 But if the bright spot remain in its place, and syread not, it is a scar of the in– flammation; and the priest shall pronounce him clean.* 24 ¶ Or if there be a person in whose skin there is a place burnt by fire, and the mark of the burning become a bright spot, white and dark red, or white; 25 And if the priest see it, and, behold, the hair in the bright spot have been turned white, and its appearance be deejjer than the skin: it is leprosy, broken out in the fire– wound; and the priest shall pronounce him unclean, it is. the plague of leprosy. 26 But if the priest see it, and, behold, there be in the bright spot no white hair, and it be not lower than the skin, and it be pale : then shall the priest shut liim up seven days. 27 And the priest shall see him on the seventh day ; if now it have spread abroad in the skin, then shall the priest pronounce him unclean : it is the plague of leprosy. 28 And if the bright spot remain in its place, (and) it have not spread abroad in the skin, and it be pale : it is a swelling of the fire–wound; and the priest shall pronounce him clean ; for it is a scar of the fire–wound.* 29 ¶ And if there be a man or woman on whom there arise a plague, on the head or on the beard; 30 Then shall the priest see the plague; and, behold, if its appearance be deeper than the skin, and there be in it a yellow thin liair: then shall the priest pronounce him unclean, it is a dry scall, it is the leprosy of the head or of the beard. 31 And if the priest see the plague of the a The spreading of the disorder being a sign of unclean– ness, it is equally so whether it happen during the time scall, and, behold, its appearance be not deeper than the skin, and there be no black hair in it : then shall the priest shut u–p the plague of the scall seven days. 32 And the priest shall see the plague on the seventh day; and, behold, if the scall have not spread, and there be in it no yellow hair, and the appearance of the scall be not deeper than the skin : 33 Then shall he be shaved, but the scall he shall not shave ; and the priest shall shut up the scall seven days more. 34 And the priest shall see the scall on the seventh day; and, behold, if the scall have not spread in the skin, and its appearance be not deeper than the skin: then shall the priest pronounce him clean, and he shall wash his clothes, and be clean. 35 But if the scall should spread" in the skin after his being pronounced clean : 36 Then shall the priest see him ; and, be– hold, if the scall have spread in the skin, the priest shall not seek for the yellow hair; he is unclean. 37 But if the scall have remained sta– tionary in its colour, and black hair have grown up therein : the scall is then healed, he is clean ; and the i¶riest shall pronounce him clean. 38 ¶ And if there be a man or a woman having in the skin of their flesh bright syois, white bright spots; 39 And if the priest do see, and, behold, there are in the skin of their flesh bright spots, pale and white : it is a freckly eruption grown in the skin; he is clean.* 40 ¶ And if there be a man whose hair of the head fall oft', he is a bald head; he is clean. 41 And if from the side of his face his hair fall ofi", he is forehead–bald; he is clean. 42 But if there be on the bald head, or the bald forehead, an eruption, white and dark red : it is the leprosy sprung up on his bald head, or his bald forehead. 43 And the priest shall see him; and, be– hold, if the swelling of the eruption be white and dark red on his bald head, or on his bald forehead, like the appearance of the leprosy on the (other parts of the) skin of the flesh : 44 He is a leprous man, he is unclean; that the leper is shut up, and before the decision of the priest, or after he has pronounced him clean. 133 [Page 134] LEVITICUS XIII. XIV. METZORANG. the priest shall pronounce him unclean; his plague is on his head. 45 And the leper on whom the plague is, his clothes shall be reut, and his head shall be bare,' and he shall cover himself up to his upper lip, and. Unclean, unclean, shall he call out. 46 All the days whereon the plague which rendereth unclean is on him, he shall be un– clean; alone shall he dwell; without the camp shall his habitation be. 47 ¶ And if there be a garment on which there arise a plague of leprosy, whether it be on a woollen garment, or on a Imen gar– ment; 48 Whether it be on the warp,'' or on the woof; of linen, or of woollen ; whether on a skin, or on any thing made of skin ; 49 And the plague be dark greei\or dark red, on the garment, or on the skin, or on the warp, or on the woof, or on any article made of skin : it is the plague of leprosy ; and it shall be shown unto the pi'iest. 50 And the priest shall see the plague, and shut up the plague seven days. 51 And if he see the plague on the seventh day, that the plague have spread in the gar– ment, either in the warp, or in the woof, or in the skin, or in any article that is made of skin ; the plague is a corroding'' leprosy ; it is unclean. 52 And he shall then burn that garment, whether warp or woof, in woollen or in linen, or any article of skin, whereon the plague is ; for it is a corroding leprosy, in fire shall it be burnt. 53 And if the priest shall see, and, behold, the plague have not spread on the garment, either on the warp, or on the woof, or on any article of skin : 54 Then shall the priest command that Ihey wash the thing whereon the plague is, 10id he shall shut it up seven days more.=== 55 And if. the priest see, after the plague a "He shall let his hair grow long." — Rashi. And after this manner ing hasbeen rendered above, x. 6; pcrhajjs this word inc10des botii ideas. b Philippson renders "plain woven or twilled stuff of linen or wool." c In verse 49 the words "it is the plague of leprosy" arc used, without its being thereby decided whether the garment, &c., be unclean or not, which is not the case with human beings who arc unclean, when the leprosy is evident. Garments, however, need to be affected with a leprosy rnxon or nnna "corrosion" or 134 hath been washed, and, behold, the plague have not changed its colour, and the plague have not spread: it is imclean, in fire shalt thou burn it; it is a decay on its inside or on its outside. 50 And if the priest see, and, behold, the plague have become pale after its having been washed: then shall he tear it out from the garment, or from the skin, or from the warp, or from the woof '=" 57 And if it appear again on the garment, either on the warp, or on the woof, or on any instrument of skin: it is a growing plague; with fire shalt thou burn that whereon the plague is. 58 And the garment, either the waqj or the woof, or every instrument of skin, which thou shalt wash, and the plague depart there– from, shall be washed the second time, when it shall be clean. 59 This is the law of the plague of leprosy on a garment of woollen or of linen, either in the warp, or the woof, or any article of skin, to pronounce it clean, or unclean. Haphtorah in 2 Kings iv. 42 to v. 19. SECTION XXVIII. METZORANG, in VO. CHAPTER XIV. 1 ¶ And the Lord spoke unto Moses, say– ing, 2 This shall Ije the law of the leper on the day of his being cleansed : He shall be brought unto the priest. 3 And the priest shall go forth'' to with– out the camp ; and if the priest see, and, be– hold, the plague of leprosy be healed on the leper : 4 Then shall the priest command to take for him that is to be cleansed two healthy, clean birds," and cedar wood, and a string of scarlet varn, and hyssop. 5 And the priest shall command that one decay," before they can bo pronounced unclean. — After Akniieim. d The bringing before the priest, in the preceding verse, is explained in this, that he is to go out of the camp to the dwelling of the leper, to satisfy himself whether or not the leper can return unto the camp after the nest prc– seribcd ceremonies have been jierfornicd. e Clean birds, means those which are permitted to bo eaten, consequently none of the prohibited kinds could be taken, nvn is rendered here, "healthy," but not "living," in accordance with tradition. (See also Exodus i. 19.) [Page 135] LEVITICUS XIV. METZORANG. of the birds l)e killed in an earthen vessel over running Avater. 6 As for the living bird, he shall take it, and the cedar wood, and the string of scarlet yarn, and the hyssop, and he shall dip these and the living bird into the blood of the bird that was killed over the running water: 7 And he shall sprinkle njion him that is to be cleansed from the leprosy seven times; and when he hath cleansed him, he shall let the living bird tly forth into the open field. 8 And he that is to be cleansed shall wash his clothes, and shave oft" all his hair, and wash himself in water, and he shall be clean, and after that he may come mto the camp; l)ut he shall tarrv outside of his tent seven days. 9 And it shall be on the seventh day, that he shallshave oft' all his hair, his head, and his beard, and his eyebrows, even all his hair shall he shave oft': and he shall wash his clothes, he shall also wash his flesh" in Avater, when he shall be clean. 10 And on the eighth day he shall take two sheep without blemish, and one ewe of the first year without blemish, and three– tenth parts of fine flour for a meat–offering, mingled with oil, and one log of oil. 11 And the priest who cleanseth shall cause the man that is to be made clean, and these things, to stand before the Lord, at the door of the tabernacle of the congregation : 12 And the priest shall take the one sheep, and offer the same for a trespass–offering, with the log of oil ; and he shall make with them a waving before the Lord.* 13 And he shall slay the sheep on the place where the sin–offering and the bunit– offering are killed, in the holy place; for as the sin–offering"' so doth the tresjiass–offering belong to the priest : it is most holy. 14 And the priest shall take some of the blood of the trespass–offering; and the priest shall put it upon the tip of the right ear of him that is to be cleansed, and upon the thuml) of his right hand, and upon the great toe of his right foot. 15 And the priest shall take some of the log of oil, and pour it into the palm of his own left hand. a This phrase, used here and elsewhere, means simply "to bathe the whole body at once." b This is explained thus : As the blood of the sin–offer– ing must be sprinkled, and the fat thereof be burnt upon 16 And the priest shall dip his finger of the right hand in the oil that is in his left hand, and he shall sprinkle of the oil with his finger seven times before the Lord. 17 And of the rest of the oil that is in his hand shall the priest put uj)on the tip of the right ear of him that is to be cleansed, and upon the thumb of his right hand, and upon the great toe of his right loot, upon the blood of the trespass–offering. 18 And what is left of the oil that is in the priest's hand, he shall put upon the head of him that is to be cleansed: and the priest shall (thus) make an atonement for him be– fore the Lord. 19 And the priest shall prepare the sin– oft'ering, and make an atonement for him that is to be cleansed from his uncleanness; and afterward shall he kill the burnt–offering : 20 And the yriest shall ofler the bunit– offering and the meat–oftering upon the altar; and the priest shall (thus) make aii atonement for him, and he shall be clean.* 21 ¶But if he be poor, and his means do not suffice, then shall he take one sheep for a trespass–offering to be wwed, to make an atonement for him ; and one–tenth part of fine flour mingled with oil for a meat–offering, and a log of oil ; 22 And two turtle–doves, or two young pigeons, for which his means suffice ; and one shall be a sm–offering, and the other a burnt– offering. 23 And he shall bring them on the eighth day of his being cleansed unto the priest, unto the door of the tabernacle of the congregation, before the Lord. 24 And the priest shall take the sheep of the trespass–offering, and the log of oil; and the priest shall make with them a waving be– fore the Lord. 25 And he shall kill the sheep of the tres– pass–offering; and the priest shall take some of the blood of the trespass–offering, and put it upon the tip of the right ear of him that is to be cleansed, and upon the thuml) of his right hand, and upon the gi–eat toe of his right foot. 26 And some of the oil shall the priest pour into the palm of his own left hand : the altar, before the priest can cat of it, so is it with the present trespass–offering ; although in this place it is merely ordered that the blood be put upon the man that is to be cleansed. 136 [Page 136] LEVITICUS XIV. METZORANG. 27 And the priest shall sprinkle with his finger of the right hand some of the oil that is in his left hand, seven times before the Lord ; 28 And the priest shall put of the oil that is in his hand upon the tip of the right ear of him that is to be cleansed, and upon the thumb of his right hand, and upon the great toe of his right foot; upon the place" of the blood of the trespass–ofi'ering ; 29 And what is left of the oil that is in the priest's hand he shall put upon the head of liim that is to be cleansed, to make an atone– ment for him before the Lord. 30 And he shall offer the one of the turtle– doves, or of the young pigeons, from what his means enable him (to bring;) 31 Even what his means enable him, the one for a sin–offering, and the other for a burnt–offering, with the meat–offering:'' and the priest shall (thus) make an atonement for him that is to be cleansed, before the Lord. 32 This is the law of him on whom is the plague of leprosy, whose means are not suffi– cient when he is cleansed.¶–' 33 ¶ And the Lord spoke unto Moses and unto Aaron, saying, 34 When ye come into the land of Canaan, which I give to you for a possession, and I put the plague of leprosy on a house of the land of your possession : 35 Then shall he that owneth the house come and tell the priest, saying, Something" like a lepi'osy hath shown itself to me in the house. 36 And the priest shall command that they clear out the house, before the priest go into it to see tiie plague, that all be not made unclean that is in the house : and after this shall the priest go in to see the house. 37 And he shall view the plague, and, behold, if the plague be in the walls of the house, in depressions, dark green or dark red, and their appearance be deeper than the wall : a That is, upon the spot where the blood of the sacrifice has been put, there shall the oil also be applied, though in the mean time the blond may have been removed therefrom. b The offering of flour which accompanied the trespass– sacrifice, Imt nut a .–special gift; this meat–offering was not eaten, and but burnt on the altar. c " Even if he be a man learned in the law, and knows it to bo leprosy, he is not to pronounce abso10tely ' A ph16uc has shown itself,' but 'something like a plague.' " — Kasiii. 186 38 Then shall the priest go out of the house to the door of the house, and lock up the house seven days. 39 And the priest shall come again on the seventh day; and if he see, that, behold, the plague have spread in the walls of the house : 40 Then shall the priest command that they break out the stones on which the plague is; and they shall cast them forth without the city on an unclean place. 41 And the house he shall cause to be scraped within round about; and they shall pour out the rubbish'¶ that they have scraped off without the city on an unclean place; 42 And they shall take other stones, and put them into the place of these stones ; and other mortar shall he take, and shall i)laster the house. 43 And if the plague come again, and break out in the house, after he hath taken away the stones, and after the house hath been scraped, and after it hath been plastered : 44 Then shall the priest come; and if he see that, behold, the plague have spread in the house, it is a corrosive leprosy in the house; it is unclean. 45 And he shall break down the house, its stones, and the timljers thereof, and all the mortar of the house ; and he shall carry them forth to without the city, unto an unclean place. 46 And he that goeth into the house, all the days that it is locked up, shall be unclean until the evening. 47 And he that lie¶i in the house shall wash his clothes; and he that eateth in the house shall wash his clothes. 48 But if the priest should come in, and see, and, behold, the plague have not spread in the house, after the house was plastered : then shall the priest pronounce the house clean, because the plague is healed. 49 And he shall take, to atone" for the d 13 J? otherwise "dust," is rendered here, according to Arnheim, with "rubbish," or the "old mortar;" and in the next verse it is given with " mortar." e The word ttorh in the I'irl form, means, to remove nxan or " sin," therefore, " to remove the sin of the house," or simply '' to atone for the house;" in this sense it is the same with 10aS " to make an atonement," where– fore both words have been given here with the same Eng– lish term. The leprosy of a house was considered as a punishment for the owner; hence the atonement. [Page 137] LEVITICUS XIV. XV. METZORANG. house, two birds, and cedar wood, and a string of scarlet yarn, and li jssoj) ; 50 And he shall kill the one bird in an earthen vessel over nuuaing water; 51 And he shall take the cedar wood, and the hyssop, and the scarlet 3"ai'n, and the living bird, and dip them in the blood of the slain bird, and in the running water, and sprinkle on the house seven times : 52 And he shall atone for the house with the blood of the bird, and with the running Avater, and with the living bird, and with the cedar wood, and with the hyssop, and with the string of scarlet yarn ; 53 But he shall let fly forth the living bird out of the city into the open field, and make (thus) an atonement for the house, and it shall be clean.* 5–i This is the law for all manner of plague of leprosy, and scall, 55 And for the leprosy of a garment and of a house, 56 And for a swelling, and for a rising, and for a bright spot; 57 To teach on the day when something is unclean, and on the day when it is clean : this is the law of the leprosy. CHAPTER XV. 1 ¶ And the Lord spoke unto Moses and to Aaron, saying, 2 Speak unto the children of Israel, and say unto them. When any man have a run– nmg issue out of his flesh : because of his issue is he unclean. 3 And this shall be his uncleanness m his issue : whether his flesh run with his issue, or his flesh be stopped from his issue, it is his uncleanness. 4 Every bed, whereon he may lie that hath the issue, shall be unclean : and every vessel, whereon he may sit, shall be unclean. 5 And any man that toucheth his bed shall wash his clothes, and bathe himself in "vvater, and be unclean until the evening. 6 And he that sitteth on any vessel where– on he that hath the issue may sit, shall wash his clothes, and bathe himself in water, and be unclean until the evening. 7 And he that toucheth the flesh of him that hath the issue shall wash his clothes, and bathe himself in water, and be unclean until the evening. 8 And if he that hath the issue spit upon him that is clean : then shall this one wash his clothes, and ])athe himself in water, and be unclean until the evening. 9 And what saddle soever he that hath the issue may ride upon shall be unclean. 10 And whosoever toucheth any thing, that may be under him, shall l)e unclean un– til the evening: and he that beai'eth any, of these things shall wash his clothes, and bathe himself in water, and be unclean until the evening. 11 And whomsoever he that hath the issue may touch, and he have not rinsed his hands' in water, shall wash his clothes, and bathe himself in water, and be unclean until the evening. 12 And an earthen vessel that he who hath the issue may touch, shall be broken; and every vessel of wood shall be rinsed in water. 13 And when he that hath an issue be– cometh clean of his issue : then shall he num– ber to himself seven days for his cleansing, and wash his clothes, and bathe his flesh iu running water, and then shall he be clean. 14 And on the eighth day shall he take unto himself two turtle–doves, or two young pigeons, and come before the Lord, unto the door of the tabernacle of the congregation, and give them unto the priest : 15 And the priest shall offer them, the one for a sin–offering, and the other for a bumt– ofiering ; and the priest shall make an atone– ment for him before the Lord for his issue.* 16 ¶ And if any man's seed of copulation go out from him, then shall he bathe all his tiesh in water, and be unclean until the evening. 17 And any garment, and any skin, where– on the seed of copulation may be, shall be washed with water, and lie unclean imtil the evening. 18 And if a man should lie with a woman with seed of copulation, then shall they bathe themselves in water, and be unclean imtil the evening. 19 ¶ And if a woman have an issue, so that blood flow from her flesh : then shall she be in her state of separation seven days; and whosoever toucheth her shall be unclean until the evening. 20 And every thu16 that she may lie upon a This is explained to mean that he hath not bathed himself after the termination of the disease. 137 [Page 138] LEVITICUS XV. XVI. ACHARAY MOTH. in her separation shall be unclean: and what– ever she may sit upon shall Ijc unclean. 21 And whosoever toucheth her bed shall wash his clothes, and bathe himself in water, and be unclean until the evening. 22 And whosoever toucheth any vessel, that she may sit upon, shall wash his clothes, and bathe himself in water, and be unclean until the evening. 23 And if something be on the bed, or on any thing whereon she may sit, when he toucheth it, he shall be unclean until the evening. 24 And if any man should lie with her, and the uncleanness of her separation come upon him, he shall be unclean seven days; and every bed whereon he may lie shall be unclean. 25 ¶ And if a woman have an issue of her blood many days out of the time of her separ ration, or if it run beyond the time of her separation : all the days of the issue of her un– cleanness shall she be as in the days of her separation ; she shall be unclean. 26 Every bed whereon she may lie all the days of her issue shall be unto her as the bed of her separation ; and whatever vessel she may sit upon shall be unclean, as the un– cleanness of her separation. 27 And whosoever toucheth these things shall be unclean ; and he shall wash his clothes, and bathe himself in Avater, and be miclean until the evening. 28 And when she becometh clean of her issue, then shall she number to herself seven days, and after that shall she be clean.* 29 And on the eighth day shall she take unto herself two turtle–doves, or two young pigeons, and bring them unto the priest, to the door of the tal)ernacle of the congregation. 30 And the priest shall offer the one for a sin–olTering, and the other for a bumt–oflfering ; and the priest shall make an atonement' for her before the Lord for the issue of her un– cleanness.* 31 And ye shall separate the children of Israel from their uncleanness ; that they may a As all leprosy and kindred uncleanness were consider– ed as a puiiisliniciit for sin, the leper or other sufferer had to bring a proper sacrifice at the period of his purification, to obtain atonement for the guilt which had caused his visitation. b Not with the usual eight ornaniontal garments of his order, but in plain white attire should ¶ic priest enter the 138 not die in their imcleanness, when they defile my tabernacle that is in their midst. 32 This is the law of him that hath an issue, and of him whose seed goeth from him, and is defiled therewith; 33 And of her that is suffering in her separ ration, and of him that hath an issue, of the man, and of the woman, and of him that lieth with her that is unclean. Haphtorah in 2 Kings vii. 3 to 2 SECTION XXLX. ACHARAY MOTH, mo nnN. CHAPTER XVL 1 ¶ And the Lord spoke unto Moses after the death of the two sons of Aaron, when they had come near before the Lord, and died : 2 And the Lord said unto Moses, Sjjeak unto Aaron thy brother, that he come not at all times into the holy place within the vail, before the mercy–seat, which is upon the ark, that he die not ; for in the cloud will I appear upon the mercy–seat. 3 with this shall Aaron come into the holy place : with a young bullock for a sin–offering, and a ram for a burnt–offering. 4 A holy linen¶ coat shall he put on, and Imen breeches shall he have upon his flesh, and with a linen girdle shall he gird himself, and a linen mitre shall he bind on his head ; these are holy garments ; therefore shall ho wash his flesh in water, and then put them on. 5 And from the congregation of the chil– dren of Israel shall he take two goats for a sin–offering, and one ram for a burntniflering. 6 And Aaron shall bring near the liullock of the sin–offering, which is for himself, and make an atonement for himself and for his house. 7 And he shall take the two goats, and place them before the Lord at the door of the tabernacle of the congregation. 8 And Aaron shall put lots upon the two goats; one lot "for the Lord," and the other lot "for'Azazel.""' holy of holies ; these articled are therefore pre–eminently called holy. c " Scapegoat," Eng. ver. ; but there is no reason for so giving it. The whole service of the day of atonement ac– cording to our tradition, is correctly described in the d Abodah of the Moossaph for Kippur, according t.> the cus– tom of the Sephardim, to which the reader is referred. [Page 139] LEVITICUS XVI. ACHARAY MOTH. 9 And Aaron shall bring near the goat upon which fell the lot "for the Lord," and ofler him for a sin–oftering. 10 But the goat on which fell the lot "for 'Azazel," shall be placed alive before the Lord, to make an atonement with him, by sending him away to 'Azazel into the wilderness. 1 1 And Aaron shall bring near the bullock of the sin–offering, which is for himself, and he shall make" an atonement for himself, and for his house; and he shall kill the bullock of the sin–oifering which is for himself 12 And he shall take a censer full of burn– ing coals of fire from off the altar before the Lord, and both his hands full of incense of spices, pounded fine, and brmg it within the vail; 13 And he shall put the incense upon the fire, before the Lord; that the cloud of the incense may envelop the mercy–seat that is upon the testimony, that he die not. 14 And he shall take of the blood of the bullock, and sprinkle it with his finger above toward the mercy–seat,'' eastward; and before the mercy–seat shall he sprinkle seven times of the blood mth his finger. 15 And he shall kill the goat of the sia– offermg, that is for the people, and bring his blood to within the vail, and do with that blood as he did with the blood of the bullock, and sprinkle it above the mercy–seat, and be– fore the mercy–seat. 16 And he shall make an atonement for the holy place, because of the uncleanness" of the children of Israel, and because of their transgressions in all their sins : and so shall he do for the tabernacle of the congregation, that abideth among them ui the midst of their imcleanness. 17 And there shall not be any man in the tabernacle of the congregation when he goeth in to make an atonement in the holy place, until he come out; and so shall he make an atonement for himself, and for his household, and for the whole congregation of Israel.''' 18 And he shall then go out unto the altar that is before the Lord, and make an atone– a i. e. By making a confession. (See the 'Abodah.) b Meaning that the priest raised his hand in the direc– tion above the cover of the ark and sprinkled the blood in the air, which foil then down on the floor; and so with the other seven sprinklings, where he directed Lis finger downward. (See the 'Abodah.) c riNOO is in the p10ril, and means, therefore, acts ment upon it; and he shall take of the bU)o(l of the bullock, and of the blood of the goaf, and put it upon the horns of the altar round about. 19 And he shall sprinkle upon it of the blood with his finger seven times; and he shall cleanse it, and hallow it fi'om the uu– cleanncss of the children of Israel. 20 And when he hath made an end of atoning for the holy place, and the tabernacle of the congregation, and the altar : then shall he bring near the live goat. 21 And Aaron shall lay both his hands upon the head of the Hve goat, and confess over him all the iniquities of the children of Israel, and all their transgressions in all their sins, putting them upon the head of the goat, and he shall send him away by the hand of a man appointed thereto into the wilderness : 22 And the goat shall bear upon him all their iniquities unto a land not inhabited; and so shall he send away the goat m the wilderness. 23 And Aaron shall then go into the taber– nacle of the congregation, and he shall take off the Imen garments, which he had put on when he went into the holy place, and he shall leave them there : 24 And he shall bathe his flesh with water in a holy place, and put on his garments;** and come then forth, and offer his burnt– offering, and the burat–offering of the people, and make an atonement for himself, and for the people.* 25 And the fat of the sin–offering shall he burn upon the altar. 20 And he that carrieth the goat to 'Azazel shall wash his clothes, and bathe his flesh in water, and aftenvard he may come into the camp. 27 And the bullock for the sin–offering, and the goat for the sui–offering, the blood of which was brought in to make atonement in the holy place, shall one carry forth without the camp; and they" shall bum in fire their skins, and their flesli, and their dung. 28 And he that bunieth them shall wash which cause uncleanness. So also in the end of this verse, and in verse 19. d The usual ornamental garments of the high–priest, in which he ofiBciated. e Both N'xv and laityi are indefinite in their meaning; " one" whoever he be that shall carry forth ; and " they" whoever may be those who do the burning. 139 [Page 140] LEVITICUS XVI. XVII. ACHARAY MOTH. his clothes, and bathe his flesh in water, and afterward he may come into the camp. 29 And it shall be unto you a statute for ever: in the seventh month, on the tenth of the mon¶i, ye shall afflict yourselves (Ijy fasting,) and no work shall ye do, whether it be one of your o"vvn country, or the stranger that sojourneth among you : 30 For on that day shall (the high–priest) make an atonement for you, to cleanse you; Irom all your sins before the Lord shall ye be clean. 31 It shall be a sabbath of rest unto you, and ye shall afflict yourselves (by fasting,) as a statute for ever. 32 And the priest, who shall be anointed, and who shall be consecrated" to minister as priest in his father's stead, shall make the atonement; and he shall put on the linen clothes, the holy garments. 33 And he shall make an atonement for the holy of holies; and for the tabernacle of the congregation, and for the altar shall he make an atonement; and also for the priests, and for all the people of the congregation shall he make an atonement. 34 And this shall be unto you as a statute for everlasting, to make an atonement for the children of Israel for all their sins once a year; and he did as the Loed had commanded Moses.* CHAPTER XVII. 1 ¶ And the Lord spoke unto Moses, say– ing, 2 Speak unto Aaron, and unto his sons, and unto all the children of Israel, and say unto them, This is the thing which the Lord hath commanded, saying, 3 Any man whatsoever of the house of Israel, that killeth an ox, or a sheep, or a goat, in the camp, or that killeth it out of the cainp, 4 And bringeth it not to the door of the (abernacle of the congregation, to offer it as an oflcrinff unto the Lord before the taber– a This means, that whether the high–priest was anointed, as (10ring the first temple, or was inducted into oflSce by in– vestiture with the high–priestly garments, as in the second, he should officiate in the place of Aaron. b No doubt that, while in Egypt, the Israelites had learned to sacrifice to idols; they were therefore com– manded, during their sojourn in the wildemess, to bring all sacrificial animals to the door of the tabernacle, to offer 140 nacle of the Lord : as blood–guiltiness shall it be imputed unto that man, blood hath he shed; and that man shall be cut off from among his people. 5 In order that the children of Israel may bring their sacrifices, which they slay in the open field, and bring them unto the Lord, to the door of the tabernacle of the congregation, unto the priest, and slay them as sacrifices of peace–ofterings unto the Lord. 6 And the priest shall sprinkle the blood upon the altar of the Lord at the door of the tabernacle of the congregation ; and he shall burn the fat for a sweet savour unto the Lord. 7 So that they shall offer no more'' their sacrifices unto evil spirits, after which they have gone astray ; a statute for ever shall this be unto them throughout their generations.* 8 And unto them shalt thou say, Whatso– ever man there be of the house of Israel, or of the strangers who may sojourn among them, that offereth a burnt–ofifering or a sacri– fice, 9 And bringeth it not unto the door of the tabernacle of the congregation, to offer it unto the Lord: even that man shall be cut oif from among his people. 10 And if there be any man of the house of Israel, or of the strangers that sojourn among them, that eateth any maimer of blood : I will set my face against the person that eateth the blood, and I will cut him off from among his people. 11 For the life of the flesh is in the blood; and I have appointed it for you upon the altar to make an atonement for your souls; for the blood it is that maketh an atonement for the soul." 12 Therefore have I said unto the children of Israel, No one of you shall eat blood, and the stranger that sojourneth among ¶–ou shall not eat blood. 13 And if there be any man whatsoever of the children of Israel, or of the strangers that sojourn among them, who catcheth by them to the Lord as peace–offerings, before being per– mitted to cat the flesh. D'T¶'B¶ "goat–demons," no doubt imaginary idol."*, like the satyrs of the Greeks. c Arnheim renders, " For the blood itself maketh atone– ment through the life," and comments, i. e. "through the life that is in the same; for the atonement is upon the principle 'life for life;' in the blood itself, therefore, is only the principle of life, not the essence of atonement." [Page 141] LEVITICUS XVII. XVIII. ACIIARAY MOTH. hunting any beast or fowl that may be eaten : then shall he poiu"¶ out the blood thereof, and cover it up with dust. 14 For the life of all llesh is its blood, on which its life'' dependeth; therefore have 1 said unto the children of Israel, The blood of every manner of flesh shall ye not eat; for the life of all flesh is its blood, every one who eateth it shall be cut off. 15 And every person that, eateth that which hath died of itself, or that which was torn by beasts, be this one bom in your ovm comitry, or a stranger, he shall both wash his clothes, and bathe himself in water, and be unclean until the evening, when he shall be clean. 16 But if he wash (them) not, nor bathe his flesh, then shall he bear his iniquity. CHAPTER XVIII. 1 ¶ And the Lord spoke unto Moses, say– mo* 2 Speak unto the children of Israel, and say unto them, I am the Lord your God. 3 After the doings of the land of Egypt, wherein ye have dwelt, shall ye not do; and after the doings of the land of Canaan whither I am bringing you, shall ye not do; and in their ordinances shall ye not walk. 4 My ordinances shall ye do, .and my statutes shall ye keep, to walk therein: I am the Lord your God. 5 And ye shall keep my statutes, and niy ordinances, which if a man do, he shall live in them: I am the Lord.* 6 ¶ None of you shall approach to any that are near of kin to him, to uncover their nakedness; I am the Lord. 7 ¶ The nakedness of thy father, or the nakedness of thy mother, shalt thou not un– cover : she is thy mother, thou shalt not un– cover her nakedness. 8 ¶ The nakedness of thy father's wife shalt thou not uncover: it is thy father's nakedness. 9 ¶ The nakedness of thy sister, the daughter of thy father, or the daughter of thy mother, whether she be born at home, or a i. e. By cutting the throat. b Arnheim gives W3i2 with "its body;" thus, "is the blood in its body." The version in the text is after Rashi. c *? is rendered by Mendelssohn " to excit jealousy." The evident construction of this verse, according to which born abroad, — even the nakedness of any of these, shalt thou n(H uncover. 10 ¶ The nakedness of thy son's daughter, or of thy daughter's daughter, — even the nakedness of any of these, shalt thou not un– cover; for theirs is thy own nakedness. 11 ¶ The nakedness of thy father's wife's daughter, begotten of thy father, she is thy sister, — thou shalt not uncover her naked– ness. 12 ¶ The nakedness of thy father's sister shalt thou not uncover: she is thy father's near kinswoman. 13 ¶ The nakedness of thy mother's sister shalt thou not uncover; for she is thy mother's near kinswoman. 14 ¶ The nakedness of thy father's brother shalt thou not uncover; his wife shalt thou not approach, she is thy aunt. 15 ¶ The nakedness of thy daughter–in– law shalt thou not uncover; she is thy son's wife, thou shalt not uncover her nakedness. 16 ¶ The nakedness of thy brother's wife shalt thou not uncover; it is thy brother's nakedness. 17 ¶ The nakedness of a woman and her daughter shalt thou not uncover; her son's daughter, or her daughter's daughter shalt thou not take, to uncover her nakedness; for they are near kinswomen : it is incest. . IS And a woman together with her sister shalt thou not take, to vex her,*" to uncover her nakedness, beside the other, in her life– time. 19 And a woman in the separation of her uucleanness shalt thou not approach, to un– cover her nakedness. 20 And with thy neighbour's wife shalt thou not lie carnally, to defile thyself with her. 21 And any of thy seed shalt thou not let pass through (the fire) to Molech, and thou shalt not profane the name of thy God ; I am the Lord.* 22 And with a man shalt thou not lie, as with a woman; it is an abomination. 23 And wi¶i any beast shalt thou not lie to defile thyself therewith; neither shall any Jewish authorities have always decided, is that only dur– ing the lifetime of the one is it prohibited to marry the other sister, even if a divorce should have taken place; but for this reason the prohibition also ceases when the cause given no longer operates. 141 [Page 142] LEVITICUS XVIII. XIX. KEDOSHIM. woman stand before a beast to lie down thereto; it is confusion. 24 Do not defile yourselves through any of these things; for through all these have be– come defiled the nations which I cast out before you : 25 And the land became defiled; where– fore I have visited its iniquity upon it, and the land itself vomited out its inhabit– ants.* 26 Ye shall therefore keep my statutes and my ordinances, and ye shall not com– mit any of these abominations; neither any of your own nation, nor the stranger that sojourneth among you; 27 (For all these abominations have the men of the land done, who were before you, and the land hath become defiled;)''' 28 That the land may not vomit you out also, when ye defile it, as it hath vomited out tiie nations that were before you. 29 For whosoever shall commit any of these abominations, — even the souls that com– mit them shall be cut off from among their people. 30 Therefore shall ye keep my charge, so that ya commit not any one of these abomi– na])le customs, which were committed before you, and that ye do not defile yourselves therewith; I am the Lord your God. Haphtorah in Ezekiel sxii. 1 to 16. Tho Germans read to verse 18. SECTION XXX. KEDOSHIM, D'tyip. CHAPTER XIX. 1 ¶ And the Lord spoke unto Moses, say– ing, 2 Spealv unto all the congregation of the children of Israel, and say unto them. Ye shall be holy; for I the Eternal your God am holy. .3 Ye shall fear, every man, his mother and his father, and my sabbaths shall ye keep ; I am the Loud your God. 4 Ye shall not turn unto the idols, and molten gods shall ye not make to yourselves ; 1 am the Lord jour God. 5 And if ye offer a sacrifice of peace–offer– a See above, vii. 18. b This is the version according to our authorities; see also above V. 21, where the different specifications are given. 142 ing unto the Lord, ye shall offer it so that it may be favourably received i'rom you. 6 On the same day ye offer it shall it be eaten, and on the morrow : and whatever is left until the third day, shall be burnt with fire. 7 And if the intention was that it should'' be eaten on the third day, it is an abomina– tion, it shall not be favourably received. 8 And whoever eateth it shall bear his iniquity, because he hath profaned the hal– lowed thmg of the Lord : and that soul shall be cut off from among his people. 9 And when ye reap the harvest of your land, thou shalt not wholly reap the comers of thy field, neither shalt thou gather the gleanings of thy harvest. 10 And thou shalt not glean thy vineyard, and the single grapes that drop in thy vine– yard shalt thou not gather; for the poor and the stranger shalt thou leave them ; I am the Lord your God. 11 Ye shall not steal; neither shall ye deny*" (another's proi¶erty in your hands,) nor lie one to another. 12 And ye shall not swear by my name falsely, and thou shalt not thus profane the name of thy God ; I am the Lord. 13 Thou shalt not withhold any thing from thy neighljour, nor rob him : there shall not abide with thee the wages of him that is hired, through the night until morning. 14 Thou shalt not curse the deaf, nor put a stumbling–block before the blind; but thou shalt be afraid of thy God ; I am the Lord.'–' 15 Ye shall do no unrighteousness in judg– ment; thou shalt not respect" the person of the poor, nor honour the person of the great ; in righteousness shalt thou judge thy neigh– bour. 10 Thou shalt not go up and down as a talebearer among thy peojile; thou shalt not stand (idly) by the blood'*of thy neighbour; I am the Lord. 17 Thou shalt not hate thy brother in thy heart: thou shalt indeed rebuke thy neigh– bour, and not bear sin on accoimt of him. 18 Thou shalt not wenge, nor bear any grudge against the children of thy people; but thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself; I am the Lord. c i. e. Not to favour the poor, nor to dread offending the great, but to act according to strict justice. d i. e. Danger of life. [Page 143] LEVITICUS XIX. XX. KEDOSHIM. 19 My statutes shall ye keep; thy cattle shalt thou not let gender with a diverse kind ; thy field shalt thou not sow with mingled seeds; and a garment of mingled kinds, of linen and woollen, shall not come upon thee. 20 And if a man lie carnally with a woman, that is a bond–maid, betrothed to a man, but who hath not been redeemed, and her freedom hath not been given her: there shall a scourging be decreed;" they shall not be put to death, because she was not free. 21 And he shall bring his trespass–offering unto the Lord, unto the door of the tabernacle of the congregation: a ram for a trespass– offering. 22 And the priest shall make an atonement for him with the ram of the trespass–offering before the Lord for his sin which he hath done; and he shall be forgiven for his sin which he hath committed.* 23 ¶ And when ye come into the land, and plant any kind of tree bearing edible fruit, then shall ye count the fruit thereof as uncircumcised : three years shall it be as uncircumcisec¶ unto you, it shall not be eaten. 24 But in the fourth year shall all its fruit be holy for praisegiving*" unto the Lord. 25 And in the fifth year shall ye eat of its fruit, in order that it may increase" unto you its productiveness ; I am the Lord your God. 26 Ye shall not eat upon the blood;'*nor shall ye use enchantment, nor observe times. 27 Ye shall not cut round the comers (of the hair) of your head, neither shalt thou de– stroy the corners of thy beard. 28 And for the dead shall ye not make any incision in your flesh; and any etched–in writing shall you not fix on yourselves; I am the Lord. 29 Do not profane thy daughter, to cause her to be a prostitute; lest the land fall to a "She shall be scourged, not he." — Rashi. b The fruit of the fourth year was to be eaten at Jeru– salem, as a holy thing belonging to the owner. c After Rashi. Philippson renders it, "That after this it may give you constantly more fruit," and com– ments, that after the fourth year, as the tree becomes naturally more productive, the fruit should belong un– disturbed to the owner. d This is variously explained: for instance, not to eat of the sacrifices till the blood be ."jprinklcd ; not to eat of any animal till life be entirely extinct by the running out of all the blood. Mendelssohn and others translate "near" or "by the blood." liut hashbam and Wcsscli prostitution, and the land become full of in– cest. 30 My sabbaths shall ye keep, and my sanctuary shall ye reverence; I am the Lord. 31 Turn not unto them that have familiar spirits, and unto wizards; seek (them) not, to be defiled by them; I am the Lord your God. 32 Before the hoary head shalt thou rise up, and honour the face of the old man ; and thou shalt be afraid of thy God; I am the LORD.=¶= 33 ¶ And if a stranger sojourn –with thee, in your land, ye shall not vex him. 34 As one born in the land among you, shall be unto you the stranger that sojourneth with you, and thou shalt love him as thyself; for ye were strangers m the land of Egypt ; I am the Lord your God. 35 Ye shall do no unrighteousness in judg– ment, in meteyard, in weight, or in measure. 36 Just balances, just weights, a just ephah, and a just bin, shall j–e have; I am the Lord your God, who have brought you forth out of the land of Egj–yt. 37 Ye shall therefore observe all my sta– tutes, and all my ordmances, and do them ; I am the Lord.* CHAPTER XX. 1 ¶ And the Lord spoke unto Moses, saying, 2 And to the children of Israel shalt thou say, Whatsoever man of the children of I.**– rael, or of the strangers that sojourn in Israel, that giveth any of his seed unto Molech, shall surely be put to death; the people of the land" shall stone him with stones. 3 And I will set my face against that man, and I will cut him off from among his people ; because of his seed hath he given unto Mo– lech, in order to defile my sanctuary,' and to profane my holy name. suppose that it was customary among heathens to eat upon the spot where the blood had run, from some super– stitious notions; hence the Israelites were prohibited to follow this practice; and it connects therefore also with what follows. e yiNn Di? rendered above, iv. 27, " common people,", inc10des all Israelites except the king, the high–priest, and the great sanhedrin of seventy–one. Rashi adds, " If the court be not able to enforce the decree, the people should aid them." f Whatever acts tend to withdraw the people from the wonship of God, or to divert any thing to the service of idols, is a profanation of the divine Majesty who promised 14.¶ [Page 144] LEVITICUS XX. KEDOSHIM. 4 And if the people of the land should in any way hide their eyes from that man, when he fiiveth of his seed unto Molech, so as not to kill him : 5 Then will I set my face against that man, and against his family, and I will cut him ofl", and all that go astray after liim, to go astray after Molech, from among their people. 6 And the person that turneth unto such as have fiimiliar spirits, and unto wizards, to go astray after them, — then will I set my face against that person, and will cut him off from among his people. 7 Sanctify yourselves therefore, and be ye holy; for I am the Lord your God.'–' 8 And ye shall keep my statutes, and do them ; I am the Lord who sanctify you. 9 For every one whatever that curseth his father or his mother shall be put to death; his father or his mother hath he cursed, his blood shall be upon him. 10 And if there be a man that committeth adultery with a man's wife, (whoever it be) that committeth adultery with his neighbour's wife : then shallthe adultei'er be put to death, together with the adultei'ess. 11 And a man that lieth with his father's wife, hath uncovered his father's nakedness: both of them shall be put to death ; their blood shall be upon them. 12 And if a man lie with his daughter–in– law, both of them shall be put to death ; they have committed an unnatural deed; their blood shall be upon them. 13 And if a man lie with a male, as they lie with a woman, both of them have com– mitted an abomination : they shall be put to death; their blood shall be upon them. 14 And if a man take a woman and her mother, it is incest: in fire shall they burn him and them; that there be no incest among you. 15 And a man that lieth with a beast shall be put to death : and the beast also shall ye slay. 16 And if a woman approach unto any beast to lie down thereto, then shalt thou kill the woman, and the beast: they shall )je to dwell ill Israel. If then a man Jevotes his offspring to the fire (jf Molceh, he profanes the ehiUlren of the eove– nant, given to Iiini by (Jod, to an object abhorrent to the Deit.y, while at the same time his example, should he re– 144 put to death; their blood shall Ije put upon them. 17 And if a man take his sister, the daughter of his father, or the daughter of his mother, and he see her nakedness, and she see his nakedness : it is a disgraceful deed ; and they shall be cut off before the eyes of their people; the nakedness of his sister hath he uncovered ; his iniquity shall he bear. 18 And if a man lie with a woman suffer– ing of her separation, and uncover her naked– ness, and he lay open her fountain, and she uncover the fountain of her blood : then shall both of them be cut off from the midst of their people. 19 And the nakedness of thy mother's sis– ter, or of thy father's sister shalt thou not un– cover ; for his near of kin he uncovereth : their iniquity shall they bear. 20 And the man that lieth with his uncle's wife, hath uncovered his uncle's nakedness : their sin shall they bear; childless shall they die. 21 And if a man do take his brother's wife, it is an abominable act: the nakedness of his brother hath he uncovered ; childless shall they remain. 22 And keep ye all my statutes, and all my ordinances, and do them ; that the land, whither I bring you to dwell therein, may not vomit" you forth. * 23 And ye shall not walk in the manners of the nation which I cast out Ix¶fore you ; for all these things they committed, and there– fore I felt loathing for them. 24 And I said unto 3–ou, Ye shall possess their land, and I will give it unto you to pos– sess it, a land flowing with milk and honey; I am the Eternal your God, who have sepa– rated you from the nations.* 25 Ye shall therefore make a difference be– tween the clean beast and the unclean, aiul between the unclean fowl and the clean ; and ye shall not make your souls abominable by the beast, or by the fowl, or by any maimer of thing ¶iat oroepeth on the ground, which I have separated for you as unclean. 26 And ye shall be holy unto me, for I the Lord am holy ; and I have separated you from the nations, that ye should be mine. main unpunished, would mislead others to acts of wicked– ness, though they even might not reach the greatness of his transgressions. a i. e. Cast out, as it wore, the sinners dwelling in it. [Page 145] LEVITICUS XX. XXI. EMORE. 27 And if there be among men or women one that hath a lamiliar spirit, or that is a wizard, thej" shall be put to death ; with stones shall they stone thefii ; their blood shall be upon them. Haphtorah in Amos ix. 7 to 15. Tho Portugueso read in Ezekiel xx. 2 to 20. Othera begin at verse 1. SECTION XXXI. EMORE, ION– CHAPTER XXI. 1 ¶ And the Lord said unto Moses, Speak unto the priests the sons of Aaron, and say unto them. None (of them) shall defile him– self on the dead, among'' his people : 2 But on his kin, that is near unto him, (that is,) on his mother, and on his father, and on his son, and on his daughter, and on his brother, 3 And on his sister that is a virgin, that is nigh unto him, who hath had no husband ; on her may he defile himself 4 The chief" man among his people shall not defile liimself, to be profaned thereby. 5 They shall not make any baldness upon their head, and the corner of their beard shall they not shave off, and in their flesh shall they not make any incision. Holy shall they be unto their God, and they shall not profane the name of their God; for the fire–ofierings of the Lord, the bread of their God, do they offer, they shall therefore be holy. 7 A woman that is a harlot, or one pro– faned, shall they not take ; and a woman put away from her husband shall they not take ; for holy" is he unto his God. 8 And thou shalt sanctify him ;" for the bread of thy God doth he offer: holy shall he be unto thee; for I the Lord, who sanctify you, am holy. 9 And if the daughter of any priest profane a The p10ral is again used here after the singular, though preceded by the disjunctive "or;" and seems thus to say, that if there be many guilty of this sin, they shall all be punished alike. b This is explained, " when others are there to bury the dead ;" but if a priest find a corpse and no one is there to inter it, he himself must do it. c llashbam translates, " A husband among the priests shall not defile himself (on his wife) to be profaned thereby." Tradition, however, limits this to a woman whom the priest should of right not marry. Our version T herself by committing incest, her father doth she profane : with fire shall she Ix; burnt. 10 ¶ And the priest that is highest among his brethren, upon whose head the anointing oil hath been poured, and who hath been con– secrated to put on the gannent,s, shall not let the hair of his head grow long, and his gar– ments shall he not rend ; 11 Neither shall he go in to any dead body ; even on his father, and on his mother shallhe not defile himself 12 And out of the sanctuary shall he not go, that he may not profane the sanctuary of his God ; for the crown' of the anointing oil of his God is upon him ; I am the Lord. 13 And he shall take a wife in her virgin state. 14 A widow, and a divorced woman, and one profaned, (and) a harlot, these shall he not take ; but a virgin of his own people shall he take for wife ; 15 So that he may not pi'ofane his seed among his people ; for I, the Lord, do sanctify him.* 16 ¶ And the Lord spoke unto Moses, saying,¶ 17 Speak unto Aaron, saying, Whosoever of thy seed in their generations it be on whom there is any blemish, shall not approach to offer the bread of his God. 18 For whatsoever man it be on whom there is a blemish, shall not approach : a blind, or a lame man, or one that hath a flattened nose, or a man one of whose limbs is too long, 19 Or a man who hath a broken foot, or a broken hand, 20 Or a crookbacked, or a dwarf, or one that hath a blemish in his eye, or the itch, or the scurvy, or the testicles broken. 21 Every man on whom there is a blemish, of the seed of Aaron the priest, shall not come nigh to offer the fire–offerings of the Lord: is after Onkelos, and refers to the high–priest, sec farther, Tcr. 11. d i. e. Each individual priest. e " Sanctify him even against his will, so that if he will not put away such a woman as just mentioned, com– pel him by punishment tn do so. Holy shall he be to thee, that is, look upon him as holy, to commence as the first in every thing, and to be the first to say the bless– ing at the table." — Hasui. f Arulieim and others render IIJ as "Betting apart," hence " tho consecration." 145 [Page 146] LEVITICUS XXI. XXII. EMORE. there is a blemish on him ; he shall not come nigh to offer the bread of his God. 22 The bread of his God, both of the most holy, and of the holy things he may eat. 23 Only unto the vail, and unto the altar shall he not come nigh, because there is a blemish on him : that he profane not my holy things ; for I the Lord do sanctify them. 24 And Moses spoke thus unto Aaron, and to his sons, and unto all the children of Israel. CHAPTER XXII. 1 ¶ And the Lord spoke unto Moses, saying, 2 Speak unto Aaron and to his sons, that they keep themselves away from the holy things of the children of Israel, (so that they profiine not my holy name) which*they hal– low unto me ; I am the Lord. 3 Say unto them. In your generations, if there be any man of all your seed, that ap– proacheth mito the holy things, which the children of Israel hallow unto the Lord, hav– ing his uncleaimess upon him, that soul shall be cut off from my presence ; I am the Lord. 4 Any man whatsoever of the seed of Aaron, that is a leper, or hath a running issue, shall not eat of the holy things, until he be clean ; and whoso toucheth any thing that is unclean by the dead, or a man whose seed goeth from him ; 5 Or a man who toucheth any creeping thing, whereby he may be made unclean, or a man through whom he can be rendered un– clean, through any kind of uncleanness which he hath : 6 The person that toucheth any such shall be unclean until the evening, and he shall not eat of the holy things, unless he have bathed his flesh in water. 7 And when the sun hath set, he shall be clean ; and afterward he may eat of the holy things; because it is his food. 8 That which dieth of itself, or is torn by beasts, shall he not eat, to defile himself there– with ; I am the Lord. 9 And they shall keep my charge, that a This refers back to the holy things of the dhildrcn of Israel." b One a stranger to the priesthood. c By sojourner, is understood a Hebrew servant, whose ear was bored, who stays till the jubilee; and by a hired servant, one who stays till the end of the sixth year. — Rashi. (See Exodus xxi.) 14C they may not bear sin through it, and die therefor, if they profane it; I am the Loed who sanctify them. 10 And no stranger'' shall eat of a holy thing: a sojourner*of a priest, or a hired ser– vant, shall not eat of a holy thing. 11 But if a priest buy a person with his money, then may he eat of it; and those that are bom in his house, may eat of his bread. 12 And if the daughter of a priest be mar– ried unto a stranger, she may not eat of the offered part*of holy things. 13 But the daughter of a priest, if she be a widow, or divorced, and have no child, and is returned unto her fiither's house, as in her youth, may eat of her father s bread ; but no stranger shall eat thereof. 14 And if a man eat a holy thing unwit– tingly, then shallhe add the fifth part thereof unto it, and he shall make good unto the priest the holy thing. 15 And they shall not profane the holy things of the children of Israel, which they offer unto the Lord; 16 And*load on themselves the iniquity of trespass, when they eat their holy things; for I am the Lord who sanctify them.''' 17 ¶ And the Lord spoke unto Moses, saying,¶ 18 Speak unto Aaron, and unto his sons, and unto all the children of Israel, and say unto them. If there be any man of the house of Israel, or of the strangers in Israel, tha't offereth his oblation, be it for any manner of vows, or for any manner of freewill–offerings, which they may offer mito the Lord for a burnt–offering : 19 Then shaU it be, that it may Ije fjtvour– ably received for you, a male without blemish, of the oxen, of the sheep, or of the goats. 20 Whatv¶oever on which there is a blemish shall ye not offer ; for it will not be favour– ably received for you. 21 And when a nuin offereth a sacrifice of peace–oflering unto the Lord as a vow, or a freewill–offering of the herds or of the Hocks: it shall be without blemish to be favourably d The breast and shoulder of the peace–offerings. (See Leviticus x. 15.) e Arnheim renders, (after Rashbam,) " that these load themselves with the guilt of trespass, in their eating the holy things," referring to those strangers to the )>riest– hood, who are not permitted to do so. Our version refers [Page 147] LEVITICUS XXII. XXIII. EMORE. received; no kind of bodily defect shall be thereon. 22 A blind, or broken–limbed, or maimed animal, or one having a . wen, or itch, or scurvy, — ye shall not ofler these unto the Lord, and a fire–oflfering shall ye not make of them upon the altar unto the Lord. 23 And an ox or a lamb that hath a limb too long or too short, that mayest thou offer for a freewill–offering ;' but for a vow it shall not be favourably received. 24 And one that is bruised, or crushed, or broken, or cut in the testicles, shall ye not offer unto the Lord; and in your land shall ye not make the like. 25 And from a stranger's hand shall ye not offer the bread of your God from any of these –¶ because their corruption is on them, a bodily defect is on them: they shall not be favourably received for you. 26 ¶ And the Lord spoke unto Moses, say– ing, 27 When a bullock, or a sheep, or a goat, is brought forth, then shall it remain seven days by its mother ; and from the eighth day and thenceforth shall it be favourably received for an offering made by fire unto the Lord. 28 And whether it be ox' or sheep, ye shall not kill it and its young both in one day. 29 And when ye offer a sacrifice of thanks– giving unto the Lord, offer it so that it may be favourably received of you. 30 On the same day shall it be eaten up; ye shall leave none of it until the mommg ; I am the Lord. 31 And ye shall keep my commandments and do them; I am the Lord. 32 And ye shall not profane my holy name ; so that I may be sanctified among the children of Israel ; I am the Lord who sanc– tify you, 3–3 That brought you out of the land of Egypt, to be your God; I am the Lord.* to the priests themselves, who are to abstain from the sacred gifts when unclean. This is the view of Onkelos. a i. e. It may be devoted to the expenses of the temple, but not for a sacrifice. b No complaisance to a stranger to Israel could allow us to accept from him such an animal for sacrifice as was prohibited to us. Otherwise heathens were permitted to offer at the altar through the priest. c Eng. ver. "cow or ewe;" but the Hebrew has "ox or sheep." d The word nos in the preceding verse is evidently of a different signification from the feast of unleavened bread CHAPTER XXIII. 1 ¶ And the Lord spoke unto Moses, say– ing, 2 Speak unto the children of Israel, ami say unto them, The feasts of the Lord, which ye shall proclaim to be holy convocations, — these are my feasts : 3 Six days may work be done; but on the seventh day is the sabbath of rest, a holy con– vocation; no kind of work shall ye do thereon : it is the sabbath (holy) unto the Lord in all your dwellings. 4 ¶ These are the feasts of the Lord, the holy convocations, which ye shall proclaim in their seasons : 5 On the fourteenth day of the first month, toward evening, is the passover–lamb to be offered unto the Lord. 6 And on the fifteenth day of the same month is the feast of unleavened bread'*unto the Lord : seven days must ye eat unleavened bread. 7 On the first day there shall be a holy convocation unto you; no servile work shall ye do thereon. 8 And ye shall offer an offering made by fire unto the Lord seven days : on the seventh day is a holy convocation; no servile work shall ye do. 9 ¶ And the Lord spoke unto Moses, say– ing, 10 Speak unto the children of Israel, and say unto them, When ye shall have come into the land which I give unto you, and reap the harvest thereof: then shall ye bring an omer full of the first of your har¶¶est unto the priest ; 11 And he shall wwe the omer before the Lord, that it may be favourably received for you ; on the morrow after the holy day" shall the priest wwe it. 12 And ye shall offer on the day when ye mentioned here ; hence the word has been rendered accord– ing to Rashi : " The passover–lamb," with the addition un– derstood, "is to be offered." The fifteenth day, commenc– ing the evening before, is the feast of unleavened bread. e The word in Hebrew is ri2W " the rest," which aj>– plics equally well to the strict holy days, when no work is to be done, as to the weekly day of rest, the sabbath proper. " The morrow after the holy day," in this verse, refers to the second day of the fa,ssover, from which, till the Pentecost, are forty–nine days. The word n2lif signi– fies also " week," probably because each week has one sabbath. 147 [Page 148] LEVITICUS XXIII. EMORE. we the omer, a male sheep without blemish of the first year for a burnt–offering unto the Lord. 13 And the meat–offering thereof shall be two tenth parts of fine flour mmgled with oil, as an oflering made by fire unto the Lord, lor a sweet savour; with its drink–offering of wine, the fourth part of a hin. 14 And neither bread, nor parched corn, nor green ears, shall ye cat, until the self– same day, until ye have brought the offering of your God; it shall be a statute for ever throughout your generations in all your dwell– ings. 15 ¶ And ye shall count unto you from the morrow after the holy day, from the day that ye bring the omer of the wwe–offermg, (that) it be seven complete weeks : 16 Even unto the morrow after the seventh week shall ye number fifty days ; and ye shall then offer a new" meatoffering unto the Lord. 17 Out of your own habitations shall ye bring two wwe–lowes of two tenth parts; of fine flour shall they be; leavened shall they be baked; they are the first–fruits unto the Lord. 18 And ye shall offer with the bread seven sheep without blemish of the first year, and one young bullock, and two rams : they shall be for a burnt–offering unto the Lord, with their meat–offei*ing, with their drink–offerings, an offering made by fire, of a sweet savour unto the Lord. 19 And ye shall sacrifice one he–goat for a sin–oflering, and two sheep of the first year for a sacrifice of peace–offei'ing. 20 And the priest shall make with them together with the bread of the firstr–fruits a waving before the Lord, together with the two sheep ; holy shall they be to the Lord for the priest. 21 And ye shall proclaim on the self–same day, that it may ])e a holy convocation unto you; no servile work shall ye do; it shall be a statute for ever in all your dwellings throughout your generations. 22 And when ye reap the harvest of your land, thou shalt not cut away altogether the a i. e. Of the new wheat. b Heb. " Ye shall afflict j–oiir persona;" but this phrase is always employed as synonyiiKuis with DlV "fasting," used in the prophetic honks, but not found in the Pentateuch. It is, perhaps, also more comprehensive, as on the day of atonement all indulgences of whatever kind are prohibited. comers of thy field when thou reapest, and the gleaning of thy harvest shalt thou not gather up ; unto the poor, and to the stranger shalt thou leave them; I am the Lord your God.* 23 ¶ And the Lord spoke unto Moses, saying,¶ 24 Speak unto the children of Israel, say– ing, In the seventh month, on the first day of the month, shall ye have a rest, a (day of) memorial of soiuiding the comet, a holy con– vocation. 25 No servile work shall ye do: and ye shall offer an offering made by fire unto the Lord. 26 ¶ And the Lord spoke unto Moses, saying, 27 But on the tenth day of this seventh month is the day of atonement, a holy convo– cation shall it be unto you, and ye shall fast;*" and ye shall offer an offering made by fire" unto the Lord. 28 And no manner of work**shall ye do on this same day; for it is a day of atonement, to make an atonement for you before the Lord your God. 29 For whatsoever person it be that fasteth not on this same day, shall be cut off from among his people. 30 And if there be any person that docth any work on this same day, then will I de– stroy the same person from among his jDCople. 31 No manner of work shall 3"e do; it shall be a statute for ever throughout ¶our gencriv tions, in all your dwellings. 32 A sabbath of rest it shall bo unto 3–ou, and ye shall fiist; on the ninth day of the month at evening*(shall ye begin,) IVom even– ing unto evening shall ye celebrate your sal> bath.* 33 ¶ And the Lord spoke unto Moses, sajang, 34 Speak unto the children of Israel, say– ing. On the fifteenth day of this seventh month, shall lie the feast of tabernacles for seven days unto the Lord. 35 On the first day shall be a holy convo– cation; no servile work shall ye do. c The offering is specified in the parallel passages, above, eh.ipter xvi., and Numbers, chapter x.¶i.x. 7 to 11. d Not even the preparation of food, which is permitted on other holy days; this being equal to the usual sabbath, a pnaty naty a day of rest in the h16licst degree. e The other festivals also begin at evening, as indicated. [Page 149] LEVITICUS XXIII. XXIV. EMORE. 36 Seven days shall ye offer an offering made by fire unto the Lord; on the eighth (lay shall be a holy convocation unto you; and ye shall offer an offering made by fire unto the Lord, it is a solemn" assembly; no servile work shall ye do. 37 These are the feasts of the Lord, which ye shall proclaim to be holy convocations, to offer an oflering made by fire unto the Lord, burnt–ofiering, and meat–offering, sacrifice, and drink–offerings, every thing upon its day : 38 Beside the sabbaths'' of the Lord, and beside your gifts, and beside all your vows, and beside all your freewill–offerings, which ye may give unto the Lord. 39 But on the fifteenth day of the seventh month, when ye have gathered in the fruit of the land, shall ye keep the feast of the Lord seven days; on the first day shall be a rest, and on the eighth day shall be a rest. 40 And ye shall take unto yourselves" on the first day the fruit of the tree hadar,* In–anches of palm–trees, and the boughs of the myr¶e–tree, and willows of the brook ; and ye shall rejoice before the Lord your God seven days. 41 And ye shall keep it as a feast unto the Lord seven days in the year; it shall be a statute for ever throughout your generations ; in the seventh month shall ye celebrate it. 42 In booths shall ye dwell seven days; all that are Israelites bom shall dwell in booths. 43 In order that your generations may know, that I caused the children of Israel to dwell in booths, when I brought them forth out of the land of Egypt; I am the Lord your God. 44 And Moses declared the feasts of the Lord unto the children of Israel.* CHAPTER XXIV. 1 ¶ And the Lord spoke unto Moses, say– 2 Command the children of Israel, that they bring unto thee pure beaten olive–oil, for a Philippson: "Feast of conc10sion," riix>' from "isj "to shut up," "to restrain." b i. e. Beside the two lambs, the additional sacrifice for the sabbath, which are mentioned in Numbers xxviii. 9, 10. c "Each of you shall take of his own." — 'Wesseli. In the same manner all similar phrases must be explained. d Our tradition teaches us that this means the citron– tree. The origin of the name Hadar is otherwise doubt– the lighting, to cause the lamp to burn con– tinually. 3 Without the vail of the testimony, in the tabernacle of the congregation, shall Aaron put it in order (for) from evening unto morn– ing before the Lord continually; tus a statute for ever in your generations. 4 Upon the pure candlestick shall he put in order the lamps, before the Lord, con– tinually. 5 ¶ And thou shalt take fine flour, and bake thereof twelve cakes: of two tenth parts shall each one cake be. 6 And thou shalt place them in two rows, six in a row, upon the pure table before the Lord. 7 And thou shalt put upon each row pure frankincense, that it may be unto the bread for a memorial," as a fire–offering unto the Lord. 8 On every and each sabbath day shall he place it in order before the Lord continually, (obtained) from the children of Israel as an everlasting covenant. 9 And it shall belong to Aaron and to his sons; and they shall eat it in a holy place; for it is most holy unto him, from the fire– offerings of the Lord, asa perpetual fixed portion. 10 ¶ And thei–e went forth a son of an Israelitish woman, but who was the son of an Egyptian man, among the children of Israel ; and there quarrelled together in the camji this son of the Israelitish woman and an Israelitish man. 11 And the son of the Israelitish woman pronounced' the (holy) Name, and blasphem– ed; and they brought him unto Moses: (and his mother's name was Shelomith, the daugh– ter of Dibri, of the tribe of Dan ;) 12 And they placed him in ward, until the decision of the Lord could be explained to them. 13 ¶ And the Lord spoke unto Moses, say– ino" ful. The English version of this verse is too incorrect to require rcnuirk. e The bread belonged to the priests; but the frankin– cense alone was burnt; consequently it ¶as the memorial for the showbreail, the same as above, ii. 2, &c., with the ordinary meat–offering. f "As Onkelos explains, he pronounced the most holy name of God, which they had heard on Sinai, and blft– phemed." — Rashi. 149 [Page 150] LEVITICUS XXIV. XXV. BEHAR. 14 Lead forth the blasphemer to without the camp; and all that have heard him shall lay their hands upon his head ; and all the congreyation shall stone him. 15 And unto the children of Israel shalt thou speak, saying, Whatsoever man that blasj)hcmeth his God shall bear his sin. 10 But he that pronounced the name of the Lord (with blasphemy) shall be put to death, all the congregation shall stone him; be he a stranger, or be he one that is bom in the land, when he pronounceth the (holy) Name (with blasphemy,) he shall be put to death. 17 And he that taketh the life of any man shall surely be put to death. 18 And he that taketh the life of a beast shall make it good; beast for beast. 19 And if a man cause a bodily defect in his neighbour, as he hath done, so shall be done to him; 20 Breach for breach, eye for eye, tooth for tooth : in the manner as he hath caused a bodily injury in a man, so shall it be done to him.* 21 And he that killeth a beast, shall make restitution for it; and he that killeth a man, shall be put to death. 22 One manner of judicial law shall ye have, the stranger shall be equal with one of your own country; for I am the Lord your God. 23 And Moses spoke to the children of Israel; and they led forth the blasphemer to without the camp, and they stoned him with stones; and the children of Israel did as the Lord had commanded Moses. Haphtorah in Ezckiol xliv. 15 to 31. SECTION XXXII. BEHAR, –IHD. CHAPTER XXV. 1 ¶f And the Lord spoke unto Moses on mount Sinai, saying, 2 Speak unto the children of Israel, and say unto them, When ye come into the land which I give unto you, then shall the land keep a sabbath unto the Lord. 3 Six years shalt thou sow thy field, and a Properly, Yobel. Rashi derives this word from Sav "the ram," because the ram's born (comet) was blown to announce it; but as horns from other animals were also 150 six years shalt thou prune thy vineyard, and gather in the fruit thereof; 4 But in the seventh year there shall be a sabbath of rest unto the land, a sabbath (in honour) of the Lord: thy field shalt thou not sow, and thy vineyard shalt thou not prune. 5 That which groweth of its ovm accord of thy harvest shalt thou not reap, and the grapes of thy undressed vine shalt thou not gather: a year of rest shall it be unto the land. 6 And (the product of) the sabbath of the land shall be unto you for food, for thee, and for thy man–servant, and for thy maid–ser– vant, and for thy hired labourer, and for thy strangei", that sojourn with thee; 7 And for thy cattle, and for the beasts that are in thy land, shall all its products be (left) for food. 8 ¶ And thou shalt number unto thee seven sabbaths of years, seven years seven times ; and the space of the seven sabbaths of years shall be unto thee forty and nine years. 9 And then shalt thou cause the sound of the cornet to be heard, in the seventh month, on the tenth day of the month; on the day of atonement shall ye sound the comet throughout all your land. 10 And ye shall hallow the fiftieth year, and proclaim freedom throughout the land unto all the inhabitants thereof: it shall be a jubilee" unto you; and ye shall return, every man, unto his possession, and ye shall return, every man, unto his family. 11 A jubilee shall this, the fiftieth year, be unto you: ye shall not sow, nor reap that which groweth of itself in it, nor gather in it the friut of the undressed vines. 12 For it is the jubilee; holy shall it be unto you : from the field shall yc eat the pro– ducts thereof. 13 In this year of the jubilee shall ye re– turn, every man, unto his possession.* 14 And if thou sell aught unto thy neigh– bour, or buy aught of thy neighbour's hand, ye shall not o¶errcach one the other; 15 According to the number of years after the jubilee shalt thou buy of thy neighbour, permitted for this service, Ramban derives it from Sa' which signifies in Hiphil "to bring," that is, the year when eauli man is brought back to his own. LEVITICUS XXV. BEHAR. according unto the number of harvest–years* shall he sell unto thee; 16 According to the multitude of years shalt thou increase the price thereof, and ac– cording to the fewness of years shalt thou diminish the price thereof; for a number of harvests doth he sell unto thee. 17 And ye shall not overreach*" one the other; but thou shalt be afraid of thy God; for I am the Lord your God. 18 And ye shall do my statutes, and my ordinances shall ye keep and do them; and then shall ye dwell in the land in safety.* 19 And the land shall yield its fruit, and ye shall eat your fill, and dwell in safety therein. 20 And if ye should say, "what shall we eat in the seventh year? behold, we are not permitted to sow, and we cannot gather in our harvest : 21 Then will I command my blessing unto you in the sixth year, and it shall bring forth a harvest for three years. 22 And when ye sow in the eighth year, then shall ye eat yet of the old harvest ; until the ninth year, until its harvest come in, shall ye eat of the old store. 23 And the land shall not be sold for a permanence (to the purchaser) ; for the land is mine; for strangers and sojourners are ye with me. 24 And in all the land of your possession ye shall grant a redemption for the land.* 25 ¶ If thy brother become poor, and sell away some of his possession: then may his nearest of kin come and redeem what his brother hath sold. 26 And if the man have none to redeem it, and he acquire the means, sufficient to be able to redeem it himself: 27 Then let him reckon the years since his sale, and restore the overp10s unto the man to whom he sold it; and so shall he return unto his possession. a i. e. While harvesting is permitted to the buyer, or the years that are to elapse till the jubilee; for then the land returns to the original owner. Ilence the price is h16lior if the time to the jubilee be long, and smaller in proportion ; as in next verse. b Tradition makes ijin not "deceive," but to "offend" with words, to "excite to anger." But in our version we followed Onkelos and others. c Rashi renders this, " If a man purchase from the Le– vites," &c. Our translation is after Arnheim, who coni– 28 But if his means do not suffice to enable him to restore it to liim, then shall that which he hath sold remam in the hand of him that ha¶i bought it until the year of the jubilee; and it shall be freed in the jubilee, and he shall return unto his posses– sion.* 29 ¶ And if a man sell a dwelling–house in a walled city, then shall the time of re– demption last till the end of the year of his sale ; a full year shall his time of redemption last. 30 And if it be not redeemed within the expiration of a full year, then shall the house which is in the walled city remain as a per– manence to him that bought it throughout his generations; it shall not become freed in the jubilee. 31 But the houses of the villages which have no wall round about them shall be counted as the fields of the country : they shall have the right of I'edemption, and they shall become freed in the jubilee. 32 And (respecting) the cities of the Le– vites, the houses of the cities of their ysses– sion, a perpetual right of redemption shall belong to the Levites. 33 And if a man of the Levites redeem" somethmg, then shall the house ¶iat was sold, and the city of his possession, become freed in the jubilee; for the houses of the cities of the Levites are their possession among the children of Israel. 34 And a field of the suburbs of their cities shall not be sold;"*for a perpetual possession is it unto them. 35 ¶ And if thy brother become poor, and fall in decay with thee : then shalt thou assist him, (yea) a stranger, or a sojourner, that he may live with thee. 36 Thou shalt not take of him any usury or increase; but thou shalt be afraid of thy God : that thy brother may live with thee. 37 Thy money shalt thou not give him ments, that if a Levite should redeem a property sold by another of his tribe, it will revert to the original owner at the jubilee; whereas, as regards the lands of other Israel– ites, the law is silent, provided only that it must revert to the tribe of the seller. Philippson renders, "any one of the Levites may redeem," &c., and connects it with the preceding verse ; and it then means, it requires no relative to redeem, but any one of the Jjcvitieal tribe. d This is said to refer to a field sanctified by a Levi, which is not to be forfeited to the priests as in xxvii. 21. 151 [Page 152] LEVITICUS XXV. XXVI. BECHUCKOTAY. upon usury, nor lend him thy victuals for in– crease. 38 I am the Lord your God, who have brought you forth out of the land of Egypt, to give unto you the land of Canaan, to be unto you a God.* 39 ¶ And if thy brother become poor near thee, and be sold unto thee: thou shalt not compel him to work as a bond–servant. 40 But as a hired labourer, as a sojourner, shall he be with thee; until the year of the jubilee shall he serve with thee: 41 And then shall he depart from thee, he and his children with him; and he shall re– turn unto his own family, and unto the pos– session of his fathers shall he return. 42 For my servants are they, whom I brought forth out of the land of Egypt : they shall not be sold as bond–men are sold. 43 Thou shalt not rule over him with rigour; but thou shalt have fear of thy God. 44 But thy bond–man, and thy bond–wo– man that shall remain thine, shall be of the nations that are round about you; of them may ye ])uy bond–man and Ijond–woman. 45 And also of the children of the strangers that sojourn with you, of them may ye buy, and of their families that are with you, which they have begotten in your land; and they shall remain to you as a possession. 40 And ye may transfer them as an inherit– ance for your children after you, to inherit them for a possession; you may hold them to service for ever; but over your brethren the children of Israel, one over the other, ye* shall not rule with rigour.''" 47 ¶f And if a stranger or sojourner wax rich near thee, and thy brother become poor near him, and he sell himself unto the so– journing stranger near thee, or to a descend– ant of a stranger's family : 48 After he hath sold himself shall he have the right of redemption; one of his brethren may redeem him. 49 Either his uncle, or his uncle's son, may redeem him, or any that is near of kin unto him of his family may redeem him ; or if he obtain the means, he may redeem himself 50 And he shall reckon with him that bought him from the year that he sold him– self to him unto the year of the jubilee : and the price of his sale shall be according to the number of years, as the time of a hired labouier shall he have been with him. 51 If there be yet many jears, according to them shall he return the price of his re– demption out of his purchase–monej. 52 And if there remain but few years unto the year of the jubilee, then shall he reckon with him; according to his years shall he return the price of his redemption. 53 As a labourer hired from 3–ear to year shall he jje with him; he shall not rule over him with rigour before thy eyes. 54 And if he be not redeemed by (one of) these means, then shall he go out in the year of the jubilee, both he, and his children with him.* 55 For unto me are the children of Israel servants, my sen'ants are they, whom I have brought forth out of the land of Egypt ; 1 am the Eternal your God. CHAPTER XXVI. 1 Ye shall not make j–ourselves any idols, and a graven image, or a standing image shall ye not rear up unto you, and any cai'ved stone shall you not place in your land, to bow down upon it; for I am the Eternal your God. 2 My sabbaths shall ye keep, and my sanctuary shall ye reverence ; I am the Lord. Haphtorah in Jeremiah xxxii. 6 to 27. a Heb. " Thou shalt uot rule," according to the Hebrew idiom. 152 SECTION XXXIII. BECHUCKOTAY. 3 ¶ If in my statutes ye walk, and if my commandments ye keep, and do them : 4 Then will I give you rains in their due season, and the earth shall yield her pro– ducts, and the tree of the field shall yield its fruit. 5 And the threshing shall reach with yon unto the vintage, and the vintage shall reach mito sowing–time; and ye shall eat your bread to the full, and ye shall dwell safely in your land.* 6 And I will give peace in the land, and 3–0 shall lie down, with none to make you afraid; and I will remove evil beasts out of the land, and the sword shall not pass through your land. 7 And ye shall chase your enemies, and they shall fall before you by the sword. [Page 153] LEVITICUS XXVI. BECHUCKOTAY. 8 And five of you shall chase a hundred, and a hundred of you shall chase ten thou– sand ; and your enemies shall fall before you by the sword. 9 And I will turn myself unto you, and make you fruitful, and nudtiply you; and I will establish my covenant with you.* 10 And ye shall eat very old store, and the old shall ye remove away because of the new. 11 And I will set my dwelling among you; and my soul shall not loath" you. 12 And I will walk among you, and I will be to you a God, and ye shall be to me a people. 13 I am the Eternal your God, who have brought you forth out of the land of Egypt, that ye should not be their bond–men; and I have broken the bands of your yoke, and caused you to walk upright. 14 ¶ But if ye will not hearken unto me, and will not do all these commandments; 15 And if my statutes ye despise, and if my ordinances your soul loath, so as not to do all my commandments, in that ye break my covenant : 16 Then will I also do this unto you, and I will inflict on you terror, consumption, and the burning ague, that consume the eyes, and cause sorrow of heart; and ye shall sow in vain your seed, for your enemies shall eat it.*" 17 And I will set my face agamst you, and ye shall be struck down before your enemies : and they that hate you shall bear rule over you ; and ye shall flee while there is no one pursuing you. 18 And if with these things even ye will not yet hearken unto me : then I will chastise you yet more, sevenfold for your sins. 19 And I will break the pride of your power ; and I will make your heaven as iron, and your earth as copper: 20 And in vain shall your strength be spent ; for your land shall not yield her pro– ducts, and the tree of the land shall not yield its fruit. 21 And if ye walk yet contrary unto me, a " Fear not that after a long time I will be tired of you and choose another nation to render it higher than you; for I the Loud change not; and if you do your part, to walk in my statutes, my dwelling shall be among you for ever." — Wesseli. b "You shall sow, but nothing will grow; but if you U and if you refuse to hearken unto me : I will bring more plagues upon you, sevenfold ac– cording to your sins. 22 And I will send out against you the beasts of the field, which shall rob you of your children, and destroy your cattle, and dimi– nish yourselves; so that your roads shall be desolate. 23 And if notwithstanding these things ye will not be reformed by me, and walk con– trary 10ito me : 24 Then will I also walk contrary unto you, and I also will punish you, sevenfold for your sins. 25 And I will bring over you the sword, wenging the quarrel of my covenant, so that ye shall be gathered together within your cities; and then will I send the pestilence among you,'' that ye shall deliver yourselves into the hand of the eneniy ; 26 When I break unto you the stafi" of bread ; and ten women shall bake your bread in one oven, and they shall deliver your bread again by weight; and ye shall eat, and not be satisfied. 27 ¶ And if notwithstanding this ye will not hearken unto me, but walk contrary unto me : 28 Then will I also walk contrary unto you in fury ; and I, CA'cn I, will chastise you, sevenfold for your sins. 29 And ye shall eat the flesh of your sons, and the flesh of your daughters shall ye eat. 30 And I will destroy your high places, and cut down your sim–images, and cast 3–our carcasses upon the carcasses of your idols; and my soul shall loath ¶'ou. 31 And I will render your cities a waste, and I will make desolate your sanctuaries, and I will not smell the savour of your sweet odours. 32 And I will surely make desolate the land: and your enemies who dwell therein shall be astonished at it. 33 And you will I scatter among the nar tions, and I will draw out after you the sword; and your land shall be a desolate wild, and your cities shall be a waste. should have any thing in your fields, then shall your ene– mies come and cat it." — K.\sni. c Meaning, the people having violated the covenant, God would send enemies into the land, fleeing before whom they should seek refuge in the towns, whence the plague should drive them again into the power of their pursuers. 153 [Page 154] LEVITICUS XXVI. XXVII. BECIIUCKOTAY. 34 Then shall the land satisfy" its sal> baths, all the days of its desolation, when ye arc in the land of your enemies ; then shall the land rest, and satisfy its sabbaths. 35 All the days of its desolation shall it rest, the time which it did not rest in your sabbaths, when ye dwelt upon it. 36 And regarding those that are left of you, I will send a faintncss into their hearts in the lands of their enemies ; and the sound of a leaf shaken shall chase them ; and they shall flee, as fleeing from the sword; and they shall fall with none pursuing. 37 And they shall stumble one over the othei", as before the sword, without one pur– suing : and ye shall have no power to stand before your enemies. 38 And ye shall be lost among the nations, and the land of yoiu– enemies shall consume you. 39 And they that are left of you shall pine away in their iniquity in the land of your enemies; and also through the iniquities of their fathers shall they pine away with them. 40 And they shall then confess their ini– quity, and the iniquity of their fathers, (that) through their trespass which they trespassed against me, and also that (because) they had walked contrary unto me : 41 also had to walk¶ contrary unto them, and to bring them into the land of their ene– mies; and then shall their uncircumcised heart be humbled, and then shall they satisfy their iniquity. 42 And I will then remember my covenant with Jacob, and also my covenant with Isaac, and also my covenant with Abraham will I remember; and the land will I remember. 43 For the land shall be forsaken by them, and shall satisfy its sabbaths, while it lieth desolate without them, and they shall satisfy" their ini¶uity ; because, even because my ordi– nances they despised, and my statutes their soul loathed. 44 And yet for all that, though they be in a Make compensation for the years of release which the Israelites did not observe according to the dictates of the law. b After Philippson; as iSx is the future form; thus ex– pressing an act arising from a foregone cause. tN IX given here with "and then," may also mean, as Rashi com– ments, "perhaps ¶ion," or "wlicthcr then." Thus: "I also had to walk contrary unto them, and bring them into 164 the land of their enemies, will I not cast them away, neither will I loath them, to destroy them utterly, to break my covenant with them; for I am the Lord their God. 45 But I will rememter for their sakes the covenant of their ancestors, whom I brought forth out of the land of Egypt before the eyes of the nations, that I might be unto them a God; I am the Lord. 46 These are the statutes and ordinances and laws,"*which the Lord made between him and the children of Israel on mount Sinai, by the hand of Moses.* CHAPTER XXVII. 1 ¶ And the Lord spoke unto Moses, say– in f 2 Speak unto the children of Israel, and say unto them, If a man make a particular vow, (to give) the estimated va10e of persons in honour of the Lord : 3 If the estimated va10e concern a male from twenty years old and up unto sixty years old, then shall the estimation be fifty shekels of silver, after the shekel of the sanc– tuary. 4 And if it be a female, then shall the esti– mation be thirty shekels. 5 And if (the person be) from five years old unto twenty years old, then shall the esti– mation of the male be twenty shekels, and for the female ten shekels. 6 And if (the person be) from a month old unto five years old, then shall the estimation of the male be five shekels of silver, and for the female the estimation (shall be) three shekels of silver. 7 And if (the person be) from sixty years old and above, if it be a male, then shall the estimation be fifteen shekels, and for the female ten shekels. 8 But if he be too poor for this estimation, then shall he present himself Ix'fore the priest, and the priest shall va10e him; according to the ability to pay of him that hath vowed shall the priest va10e him. the land of their enemies, (to see) whether then their un– circumcised heart would be humbled, and they would then atone for their iniquity." c This word, employed also in verses 34 and 41, means that they shall su¶er such punishment as will be in full satisfaction for the guilt they have incurred. d Arnheini adds, as an ellipsis, "of the covenant," to tally with wliat follows, "between him," &c. [Page 155] LEVITICUS XXVII. BECIIUCKOTAY. 9 ¶ And if it be a beast," whereof men can bring an ofiering unto the Lord, all that*" a man giveth of such unto the Lord tshall be holy. 10 He shall not alter it, nor change it, a good for a bad one, or a bad for a good one: and if he should change beast for beast, then shall it together with its exchange be holy. 11 And if it be any unclean beast, of which they cannot ofler a sacrifice unto the Lord, then shall he present the beast before the priest : 12 And the priest shall va10e it, whether it be good or bad; as the priest va10eth it, so shall it be. 13 And if he will redeem it, then shall he add a fifth part thereof unto the estimated va10e. 14 And if a man sanctify his house as holy unto the Lord, then shall the priest va10e it, whether it be good or bad; as the priest may va10e it, so shall it stand. 15 And if he that sanctified it will redeem his house, then shall he add the fifth part of the money of the estimated va10e unto it, and it shall remain his.* 16 And if a man sanctify some part of a field of his possession unto the Lord, then shall the estimation be in proportion to its re– quired seed : the seed of a chomer of barley at fifty shekels of silver. 17 If immediately after the year of the jubilee he sanctify his field, according to this estimation shall it stand. 18 But if after the jubilee he sanctify his field, then shall the priest reckon unto him the money in profiortion to the years that re– main, until the year of the jubilee, and it shall be deducted from the estimation. 19 And if he that sanctified the field will redeem it, then shall he add the fifth part of the money of the estimated *a10e unto it, and it shall be assured to him. 20 But if he will not redeem the field, or if he" have sold the field to another man, it shall not be redeemed any more. 21 But the field, when it is freed in the a This means only domestic animals, cattle proper, the OS, sheep, and goat; for these only could be sacrificed. b " If a man said, The leg of this shall be a burnt–offer– ing, his words were valid, and it was sold for the purposes of the burnt–offering, and all the proceeds were profane property, with the exception of the va10e of that limb." — Rashi. jubilee, shall be lioly unto the Lord, asa de– voted field ; to the priest shall it belong as his possession.''' 22 And if a man sanctify a field which he hath bought, which is not of the fields of his possession, unto the Lord: 23 Then shall the priest reckon unto him the amount of the estimated va10e to the year of the jubilee; and he shall give this estima– tion on that day, as a holy thing unto the Lord. 24 In the year of the jubilee the field shall return unto him of whom he bought it, to the one to whom belongeth the possession of the land. 25 And all estimations of va10e shall be according to the shekel of the sanctuary; twenty gerahs shall be the shekel. 26 Only the first–born which shall, by be– ing first born, be sacred unto the Lord among cattle, no man shall sanctify;"*whether it be ox, or lamb, it is the Lord's. 27 And if it be an unclean animal, then shall he redeem it according to the estimated va10e, and he shall add its fifth part thereto; and if it be not redeemed, then shall it be sold according to the estimated va10e. 28 But any devoted thing, which a man may devote unto the Lord of all that he hath, both of nuin and beast, and of the field of his possession, shall not be sold nor redeemed: every devoted thing is most holy unto the Lord.* 29 Any one condemned," who shall be con– demned to death among men, shall not Ije re– deemed; he shall be put to death. 30 And every tithe of the land, of the seed of the land, or of the fruit of the tree, belongeth to the Lord; it is holy unto the Lord. 31 And if a man will redeem any part of his tithe, its fifth part shall ho add thereto.* 32 And concerning the tithe of the herds, or of the fiocks, whatsoever passeth under the rod,' the tenth shall be holy unto the Lord. 33 He shall not search whether it be good or bad, neither shall he change it : and if he c i. e. The treasurer of the sanctuary. d For the purpose of sacrifice, it being sacred by its birth. e According to Rashi's commentary; and it says that the offering of the above va10ations for the life of a COQ– dcmned criminal shall be of no avail. f " When he comes to tithe them, he causes them to go 155 [Page 156] NUMBERS I. BEMIDBAR. should change it, then both it and the ex– change thereof shall be holy ; it shall not be redeemed. 34 These are the commandments, which the Lord commanded Moses for the children of Israel on mount Sinai. Haphtorah in .Jeremiah xvi. 19 to xvii. 14. Uajihtorah for Sabbath Ilaggadole in Malachi iii. 4 to 24. THE BOOK OF NUMBERS, BEMIDBAR, imSD. CONTAININ6 THE HISTORY OF THE ISRAELITES IN THE DESERT. SECTION XXXIV. BEMIDBAR, –im03. CHAPTER I. 1 ¶ And the Lord spoke unto Moses in the wilderness of Sinai, in the tabernacle of the congregation, on the first day of the second month, in the second year after their going out of the land of Egypt, saying, 2 Take ye the sum of all the congregation of the children of Israel, after their families, by the descent from their fathers," by num– bering the names,'' every male according to their polls; 3 From twenty years old and upward, all that are able to go forth to war in Israel: these shall ¶e number according to their armies, thou and Aaron. 4 And with you there shall be one man each of every tribe; a man who is the head of his family division. 5 And these are the names of the men that shall stand with you ; of Reuben : Elizur the son of Shedeiir. 6 Of Simeon : She10miel the son of Zurish– addai. 7 Of Judah : Nachshon the son of 'Ammi– nadab. through a doorway, one after the other, and the tenth he strikes with a rod having paint on it, that the animal may be recognised as the tithe; and so was done to the lambs and calves of every year." — Rashi. a So Rashi exphiins the term 3 JV3 "family descent reckoned from the father." But generally it is nearly synonymous with the word nnsiys family, and it may be rendered "family division," or "branch," and is conse– quently a subdivision of "family," which itself is less than " tribe." In other instances 3 n'3 appears the major, nnaiyo the lesser division. But in reality it means at 156 8 Of lssachar: Nethanel the son of Zuiir. 9 Of Zebulum : Eliab the son of Chelon. 10 Of the children of Joseph, of Ephraim : Elishama the son of 'Ammihud ; of Menasseh : Gamliel the son of Pedahzur. 11 Of Benjamin : Abidan the son of Gidoni. 12 Of Dan : Achiezer the son of 'Ammish– addai 13 Of Asher: Pagiel the son of 'Ochran. 14 Of Gad : Elyassaph the son of Deiiel. 15 Of Nayhtali: Acliira the son of 'Euan. 16 These were the selected" of the congre– gation, the princes of the tribes of their fathers ; the heads of the thousands'*of Israel were they. 17 And Moses and Aaron took these men who are expressed by name : 18 And all the congregation they*assem– bled together on the first day of the second month, and they were eurolled in the lists of their ped16rees after their fomilies. ])y the de– scent from their fathers, by numbering the names, from twenty years old and uinvard, according to their polls. 19 As the LcwD had commanded Moses, so did he number them in the wilderness of Sinai. * last only tho.–io who have a common ancestry; hence it will be found variously rendered, to prevent the too fre– quent repetition of the same term. b "With the number of their names." — English ver– sion. c 'tnp "the called," from K")p "to call;" hence, thoso called to the meetings of the chiefs, the selectmai, repre– sentatives; and so it is rendered elsewhere. d Philippson translates 'sSn not with " thousands," but with " families," as 8ynonymous with "–jiSk in Genesis xxxvi. 43. [Page 157] NUMBERS I. BEMIDBAR. 20 ¶ And there were of the children of i Itciiben the first–born of Israel, by their gene– ! rations, after their families, by the descent from , their fathers, by numbering the names, ac– 1 cording to their polls, every male from twenty years old and upward, all that were able to go forth to war; 21 Those that were numbered of the tribe ! of Reuben, were forty and six thousand and five hundred. 22 ¶ Of the" children of Simeon, by their generations, after their families, by the de– scent from their fathers, those that were nuinbered of them, by numbering the names, according to their polls, every male from twenty j–ears old and upward, all that were able to go forth to war; 23 Those that were numbered of the tribe of Simeon, were fifty and nine thousand and three hundred. 24 ¶ Of the children of Gad, by their gene– rations, after their families, by the descent from their fathers, by numbering the names, from twenty years old and upward, all that were able to go forth to war ; 25 Those that were numbered of the tribe of Gad, were forty and five thousand six hun– dred and fifty. 26 ¶ Of the children of Judah, by their generations, after their families, by the de– scent from their fathers, by numbering the names, from twenty years old and upward, all that were able to go forth to war; 27 Those that were numbered of the tribe of Judah, were seventy and four thousand and six hundred. 28 ¶ Of the children of Issachar, by their generations, after their families, by the de– scent from their fathers, by numbering the names, from twenty years old and upward, all that were able to go forth to war; 29 Those that were numbered of the tribe of Issachar, were fifty and four thousand and four hundred. 30 ¶ Of the children of Zebulun, by their generations, after their famiUes, by the de– scent from their fathers, by numbering the names, from twenty years old and upward, all that were able to go forth to war; a The S prefixed to each name must be taken in the sense of "of," as though it read, "there were of the sons of Simeon, &c., those that were numbered, fifty and nine thousand and three hundred," S:c. 31 Those that were numbered of the trilic of Zebulun, were fifty and seven ¶iousand and four hundred. 32 ¶ Of the children of Joseph, namely, of the children of Ephraim, by their generations, after their families, by the descent from their fathers, by numbering the names, from twenty years old and upward, all that were able to go forth to war; 33 Those that were numbered of the tribe of Ephraim, were forty thousand and five hundred. 34: ¶Of the children of Menasseh, by their generations, after their families, by the de– scent from their fathers, by numbering the names, from twenty years old and upward, all that were able to go forth to war; 30 Those that were numbered of the tribe of Menasseh, were thirty and two thousand and two hundred. 36 ¶ Of the children of Benjamin, by their generations, after their families, by the de– scent from their fathers, by numbering the names, from twenty years old and upward, all that were able to go forth to war; 37 Those that were numbered of the tribe of Benjamin, were thirty and five thousand and four hundred. 38 ¶ Of the children of Dan, by then* generations, after their families, by the de– scent from their lathers, by numbering the names, from twenty years old and upward, "all that were able to go forth to war; 39 Those that were numbered of the tribe of Dan, were sixty and two thousand and seven hundred. 40 ¶ Of the children of Asher, by their generations, after their families, by the de– scent from their fathers, by numbering the names, from twenty years old and upward, all that were able to go forth to war; 41 Those that were numbered of the tribe of Asher, were forty and one thousand and five hundred. 42 ¶ Of the children of Naphtali, by their generations, after their families, by the de– scent from their fathers, by numlx;ring the names, from twenty years old and upward, all that were able to go forth to war; 43 Those that were numbered of the tribe of Naphtali, were fifty and three thousand and four hundred. 44 ¶ These are those that were numlx¶red, whom Moses numbered with Aaron, and the 157 [Page 158] NUMBERS I. II. BEMIDBAR. princes of Israel, being twelve men ; one man each for his family division were they. 45 Thus were all those that were numbered of the children of Israel, by the descent from their fathers, from twenty years old and up– ward, all that were able to go forth to war in Israel, — 46 Even all they that were numbered, were six hundred thousand and three thou– sand and five hundred and fifty. 4 7 But the Levites, after the tribe of their fathers, were not numbered among them. 48 ¶ For*the Lord had spoken unto Moses, saying, 49 Only the tribe of Levi shalt thou not numl¶er, and their sum shalt thou not take, among the children of Israel ; 50 But thou shalt appoint the Levites over the tabernacle of the testimony, and over all its vessels, and over all things that belong to it : they shall carry the tabernacle, and all its vessels; and they shall minister unto it, and round about the tabernacle shall they en– camp. 51 And when the tabernacle is to be car– ried forward, the Levites shall take it doA\ai ; and when the tabernacle is to be pitched, the Levites shall set it up : and the stranger'' that Cometh nigh shall be put to death. 52 And the children of Israel shall pitch'' their tents, every man by his own camp, and every man by his own standard, according to their armies. 53 But the Levites shall encamp round about the tabernacle of the testimony, that there bo no wrath upon the congregation of the children of Israel : and the Levites shall keep the charge of the tabernacle of the testi– mony. 54 And the children of Israel did so ; all, just as the Lord had comman.ded Moses, so did they.* CHAPTER II. 1 ¶ And the Lord spoke unto Moses and unto Aaron, saying, 2 Every man by his own standard, by the ensigns of their family division, shall the chil– dren of Israel pitch their tent : at some dis– a i. e. The not numbering of the Levites among the other sons of Israel was owing to a previous command that they should not be reckoned among them for secular purposes. tance round about the tabeniacle of the con– gregation shall they encamp. 3 And they, who encamp on the east, to– ward the rising of the sun, shall be (those who belong to) the standard of the camp of Judah according to their armies: and the prince of the children of Judah shall be Nach– shon the son of 'Amminadab. 4 And his host, and those that were num– bered of them, were seventy and four thou– sand and six hundred. 5 And those that encamp next unto him shall be the tribe of Issachar : and the prince of the children of Issachar shall be Nethanel the son of Zuar. 6 And his host, and those that were num– bered thereof, were fifty and four thousand and four hundred. 7 (Then) the tribe of Zebulun : and the prince of the children of Zebulun shall be Eliab the son of Chelon. 8 And his host, and those that were num– bered thereof, were fifty and seven thousand and four hundred. 9 All that were numbered of the camp of Judah were one hundred thousand and eighty thousand and six thousand and four hundred, according to their armies ; they shall fii'st set forward. 10 ¶ The standard of the camp of Reuben shall be on the south side, according to their armies : and the prince of the children of Reuben shall be Elizur the son of Shedeiir. 11 And his host, and those that were num– liered thereof, were forty and six thousand and five hundred. 12 And those that encamp by him shall be the trilie of Simeon : and the prince of the children of Simeon shall be She10mitil the son of Zurishaddiii. 13 And his host, and those that were num– bered of them, were fifty and nine thousand and three hundred. 14 Then the tribe of Gad : and the prince of the sons of Gad shall be Elyassa])!! the son of Reuel. 15 And his host, and those that were num– bered of them, were forty and five thousand and six hundred and fifty. 158 b The word i; used here and elsewhere, signifies "one strange in the matter specified;" here, therefore, any one of Israel who is not a Levite. c Lit. " Shall encamp." [Page 159] NUMBERS II. III. BEMIDBAR. 16 All that were numbered of the camp of Reuben were one hundred thousand and fifty and one thousand and four hundred and fifty, according to their armies; and as the second shall they set forward. 17 ¶ Then shall the tabei'nacle of the con– gregation, the camp of the Levites, set for– ward in the midst of the camps : as they encamp, so shall they set forward, every man in his place after their standards. 18 ¶f The standard of the camp of Ephraim shall be on the west side, according to their armies : and the prince of the sons of Ephraim shall be Elishama the son of 'Ammihud. 19 And his host, and those that were num– bered of them, were forty thousand and five hundred. 20 And by him shall be the tribe Menas– seh ; and the prince of the children of Me– nasseh shall be Gamliiil the son of Pedahzur. 21 And his host, and those that were num– bered of them, were thirty and two thousand and two hundred. 22 Then the tribe of Benjamin: and the prince of the sons of Benjamin shall be Abi– dan the son of Gidoni. 23 And his host, and those that were num– bered of them, were thirty and five thousand and four hundred. 24 All that wei'e numbered of the camp of Ephraim were one hundred thousand and eight thousand and one hundred, according to their amiies. And as the third shall they set forward. 25 ¶ The standard of the camp of Dan shall be on the north side, according to their armies : and the prince of the children of Dan shall be Achiezer the son of 'Ammi– shaddai. 26 And his host, and those that were num– bered of them, were sixty and two thousand and seven hundred. 27 And those that encamp by him shall be the tribe of Asher : and the prince of the children of Asher shall be Pagiel the son of 'Ochran. 28 And his host, and those that were num– bered of them, were forty and one thousand and five hundred. 29 Then the tribe of Naphtali : and the a This would seem to indicate that each tribe had its separate banner, besides the general division–standards of Judah, Reuben, Ephraim, and Dan. prince of ¶u" children of Naphtali shall be Achira the son of 'Enan. 30 And his host, and those that were num– bered of them, were fifty and three thousand and lour hundred. 31 All those that were numbered of the camp of Dan were one hundred thousand and iifty and seven thousand and six hundred ; the hindmost shall they set forward according to their standards." 32 ¶These are those that were numl)ered of the children of Israel according to their family divisions: and all those that were num– bered of the camps, according to their armies, were six hundred thousand and three thou– sand and five hundred and fifty. 33 But the Levites were not numbered among the children of Israel ; as the Lord had commanded Moses. 34 And the children of Israel did all just as the Lord had commanded Moses, so did they encamjj by their standards, and so did they set forward every one after his family, by his division.* CHAPTER III. 1 ¶ And these are the generations of Aaron and Moses, on the day that the Lord spoke with Moses on mount Sinai. 2 And these are the names of the sons of Aaron : the firstrborn Nadab, and Abihu, Ehv– zai', and Ithamar. 3 These are the names of the sons of Aaron, the priests that were anointed, who were con– secrated to minister as jiriests. 4 And Nadab and Abihu died before the Lord, when they oflered a strange fire before the Lord, in the wilderness of Sinai, and they had no children : and Elazar and Ithamar ministered as priests in the life–time of Aaron their father. 5 ¶ And the Lord spoke unto Moses, say ing, 6 Bring the tribe of Levi near, and present the same before Aaron the priest, that they may sei've him. 7 And they shall keep his charge, and the charge of the whole congregation*" before the tent of the congregation, to do the service of the taljemacle. b The whole congregation arc interested that the duties of the sanctuary be well performed ; consequently the ministration of the Levites is doing the work of all Israel. 159 [Page 160] NUMBERS III. BEMIDBAR 8 And they shall keep all the vessels of the tent of the congregation, and the charge of the children of Israel, to do the service of the tabernacle. 9 And thou shalt give the Levites unto Aaron and to his sons : as associates are" they given unto him out of the children of Israel. 10 And Aaron and his sons shalt thou in– struct, that they shall guard well their priest's office ; and the stranger that come¶i nigh shall be put to death. 11 ¶ And the Lord spoke unto Moses, say– ing, 12 And I, behold, I have taken the Levites from the midst of the children of Israel in– stead of every first–born that openeth the womb among the children of Israel ; and the Levites shall be mine. 13 Because mine is every first–born; on the day when I smote every first–born in the land oi" Egypt I hallowed unto me every first– born in Israel, both man and beast : mine shall they Ijc; I nm the Lord.* 14 ¶ And the Loud spoke unto Moses in the wilderness of Sinai, saying, 15 Number the children of Levi after their divisions, by their families; every male of them from a month old and upward shalt thou mnnber. 10 And Moses numbered them according to the order of the Lord, as he had been commanded. 17 And these were the sons of Levi by their names : Gershon, and Kehath, and Me– rari. 18 And these are the names of the sons of (iershon after their families : Libni, and Shimi. 19 And the sons of Kehath after their families: 'Araram, and Yizhar, Chebron, and 'Uzziel. 20 And the sons of Merari after their fa– milies : Machli, and Mushi ; these are the families of the Levites according to their family divisions. 21 Of Gershon: the fixmily of the Libnites, and the family of the Shimites; these are the families of the Gershunites. 22 Those that were numljered of them, by the numbering of all the nuiles from a month a After Arnheim, who takes the. first ornj as a predi– cate of the Levites ; and means then ¶iat they are ap– pointed DJinj " associates" in the priest's office 160 old and upward, even those that were num– bered of them, were seven thousand and fi\–e hundred. 23 The families of the Gers10mites used to encamp behind the tabernacle, westward. 24 And the prince of the family division of the Gershunites was Elyassaph the son of Lael. 25 And the charge of the sons of Gershon in the tabernacle of the congregation was the tabernacle and the tent, its covering, and the hanging for the door of the tabernacle of the congregation, 26 And the hangings of the court, and the curtain for the door of the court, which is by the tabernacle and by the altar, round about, and its cords for all the service thereof. 27 ¶ And of Kehath : the family of the 'Amramites, and the family of the Yizharites, and the family of the Chebronites, and the fiimily of the "Uzzielites; these are the families of the Kehathites. 28 By the numbering of aU the males, from a month old and upward, they were eight thousand and six hundred, keeping the charge of the sanctuary. 29 The fixmilies of the sons of Kehath used to encamp on the side of the tabernacle, southward. 30 And the prince of the division of the famiUes of the Kehathites was Elizaphan the son of 'Uzziel. 31 And their charge was the ark, and the table, and the candlestick, and the altars, and the vessels of the sanctuary which are used for the service, and the vail, and all belonging thereto. 32 And the chief over the princes of the Levites was Elazar the son of Aaron the priest, having the oversight of those that kept the charge of the sanctuary. 33 Of Merari : the fiimily of the Machli tes, and the fiimily of the Mushites; these are the lamilies of Merari. 34 And those that were numbered of them, by the numbering of all the males, from a month old and upward, were six thousand and two hundred. 35 And the chief of the division of the families of Merari wa,s Zuriel the son of Abi– chayil : they used to encamp on the side of the tabernacle, northward. 30 And under the custody and charge of the sons of Merari were the boards of the tabema– [Page 161] NUMBERS III. IV. BEMIDBAR. cle, and its bars, and its pillars, and its sockets, and all its vessels, and all that belongeth thereto, 37 And the pillars of the court round about, and their sockets, and their pins, and their cords. 38 But those that encamped before the ta– bernacle toward the east, even before the tabernacle of the congregation toward the rising of the sun, were Moses, and Aaron, and his sons, keeping the charge of the sanctuary for the charge of the children of Israel ; and the stranger that came nigh was to be put to death. 39 All that were numbered of the Levites, whom Moses numbered with Aaron, at the command of the Lord, according to their fa– milies, all the males from a month old and upward, wei'e twenty and two" thousand.'–' 40 ¶ And the Lord said unto Moses, Num– ber all the first–born males of the children of Israel from a month old and ujjward, and take the number of their names. 41 And thou shalt take the Levites for me,'' I am the Lord, instead of all the first– born among the childi'en of Israel ; and the cattle of the Levites instead of all the first– born among the cattle of the children of Israel. 42 And Moses numbered, as the Lord had commanded him, all the first–bom among the children of Israel. 43 And all the first–born males, by the numbering of the names, from a month old and upward, of those that were numbered of them, were twenty and two thousand two hundred and seventy and three. 44 ¶ And the Lord spoke unto Moses, say– iuf 45 Take the Levites instead of all the first– born among the children of Israel, and the cattle of the Levites instead of their cattle; and the Levites shall be mine ; I am the Lord." 46 And (for) those that are to be i–edeem– ed, the two hundred and seventy and three of the first–born of the children of Israel, who are more than the Levites : a Which Aben Ezra comments on, " beside three hun– dred first–born among them, as these did not redeem the first–born of Israel." b Mendelssohn renders "unto me the Loud;" but it seems to be the phrase frequently found by positive enact– ments or prohibitions, and means to declare that they are the authoritative injunctions of the great Sovereign, which is the only reason assigned for fheir enactment. V 47 Thou shalt take five shekels apiece for the poll; after the shekel of the sanctuary shalt thou take, twenty gerahs to the shekel ; 48 And thou shalt give unto Aaron and to his sons the money, (for) those who are to be redeemed of those that are over the number of them. 49 And Moses took the redemption–money of those that were over in number above those who were redeemed by the Levites : 50 Of the first–born of the children of Israel did he take the money; a thousand three hundred and sixty and five shekels, after the shekel of the sanctuary'. 51 And Moses gave the money of those who were redeemed unto Aaron and unto his sons, by the order of the Lord; as the Lord had commanded Moses.* CHAPTER IV. 1 ¶ And the Lord spoke unto Moses and unto Aaron, saying, 2 Take the sum of the sons of Kehath from among the sous of Levi, after their fami– lies, by their divisions, 3 From thirty years old and upward even until fifty years old, all that are fitted for the service,'' to do work at the tabernacle of the congregation. 4 This shall be the service of the sons of Kehath at the tabernacle of the congregation : the most holy things. 5 And Aaron shall come with his sons, when the camp setteth forward, and they shall take down the vail of the separation, and cover therewith the ark of the testimony ; And they shall put over it a covering of badgers' skins, and they shall spread over all a cloth wholly of blue (woollen yarn,) and they shall put in its stwes." 7 And over the taljle of the shoAvbread shall they spread a cloth of blue, and put thereon the dishes, and the spoons, and the tubes, and the stwes of the coveru16; and the continuaF l)read shall be thereon: 8 And they shall spread over them a cloth c "Me the Lord." — Mendelssohn. d *After 3Iendelssohn ; lit., "That enter the army" or "host," i. e. of those who do the service at the taber– nacle, or those who are from thirty to fifty years of age. e i. e. In the rings fitted for their reception. f i. e. The bread which is to be always upon the table. 161 [Page 162] NUMBERS IV. NAHSSO. of scarlet, and cover the same with a covering of badgers' skins; and they shall put in its stwes. 9 And they shall take a cloth of blue, and cover the candlestick of the lighting, and its lamps, and its tongs, and its snufl–dishes, and all the oil–vessels thereof, wherewith they minister by it : 10 And they shall put it and all its vessels within a covering of badgers' skins, and they shall put it upon a barrow. 11 And over the golden altar shall they spread a cloth of blue, and cover it with a covering of badgers' skins ; and they shall put in its stwes. 12 And they shall take all the vessels of the service, wherewith they minister in the sanctuary, and put them in a cloth of blue, and cover them with a covering of badgers' skins; and they shall put them on a barrow. 13 And they shall take away the ashes from the altar, and spread over it a cloth of purple ; 14 And they shall put upon it all its ves– sels, wherewith they minister upon it, the fire–pans, the forks, and the shovels, and the basins, all the vessels of the altar; and they shall spread over it a covering of badgers' skins, and put in its stwes. 15 And when Aaron and his sons have thus made an end of covering the sanctuary, and all the vessels of the sanctuary, when the camp is to set forward : then shall, after that, the sous of Kehath come to carry it; but they shall not touch any holy thing, lest they die; these are the things which the sons of Kehath are to carry at the tabernacle of the congregation. 16 And under the supervision of Elazar the son of Aaron the priest shall be the oil for the lighting, and the incense of spices, and the daily meat–ofTering, and the anointing–oil ; the supervision of all the taliernacle, and of all that is therein, over the sanctuary, and over its vessels.* 17 ¶And the Lord spoke unto Moses and unto Aaron, saying, 18 Do ye" not cause the trilie of the fami– lies of the Kehathites to be cut olf from among the Levites: a This ia an injunction to tbe chief superintendent– of the sanctuary not to allow those who are to be engaged in carrying it, to touch it in any wise before it is time, for 162 19 But thus do unto them, that they may live, and not die, when they approa'–h unto the most holy things: Aaron and his sons shall go in, and appoint them, every one, to his service and to his burden; 20 That they many not go in to see when the holy thmgs are covered, and die. Haphtorah in Hosea ii. 1 to 22. SECTION XXXV. NAHSSO, NCT'l 21 ¶ And the Lord spoke unto Moses, saying, 22 Take also the sum of the sons of Ger– shon, by their divisions, after their families ; 23 From thirty years old and ujDward until fifty years old shalt thou number them ; all that are fitted for the service, to do work in the taljernacle of the congregation. 24 This shall be the service of the families of the Gershunites, to serve, and to carry : 25 They shall carry the curtains of the tabernacle, and of the tent of the congrega– tion, its covering, and the covering of the bad– gers' skins that is over it alxve, and the hang– ing for the door of the tabernacle of the con– gregation, 26 And the hangings of the court, and the hanging for the door of the gate of the court, which is by the tabernacle and by the altar round about, and their cords, and all the ves– sels of their sei'vice ; and all that is delivered'' to them shall they perform. 27 By the command of Aaron and his sons shall be all the service of the sons of the Ger– shunites, in all their carr¶'ing, and in all their service : and ye shall designate unto them in charge all which they have to carry. 28 This is the service of the fimiilies of the sons of the Gershunites at the tabernacle of the congregation; and their charge shall be under the supervision of Ithamar the son of Aaron the priest. 29 ¶ The sons of Merari. thou shalt num– ber after their families. In– their divisions; 30 From thirty years old and upward, even until fifty years old, shalt thou number them, every one that is fitted for the service, to do the work of the tabernacle of the congregation. by this they would incur the penalty of death. Hence the great care enjoined here. b After Oukelos, who renders nty;" in the sense " to be [Page 163] NUMBERS IV. V. NAHSSO. 31 And this is what is confided to them to carry, regarding all their service at the taber– nable of the congregation : the boards of the tabernacle, and its bars, and its pillars, and its sockets, 32 And the pillars of the court round about, and their sockets, and their pins, and their cords, with all ¶u'ir instruments, and all which belongeth thereto; and by name shall ye designate (to them) the vessels which are confided to them to carry. 33 This is the service of the families of the sons of Merari, regarding all their service, at the tabernacle of the congregation, under the supervision of Ithamar the son of Aaron, the priest.* 34 And Moses with Aaron and the princes of the congregation numbered the sons of the Kehathites after their families, and after their divisions, 35 From thirty years old and upward, even until fifty years old, every one that was fitted for the service, for the work at the tabernacle of the congregation. 36 And those that were numbered of them after their families were two thousand seven hundred and fifty. 37 These were they that were numbered of the families of the Kehathites, all that could do service at the tabernacle of the con– gregation, whom Moses with Aaron numbered by the order of the Lord through the hand of Moses.* 38 ¶ And those that were numbered of the sons of Gershon, after their families, and after their divisions, 39 From thirty years old and upward, even until fifty years old, every one that was fitted for the service, for the work at the tabernacle of the congregation, 40 Even those that were numbered of them, after their families, after their divi– sions, were two thousand and six hundred and thirty 41 These are they that were numbered of the famihes of the sons of Gershon, all that could do service at the tabernacle of the con– made over," or "assigned." Others render, "and what– ever is to be done thereon." a Perhaps referring to the priests, for they, being Le– vitcs, were also numbered with the other Kehathites. Rashi refers it to the music and singing, which devolved on the Lentes. Jonathan has, "the service of watching." gregation, whom Moses with Aaron numbered by the order of the Lord. 42 And those that were numbered of the families of the sons of Merari, after their fami– lies, after their divisions, 43 From thirty years old and upward, even until fifty years old, every one that was fitted for the service, for the work at the tabernacle of the congregation, 44 Even those that were niunbered of them after their families, were three thousand and two hundred. 45 These are those that were numbered of the families of the sons of Merari, whom Moses with Aaron numbered by the order of the Lord through the hand of Moses. 46 All those that were numbered of the Levites, whom Moses with Aaron and the chief of Israel numbered, after their families, and after their divisions, 47 From thirty years old and upward, even until fifty years old, every one that came to do the service of the ministry," and the service of the carrying at the tabernacle of the congregation, 48 Even those that were numbered of them, were eight thousand and five hundred and eighty. 49 By the order of the Lord through the hand of Moses, did he appoint**them, every one to his proper service, and to his proper carrying: and they were numbered, as the Lord had commanded Moses.* CHAPTER V. 1 ¶ And the Lord spoke unto Moses, say– ing, 2 Command the children of Israel, that they send out of the camp every lepei–, and every one that hath an issue, and whosoever is defiled by the dead : 3 Both male and female shall ye send out, to –without the camp shall ye send them ; that they defile not their camps, in the midst whereof I dwell. 4 And the children of Israel did so, and they sent them out to without the camp; as Aben Ezra comments, " to raise the tabernacle, to make the bread, to slay (the sacrifices,) and to watch." b The different versions of the word tpa in this passage are according to Mendelssohn; still, "appointing" is lite– rally a "counting off" of all those are to do a certain work together. 163 [Page 164] NUMBERS V. NAHSSO. the Lord had spoken unto Moses, so did the children of Israel. 5 ¶ And the Lord spoke unto Moses, say– ing, 6 Speak unto the children of Israel, K any man or woman commit any sin against a fel– low–man, thereby doing a trespass against the Lord, and this person thus become guilty : 7 Then shall they" confess their sin which they have committed; and he shall make restitution for his trespass with the principal thereof, and its fifth part shall he add thereto, and give it unto him against whom he hath trespassed. "¶ 8 But if the man have no kinsman to whom restitution could be made for the tres– pass, then shall the trespass which is restored unto the Lord, Ijelong to the priest; besides the ram of the atonement, whereby an atone– ment shall be made for him. 9 And every offering of all the holy things of the children of Israel, which they bring unto the priest, shall be his. 10 And every man's hallowed things shall be his;'¶ whatsoever any man giveth to the priest, shall belong to him.''' 11 ¶ And the Lord spoke unto Moses, saying, 12 Speak unto the children of Israel, and say unto them. If the wife of any man go aside, and connnit a trespass against him, 13 And a man lie with her carnally, and it be hidden from the eyes of her husband, because she hath been secretly defiled; and there be no witness against her, and she have not been detected in the fact; 14 And the spirit of jealousy come over him, and he be jealous of his wife, and she have been defiled; or the spirit of jealousy come over him, and he be jealous of his wife, and she have not been defiled : 15 Then shall the man bring his wife unto the priest, and he shall bring her offering for her, the tenth part of an ephah of barley– meal; he shall not pour any oil upon it, nor a The rapid change here from the singular to the p10ral, is a peculiarity in Hebrew, easily understood, and has been noticed before. b i. e. If he should be living; but if dead, to his near relatives. This will explain the succeeding verse, where a person is spoken of who leaves no one authorized to claim his property. c A man has the right to bestow the gifts of the priest– hood on whomsoever he pleases, although he cannot use put any frankincense thereupon; for it is a meat–offering of jealousy, a meat–offering of memorial, bringing iniquity to remembrance. 16 And the priest shall bring her near, and place her betbre the Lord; 17 And the priest shall take holy water'' in an earthen vessel; and of the dust that is on the floor of the tabernacle the priest shall take, and put it into the water; 18 And the priest shall place the woman before the Lord, and uncover the woman's head, and pnt upon her hands the meat–offer– ing of memorial, it is the meat–offering of jealousy; and in the hand of the priest shall be the bitter waters that bring the curse. 19 And the priest shall charge her by an oath, and he shall say unto the woman, Kno man have lain with thee, and if thou hast not gone aside to uncleanness behind thy hus– band: then be thou free from these bitter waters that bring the curse. 20 But if thou hast gone aside behind thy husband, and if thou hast been defiled, and some man have lain with thee besides thy husband : — " 21 And the priest shall charge the woman with an oath of imprecation, and the priest shall say unto the woman, The Lord then make thee a curse and an oath among thy people, when the Lord doth cause thy thigh to fall away, and thy belly to swell; 22 And these waters that bring the curse shall go into thy bowels, to cause the belly to swell, and the thigh to fiiU away; and the woman shall say, Amen, amen. 23 And the priest shall write these curses on a roll, and he shall blot them out with the bitter waters. 24 And he shall cause the woman to drink the bitter waters that bring the curse; and the waters that bring the curse shall enter into her, for bitterness. 25 And the priest shall take out of the woman's hand the meat–offermg of jealousy, them himself No individual priest has any claim on any Israelite for the sacred things; but when once parted with, then arc they the priest's in full right. d i. e. That which has been sanctified in the lwer. The preparation of the bitter waters ashere described, of the meanest materials in a mean vessel, was to typify the abhorrence of incest in the estimation of the Lord. e Here the idea breaks off, and is resumed in the next verse at the words, "The Lord then make thee." [Page 165] NUMBERS V. VI. NAHSSO. and he shall wwe the meat–offering before the Lord, and bring it near to the altar: 26 And the priest shall take a handful IVom the meat–offering, as its memorial, and burn it upon the altar, and after that shall he cause the woman to drink the Avatcr. 27 And when he hath made her drink the water, then shall it come to pass, if she have been defiled, and have committed a trespass against her husband, that the waters that bring the curse shall enter into her, for bitterness, and her belly shall swell, and her thigh shall fall away ; and the woman shall become a curse among her people. 28 And if the woman have not been de– filed, but be clean : then shall she remain un– harmed, and she shall conceive seed. 29 This is the law of jealousies, when a woman goeth aside behind her husband, and hath been defiled; 30 Or when the spirit of jealousy cometh over him, and he be jealous of his wife f and he shall place the woman before the Lord, and the priest shall do unto her altogether according to this law. ol And the man shall be guil¶ess from iniquity; but this woman shall bear her ini– quity.'' CHAPTER VI. 1 ¶ And the Lord spoke unto Moses, say– ing, 2 Speak unto the children of Israel, and say unto them. When either man or woman pronounce an especial vow, the vow of a Na– zarite, to be abstinent in honour of the Lord : 3 Then shall he abstain from wine and strong drink, vinegar of wine, or vinegar of strong drink shall he not drink, and any infusion of grapes shall he not drink, and grapes, fresh or dried, shall he not eat. 4 All the days of his abstinence shall he eat nothing that is made of the grape–vine, from the kernels even to the husk. 5 All the days of the vow of his abstinence no razor shall pass over his head : until the days be completed, in which he abstaineth in honour of the Lord, shall he be holy, letting grow untouched the hair of his head. 6 All the days of his abstinence in honour of the Lord shall he not come near any dead body. 7 On his father, or on his mother, on his brother, or on his sister, shall he not make himself unclean, when they die ; because the consecration of his God is up(m his head. 8 All the days of his abstinence is he holy unto the Lord. 9 And if some one die very suddenly by him, and he thus defile his consecrated head : then shall he shave his head on the day of his being cleansed, on the seventh day shall he shave it. 10 And on the eighth day shall he bring two turtle–doves, or two yOung pigeons, to the priest, to the door of the tabernacle of the congregation : 11 And the priest shall prepare the one for a sin–offering, and the other for a burnt– offering, and make an atonement for him, be– cause he hath sinned through the dead; and he shall hallow his head on that same day. 12 And he shall consecrate unto the Lord (again) the days of his abstinence, and he shall bring a sheep of the first year for a tres– pass–ofiering ; but the prior days shall not be counted, because his consecration hath been defiled. 13 And this is the law of the Nazarite : on the day when the days of his abstinence are completed, shall he present himself at the door of the tabernacle of the congregation ; 14 And he shall bring his offering unto the Lord, one male sheep of the first year with– out blemish for a Ijurnt–oflering, and one ewe of the first 3ear without blemish for a sin– ofiering, and one ram without blemish for a peace–offering, 15 And a basket of unleavened bread, cakes of fine flour mingled with oil, and un– leavened wafers anointed with oil ; and their meat–offering, and their drink–offerings. 16 And the priest shall bring them near before the Lord, and he shall offer his sin– offering, and his burnt–offering : 17 And the ram shall he offer for a sacri– fice of peace–offering unto the Lord, with the basket of unleavened bread; and the priest a Here is evidently understood, " And she hath not been defiled." — Arnheim. b Even if he should have exposed her without full cause to the above disgraceful procedure ; since, if it was even an improper levity of conduct, alone, by which she has excited his jealousy, she has incurred guilt, and de– serves a just punishment. — Armieim. c i. e. Commence anew to let his hair grow. 165 [Page 166] NUMBERS VI. VII. NAHSSO. offer his meat–offering, and his drink–offer– ing. 18 And the Nazarite shall shave at the door of the tabcniacle of the congregation his consecrated head ; and he shall take the hair of his consecrated head, and put it on the fire which is under the sacrifice of the peace– offering. 19 And the priest shall take the shoulder of the ram when it is cooked, and one unlea– vened cake out of the Ijasket, and one unlea– vened wafer, and he shall put them upon the hands of the Nazarite, after he hath shaved his consecrated (head.) 20 And the priest shall make with them a waving before the Lord ; it is a holy gift for the priest, together with the breast that was wwed and the shoulder that was lifted up :" and after that may the Nazarite drink wine. 21 This is the law of the Nazarite who hath vowed ; his offering unto the Lord for his abstinence, besides that which he may be able to give : according to his vow which he may vow, so must he do in addition to what is required by the law of his abstinence. 22 ¶ And the Lord spoke unto Moses, saying, 23 Speak unto Aaron and unto his sons, saying, Thus'' shall ye bless the children of Israel, saying unto them, 24 ¶ The Lord bless thee, and preserve thee : 25 ¶f The Lord make his face shine unto thee, and be gracious to thee : 26 ¶ The Lord lift up his countenance unto thee, and give thee peace. 27 ¶ And they shall put my name" upon the children of Israel : and I will bless them.* a As usual with other pcacc–offcrings. b You shall not bless them with a blessing of your own, as a man says : IMay such a good come upon the head of that one ; but unto me shall ye pray that I may bless them ; as it is said here, " May the Loun bless thee ;" and I will hear your voice and bless Israel. — Kasiiham. The blessings, however, arc not for the bestowal of worldly goods merely ; for they also refer to the Divine grace and light, which are the greatest good unto man. c This cither means, as Rashi says, that in blessing the people the priests should pronounce the most holy name of ¶io liOHi), or that they should, as s.aid already, refer the issue of events to God alone, who would bless as might seem best in his wisdom. d After the altar had been duly consecrated by the cere– monies and sacrifices detailed in their proper places, the princes of the congregation vo10nteered yet more than the 166 CHAPTER VII. 1 ¶ And it came to pass on the day that Moses had finally set up the tabcniacle, and had anointed, and sanctified it. and all its ves– sels, as also the altar and all its vessels, and had anointed them, and sanctified them ; 2 That the princes of Israel, the heads of their family divisions, who were the princes of the tribes, the same who had superintended the numbering, offered. 3 And they brought their offering before the Lord, six covered wagons, and twelve oxen ; a wagon for two princes, and an ox for each one: and they presented them be– fore the tabernacle. 4 And the Lord spoke unto Moses, saying, 5 Take it from them, that they may be used to do the service of the tabernacle of the congregation ; and thou shalt give them unto the Levites, to every man according to his service. 6 And Moses took the wagons and the oxen, and gave them unto the Levites. 7 Two of the wagons and four of the oxen he gave unto the sons of Gershon, according to their service : 8 And four of the wagons and eight of the oxen he gave unto the sons of Merari. accord– ing to their service, under the supervision of Ithamar, the son of Aaron the priest. 9 But unto the sons of Kehath he gave none ; because the service of the sanctuary belonged inito them, they were to bear upon their shoulders. 10 The princes also offered for the dedi– cating of the altar on the day that it was anointed ; and the princes presented their offering before the altar.* large gifts bestowed by them for the erection of the taber– nacle, to testify their devotion for the religion which they had received. The first offering they brought, consisting of six covered wagons, with twelve draught oxen, Moses would not accept, till he was ordered to do so, and to ap– ply them to the use of the Levites. Now the most holy things, as the ark, the altars, the table, and the candle– stick, were intrusted to the sons of Kehath; but as all these were to be carried upon the shoulder, no beast of burden was assigned to them. Different, however, was it with those who were charged with the transportation of the heavier articles belonging to the tabernacle, to wit, the sons of Gershon, and they received therefore two wagons and four oxen, while those who carried the boards, pillars, and sockets, &c., of the tabernacle and court, the sons of Merari, obtained four wagons and eight oscn to aid them in their more laborious work. In addi– [Page 167] NUMBERS VII. NAHSSO. 11 And the Lord said unto Moses, One prince each on a given day, shall they offer their offering, for the dedication of the altar.* 12 ¶ And he that offered his offering on the first day was Nachshon the son of 'Am– minadab, of the tribe of Judah : 13 And his offering was one silver charger, the weight whereof was a hundred and thirty shekels, one silver liowl of seventy shekels, after the shekel of the sanctuary ; both of them full of fine flour mingled with oil for a meat–offering; 11 One spoon of ten shekels of gold, full of incense ; 15 One young bullock, one ram, one sheep of the first year, for a burnt–offering ; 16 One he–goat for a sin–offering; 17 And for a sacrifice of peace–offering, two oxen, five rams, five he–goats, five sheep of the first year ; this was the offering of Nach– shon the son of 'Amminadab. 18 ¶ On the second day Nethanel the son of Zuar, the prince of Issachar, did offer : 19 He offered for his offering one silver charger, the weight whereof was a hundred and thirty shekels, one silver bowl of seventy shekels, after the shekel of the sanctuary ; both of them full of fine flour mingled with oil for a meat–offering ; 20 One spoon of ten shekels of gold, full of incense ; 21 One young bullock, one ram, one sheep of the first year, for a burnt–offering ; 22 One he–goat for a sin–offering ; 23 And for a sacrifice of peace–offering, two oxen, five rams, five he–goats, five sheep of the first year; this was the offei'ing of Ne– thanel the son of Zuiir. 24 ¶ On the third day Eliab the son of Chelon, the prince of the children of Zebulun, did offer : 25 His offering was one silver charger, the weight whereof was a hundred and thirty shekels, one silver bowl of seventy shekels, after the shekel of the sanctuary; both of tion to these presents, the princes also came charged each with the same sacrifices and vessels for the use of the sanctuary– ; and so well was this liberality received by the Most High, that Moses was ordered to enjoin upon the princes that the sacrifices should not be offered all at once, but during a period of twelve days, and that they should use the order in which they moved forward in their march : them full of fine flour mingled with oil for a meat¶oftering ; 26 One s¶joon of ten shekels of gold, full of incense ; 27 One young bullock, one ram, one sheep of the first year, for a burnt–offering; 28 One he–goat for a sin–offering ; 29 And for a sacrifice of peace–offering, two oxen, five rams, five he–goats, five sheep of the first year ; this was the offering of Eliab the son of Chelon. 30 ¶ On the fourth day Elizur the son of Shedeiir, the prince of the children of Reuben, did offer : 31 His ofiering was one silver charger, the weight whereof was a hundred and thirty she– kels, one silver bowl of seventy shekels, after the shekel of the sanctuary ; both of them full of fine flour mingled with oil for a meat–offermg ; 32 One spoon of ten shekels of gold, full of incense ; 33 One young bullock, one ram, one sheep of the first year, for a burnt–offering ; 34 One he–goat for a sin–offering ; 35 And for a sacrifice of peace–offering, two oxen, five I'ams, five he–goats, five sheep of the first .year; this was the offering of Elizur the son of Shedeur. 36 ¶ On the fifth day Shelumiel the son of Zurishaddai, the prince of the children of Simeon, did ofler: 37 His offering was one silver charger, the weight whereof was a hundred and thirty shekels, one sih'er bowl of seventy shekels, after the shekel of the sanctuary; both of them full of fine flour mingled with oil for a meat–offering ; 38 One spoon of ten shekels of gold, full of incense ; 39 One young bullock, one ram, one sheep of the first year, for a burnt–offering; 40 One he–goat for a sin–offering; 41 And for a sacrifice of peace–offering, two oxen, five rams, five he–goats, five sheep of the first year; this was the ofiering of She– 10miel the son of Zurishaddai.* Judah first, then Zebulun, Issachar, &c., ending with Naphtali, not according to the order of the birth of the fa– thers of the tribes. There was no difference whatever in the gifts of the various chiefs; thus showing that all were alike acceptable, whe¶icr descended from Leah and Rachel, or from Zilpah and Bilhuh. This is also probably the reason why they are all separately recorded. 167 [Page 168] NUMBERS VII. NAHSSO. 42 ¶ On the sixth day Elyassaph the son of Deiiel," the in–ince of the children of Gad, id offer : 43 His offering was one silver charger, the weight whereof was a hundred and thirty shekels, one silver bowl of seventy shekels, after the shekel of the sanctuary; both of them full of fine flour mingled with oil for a meat–offering; 44 One spoon of ten shekels of gold, full of incense ; 45 One young bullock, one ram, one sheep of the first year, for a burnt–offering; 46 One he–goat for a sin–offering: 47 And for a sacrifice of peace–offering, two oxen, five rams, five he–goats, five sheep of the first year; this was the offering of Elyassaph the son of Deiiel. 48 ¶ On the seventh day Elishama the son of 'Ammihud, the prince of the children of Ephraim, did offer : 49 His offering was one silver charger, the weight whereof was a hundred and thirty shekels, one silver bowl of seventy shekels, after the shekel of the sanctuary; both of them full of fine flour mingled with oil for a meat–offeru16 ; 50 One spoon of ten shekels of gold, full of incense ; 51 One young bullock, one ram, one sheep of the first year, for a burnt–ofiering; 52 One he–goat for a sin–offering; 53 And for a sacrifice of peace–offering, two oxen, five rams, five he–goats, five sheep of the first year; this was the offering of Elishama the son of 'Ammihud. 54 ¶ On the eighth day Gamliel the son of Pedahzur, the prince of the children of Me– nasseh, did offer: 55 His offering was one silver charger, the weight whereof was a hundred and thirty shekels, one silver bowl of seventy shekels, after the shekel of the sanctuary; both of them full of fine flour mingled with oil for a meatroffering; 56 One spoon of ten shekels of gold, full of incense ; 57 One young bullock, one ram, one sheep of the first year, for a Inirnt–offering; 58 One he–goat for a sin–offering ; 59 And for a sacrifice of peace–offering, a This name is elsewhere (!!. 14) given as Reuel, the T resh being substituted for i daleth. two oxen, five rams, five he–goats, five sheep of the first year; this was the offering of Gamliel the son of Pedahzur. CO ¶ On the ninth day Abidan the son of Gidoni, the prince of the children of Benja– min, did offer: 61 His oflering was one silver charger, the weight whereof was a hundred and thirty shekels, one silver bowl of seventy shekels, after the shekel of the sanctuary; both of them full of fine flour mingled with oil for a meat–offering; 62 One spoon of ten shekels of gold, full of incense ; 63 One young bullock, one ram, one sheep of the first year, for a burnt–offering ; 64 One he–goat for a sin–ofiering; 65 And for a sacrifice of peace–offering, two oxen, five rams, fixe he–goats, five sheep of the first year; this was the oflering of Abidan the son of Gidoni. 66 ¶ On the tenth day Achiezer the son of 'Amniishaddai, the prince of the children of Dan, did offer : 67 His oflering was one silver charger, the weight whereof was a hundred and thirty shekels, one silver bowl of seventy shekels, after the shekel of the sanctuary; both of them full of fine flour mingled with oil for a meat–ofleriug ; 68 One spoon of ten shekels of gold, full of incense : 69 One young bullock, one ram, one sheep of the first year, for a burnt–oflering ; 70 One he–goat for a sin–oflering ; 71 And for a sacrifice of peace–oflering, two oxen, five rams, five he–goats, five sheep of the first year; this was the oflering of Achiezer the son of 'Amniishaddai.* 72 ¶ On the eleventh day Pagiel the son of 'Ochran, the prince of the children of Asher, did offer: 73 His offering was one silver charger, the weight whereof was a hundred and thirty shekels, one silver bowl of seventy shekels, after the shekel of the sanctuary; both of them full of fine flour mingled with oil lor a meat–offering ; 74 One spoon of ton shekels of gold, full of incense ; 75 One young bullock, one ram, one sheep of the first year, for a burnt–oflering ; 76 One he–goat for a sin–t)flering; 77 And for a sacrifice of peace–offering, [Page 169] NUMBERS VII. VIII. BEHANGALOTECIIA. two oxen, five rams, five he–goats, five sheep of the first year; this was the offering of Pa– giel the son of 'Ochran. 78 ¶ On the twelfth day Achira the son of 'Enan, the prince of the children of Naph– tali, did offer : 79 His oflering was one silver charger, the weight whereof was a hundred and thirty shekels,– one silver Ijowl of seventy shekels, after the shekel of the sanctuary; both of them full of fine flour mingled with oil for a meat–offering; 80 One spoon of ten shekels of gold, fuU of incense ; 81 One young bullock, one ram, one sheep of the first year, for a burnt–offering ; 82 One he–goat for a sin–ofiering; 83 And for a sacrifice of peace–offering, two oxeu, five rams, five he–goats, five sheep of the first year; this was the offering of Achira the sou of 'Euan. 84 ¶ This was the dedication–offering of the altar, on the day when it was anointed, from the princes of Israel: twelve silver chargers, twelve silver bowls, twelve golden spoons ; 85 A hundred and thirty shekels was the weight of each silver charger, and seventy of each bowl ; the silver of all the vessels was two thousand and four hundred shekels, after the shekel of the sanctuary; 86 Twelve golden spoons, full of incense ;* ten shekels was the weight of each spoon, after the shekel of the sanctuary ; all the gold of the spoons was a hundred and twenty shekels.* 87 All the oxen for the burn t–ofliering were a Rashi, after Talmud Mcnachoth, remarks: "We find no mention of incense for an individual, nor such an offer– ing upon the outer altar, (i'. c. that of burnt–offering,) ex– cept in this instance, (('. e. at the consecration of the tabernacle,) and it was merely permitted as n;'!? nxiin a temporary rule only for the time." In farther explana– tion of this view, it may be added, that incense was a na– tional offering, ordered to be burnt upon the golden altar, before the vail, morning and evening, and to be carried within the vail on the d–iy of atonement. A special dis– pensation must therefore have been granted to do as the princes did at the consecration, though probably the mix– ture was not identical with that prepared for the sanctuary under the superintendence of Moses. This, however, in no wise abolishes the force of the general prohibition, nor can it legalize our deviating therefrom, unless by an equally authoritative dispensation ; and thus a strange incense could on no account be offered on either altar, after the W twelve bullocks, the rams were twelve, the sheep of the first year twelve, with their meat–offering ; and the he–goats for sin–offering were twelve. 88 And all the oxen for the sacrifice of the peace–offerings were twenty and four bullocks, the rams were sixty, the he–goats sixty, the sheep of the first year sixty; this was the dedication–offering of the altar, after it had been anointed. 89 And when Moses went into the taber– nacle of the congregation to speak with Him, then heard he the voice speaking unto him from off' the mercy–seat that was upon the ark of testimony, from between the two che– rubim : and thus he spoke unto him. Haphtorah in Judges xiii. 2 to 25. SECTION XXXVI. BEHANGALO– TECHA, inSrnn. CHAPTER Vm. 1 ¶ And the Lord spoke unto Moses, say– ing, 2 Speak unto Aaron, and say unto him, When thou lightest the lamps,'' then shall the seven lamps give light toward the body of the candlestick. 3 And Aaron did so; toward the body of the candlestick did he light its lamps; as the Lord had commanded Moses. 4 And this was the workmanship of the candlestick: It was of beaten gold, from the shaft thereof, unto the flowers thereof, it was beaten work; according unto the pattern event under consideration. There are other instances in Scripture, of a temporary suspension of certain precepts, such as the officiating of Moses before Aaron's assumption of the priestly office; the sacrifice of Elijah on Carmel, against the positive order of the law not to offer any thing at any other place swe the chosen sanctuary. But it will always be seen that there were weighty reasons for the suspensions, — that they were sanctioned or ordained by the Holy Spirit; and that conse(Uently we are from such premises not authorized to suspend any precept by our own authority, except there be an abso10te necessity which compels us to disobey. b The middle light, which was not on the branches, but on the body of the candlestick ; the wicks of the six lamps, upon the six branches, of the three eastern, as well as of the three western, were turned toward the middle lamp. — K.\sHi. In this manner the whole seven lights were all turned to one point. 169 [Page 170] NUMBERS VIII. BEIIANGALOTECHA. which the Lord had shown Moses, so made he the candlestick. 5 ¶ And theXoRD spoke unto Moses, saying, 6 Take the Levites from the midst of the children of Israel, and cleanse them. 7 And thus shalt thou do unto them, to cleanse them: Sprinkle upon them water of puriiication, after they have let the razor pass over all their flesh, and then let them wash their clothes, and so shall they be clean. 8 And they shall take a young bullock with his meat–oflering, fine flour mingled with oil; and another young bullock shalt thou take for a sin–offering. 9 And thou shalt brmg near the Levites before the tabernacle of the congregation: and thou shalt assemble together the whole congregation of the children of Israel. 10 And when thou hast brought near the Levites before the Lord, then shall the chil– dren of Israel lay their hands upon the Le– vites : 11 And Aaron shall make with the Le– vites a waving before the Lord from the chil– dren of Israel, that they may be ready to execute the service of the Lord. 12 And the Levites shall lay their hands upon the heads of the bullocks: and thou shalt prepare the one as a sin–offering, and the other as a burnt–offering, unto the Lord, to make an atonement for the Levites. 13 And thou shalt place the Levites before Aaron and before his sons, and make with them a waving before the Lord. 14 Thus shalt thou separate the Levitts from the midst of the children of Israel; and the Levites shall be mine.* 15 And after that shall the Levites go in to do the service of the tabernacle of the con– gregation: after thou shalt have cleansed them, and made with them a waving. 10 For they are wholly given" unto me from the midst of the children of Israel; in– stead of every one that openeth the womb, of every first–bom of the children of Israel, have I taken them unto me. a Rashi comments on D'jn: D'jn: " they are given for carrying, given for singing." (See, however, for a differ– ent version, according to our authorities, above, iii. 9.) b i. e. At this period they should commence to learn the service, which they entered on at thirty years. Rash– bam reconciles the difficulty of iv. 3, kc, where thirty years arc named, that that limit applied only to the ear– 170 17 For mine are all the first–born of the children of Israel, both of man and beast : on the day that I smote every first–born in the land of Egypt did I sanctify them unto my– self 18 And I have taken the Levites, instead of all the first–born among the children of Is– rael. 19 And I have given the Levites as a gift to Aaron and to his sons from the midst of the children of Israel, to do the ser¶¶ce of the children of Israel in the tabernacle of the congregation, and to make an atonement for the children of Israel; that there be no plague among the children of Israel, when the children of Israel come nigh unto the sanctuary. 20 And so did Moses, and Aaron, and all the congregation of the children of Israel, to the Levites; according unto all that the Lord had commanded Moses concerning the Le– vites, so did the children of Israel unto them. 21 And the Levites purified themselves, and they washed their clothes; and Aaron made with them a waving before the Lord: and Aaron made an atonement for them to cleanse them. 22 And after that went the Levites in to do their service in the tabernacle of the con– gregation before Aaron, and before his sons; as the Lord had commanded Moses concern– ing the Levites, so did they unto them. 23 ¶ And the Lord spoke unto Moses, saying, 24 This shall be the rule for the Legates : From twenty and five'' j–ears old and upward shall he go into the ranks to do the service of the tabernacle of the congregation ; 25 And from the age of fifty years shall he go out of the ranks of the service; and he shall serve no more : 26 But he shall wait on his brethren in the tabernacle of the congregation, to keep the charge, but the service shall he not per– form; thus shalt thou do unto the Levites in the discharge of their office.* rying of the holy vessels and parts of the tabernacle, which also terminated with the fiftieth year; but that all other Levitical functions commenced at twenty–five and continued while the faculties lasted. Oukclos and Ihishi also render verse 26, "But he shall serve with his brethren," thus also confining the exc10ded service to the carrying of the sanctuary. [Page 171] NUMBERS IX. BEHANGALOTECHA. CHAPTER IX. 1 ¶ And the Lord spoke unto Moses in the –nalderness of Sinai, in the second year after their coming out of the land of Egypt, in the first month, saying, 2 That the children of Israel shall prepare the passover–lamb at its appointed season. 3 On the fourteenth day of this month, to– ward evening, shall ye prepare it at its ap– pointed season : according to all its ordi– nances, and according to all its prescribed rules, shall ye prepare it. 4 And Moses spoke unto the children of Israel, that they should prepare the passover– lamb. 5 And they prepared the passover–lamb on the fourteenth day of the first month toward evening in the wilderness of Sinai : according to all that the Lord had commanded Moses, so did the children of Israel. 6 But there were certain men, who had been defiled by the dead body of a man, and they could not prepare the passover–lamb on that day: and they came before Moses and before Aaron on that day. 7 And these men said unto him, "We are defiled by the dead body of a man : where– fore shall we be kept back, so as not to offer the sacrifice of the Lord at its appointed sea– son in the midst of the (other) children of Israel ? 8 And Moses said unto them. Wait ye, and I will– hear what the Lord will command con– cerning you. 9 ¶ And the Lord spoke unto Moses, say– ing, 10 Speak unto the children of Israel, say– ing, If any man whatever should be unclean by reason of a dead body, or be on a distant journey," among you or your posterity: yet shall he prepare the passover–lamb unto the Lord; 11 In the second month on the fourteenth day toward evening shall they prepare it, with unleavened bread and bitter herbs shall they eat it. 12 They shall leave none of it until morn– ing, and no bone shall they break on it : ac– a This is explained to mean any distance which pre– vents one from being within the precincts of the temple at the time of the slaying of the passover–lamb. cording to the whole ordinance of the pass– over–laml) shall they prepare it. 13 But the man that is clean, and is not on a journey, and forbeareth to prepare the passover–lamb, even that same soul shall be cut off from his people ; because the offering of the Lord hath he not brought at its appointed season, his sin shall that man bear. 14 And if a stranger sojourn among you, and will prepare the jjassover–lamb unto the Lord : according to the ordinance of the pass– over–lamb, and according to its prescribed rule, so shall he prepare it ; one statute shall be for you, both for the stranger, and for the native born in the land.''– 15 ¶And on the day that the tabernacle was reared up the cloud covered the tabernacle of the tent of the testimony : and in the even– ing there was upon the tabernacle as it were the appearance of fire, until morning. 16 So it used to be always : the cloud co– vered it (l)y day,) and the appearance of fire by night. 17 And as the cloud was taken up from the tabernacle, then after that did the chil– dren of Israel journey forward : and in the place where the cloud halted, there did the children of Israel encamp. 18 At the order of the Lord did the chil– dren of Israel journey forward, and at the order of the Lord they encamped : all the days that the cloud abode upon the taberna– cle did they remain in camp. 19 And when the cloud tarried upon the tabernacle many days, then did the children of Israel keep the charge of the Lord, and journeyed not. 20 And at times it was, that the cloud re– mained but a few days u])on the tabernacle ; at the order of the Lord they abode in camp, and at the order of the Lord they journeyed forward. 21 And at times it was, that the cloud remained from evening until morning; and when the cloud was taken up in the morning, they journeyed forward; or a day and a night, and when the cloud was taken up, they jour– neyed forward ; 22 Or two days, or a month, or a year; so long as the cloud tarried upon the tabernacle, to remain thereon, did the children of Israel remain encamped, and journeyed not forward ; [Page 172] NUMBERS IX. X. BEHANGALOTECHA. but when it was taken up, they journeyed forward. 23 At the order of the Lord they remained in camp, and at the order of the Lord they journeyed forward : the charge of the Lord they kept, at the order of the Lord by the hand of Moses. CHAPTER X. 1 ¶ And the Lord spoke unto Moses, say– 2 Make unto thyself two trumpets of silver, beaten out of one piece shalt thou make them; and they shall serve thee for the calling of the congregation, and for the setting forward of the camps. 3 And when they shall blow wiih both, all the congregation shall assemble themselves unto thee at the door of the tabernacle of the congregation. 4 And if they blow*with but one, then shall assemble themselves unto thee the princes, the heads of the thousands of Israel. 5 And when ye blow an alarm, then shall set forward the camps that encamp on the east side. 6 And when ye blow an alarm the second time, then shall set forward the camps that encamp on the south side : an alann shall they blow for their setting fonvard. 7 But at the assembling of the assembly, ye shall blow, but ye shall not sound an alarm. 8 And the sons of Aaron, the priests, shall blow with the trumpets ; and they shall be to you for an ordinance for ever throughout your generations. 9 And if ye go to war in your land against the oppressor that oppresseth you, then shall ye blow an alarm with the trumpets ; and ye shall be remembered'' before the Lord your God, and ye shall be swed from your enemies. 10 And on the day of your gladness, and on your appointed festivals, and on the begin– nings of your months, shall ye blow with the trumpets over your burnt–offerings, and over the sacrifices of your peace–offerings ; and they shall be to you for a memorial before your God ; I am the Lord your God. a The "simple blowing" n;'"pn and the '–alann" n;'nn are the sounds now blown on the coraet in the New–Year's festival. 172 11 ¶ And it came to pass in the second year, in the second month, on the twentieth day of the month, that the cloud was taken up from off the taljeniacle of the testimony. 12 And the children of Israel set forward on their journeys from the wilderness of Si– nai, and the cloud halted in the wilderness of Paran. 13 And they set forward for the first time at the order of the Lord by the hand of Moses. 14 And the standard of the camp of the children of Judah set foi–ward at the first, ac– cording to their armies: and over their host was Nachshon the son of 'Amminadab. 15 And over the host of the tribe of the children of Issachar was Nethanel the son of Zuar. 16 And over the host of the tribe of the children of Zebulun was Eliab the son of Chelon. 17 And (in the mean time) the tabernacle was taken down; and then set fonvard the sons of Gershon and the sons of Merari, the bearers of the tabernacle. 18 Then set fonvard the standard of the camp of Reuben, according to their armies: and over their host was Elizur the son of Shedeiir. 19 And over the host of the tribe of the children of Simeon was She10miel the son of Zurishaddai. 20 And over the host of the tribe of the children of Gad was Elyassaph the son of Deiiel. 21 And then set fonvard the Kehathites, the bearers of the sanctuary:'¶ and the others set up the tabernacle against they came. 22 Then set forward the standard of the camp of the children of Ephraim according to their annies: and over their host was Eli– shama the son of 'Ammihud. 23 And over the host of the tribe of the children of Menasseh was Gamliel the son of Pedahzur. 24 And over the host of the tribe of the children of Benjamin was Abidan the son of Gidoni. b Obedience to God alone proves that those who claim his protection are worthy of his favour. c i. e. The holy vessels. (See iv. 4.) [Page 173] NUMBERS X. XI. BEHANGALOTECHA. 25 Then set forward the standard of the camp of the children of Dan, the rereward of all the camps, according to their hosts: and over their host was Achiezer the son of 'Am– mishaddai. 26 And over the host of the tribe of the children of Asher was Pagiel the son of "Ochran. 27 And over the host of the tribe of the children of Naphtali was Achira the son of 'Enan. 28 In this order were the joumeyings of the children of Israel according to their ar– mies, when they set forward. 29 ¶ And Moses said unto Chobab, the son of Reuel the Midianite, the father–in–law of Moses, We are journeying unto the place of which the Lord hath said. This will I give unto you : come thou with us, and we will do thee good; for the Lord hath spoken (to bring) good upon Israel. SO And he said unto him, I will not go ; birt to my own land, and to my birthplace will I go. 31 And he said, Do not, I pray thee, leave us ; since thou cUdst find out the places where we were to encamp in the wilderness, and thou hast" been to us instead of eyes. 32 And it shall be, if thou go with us, yea, it shall be, that the same goodness which the Lord may do unto us, will we do unto thee. 33 And they set forward from the mount of the Lord a three da¶'s' journey: and the ark of the covenant*of the Lord went before them in*" the three da¶s' journey, to search out for them a resting–place. 34; And the cloud of the Lord was over them by day, when they set forward from the camp.'–' 35 ¶ And it came to pass, when the ark set forward, that Moses said, Rise up, Lord, and let thy enemies be scattered; and let those that hate thee flee Ix'fore thy face. 30 And when it rested, he said, Return, Lord, among the myriads of the thousands of Israel. CHAPTER XI. 1 ¶ And it came to pass that as the people a After Amheim ; others render, "and thou wilt be," kc. b Others translate, "a distance of a three days' journey." c "The place of burning," bah'er, from –tlyi "to burn." complained in a manner displea.'iing in the ears of the Lord: the Lord heard it, and his anger was kindled, and the fire of the Lord burnt among them, and consumed at the ut– tennost part of the camp. 2 And the people then cried unto Moses; and Moses prayed unto the Lord, and the fire disappeared. 3 And he called the name of the place Ta– berah;" because the fire of the Lord bunit among them. 4 And the mixed multitude that was among them felt a 10stful longing: and the children of Israel also wept again, and said, Who –n–ill give us flesh to eat? 5 We remember the fish, which we could eat in Egypt for naught ; the cucumbers, and the melons, and the leeks, and the onions, and the garlic; 6 But now our soul is faint: there is no– thing at all, only to the manna are our eyes (directed). 7"¶ But the manna was like coriandei–seed, and its colour as the colour of the bdellium. 8 The people went about, and gathered it, and ground it in a mill, or jwunded it in a mortar, and boiled it in a pot, or made cakes of it : and its taste was as the taste of cakes mixed with oil." 9 And when the dew fell upon the camp in the night, the manna fell upon it. 10 And Moses heard the people weep ac– cording to their families, every man at the door of his tent: and the anger of the Lord was kindled greatly ; and in the eyes of Moses also was it displeasing. 11 And Moses said unto the Lord, Where– fore hast thou done evil to thy servant? and wherefore have I not found fovour in thy eyes, that thou layest the burden of all this people upon me? 12 Was it I who have conceived all this people ? or was it I who have Ix¶gottcn them ? that thou shouldest say unto me, Carry them in thy bosom, as a nursing father beareth the sucking child, unto the land which thou hast sworn unto their fathers? 13 Whence shall I obtain flesh to give mi to all this people? for they weep around Verses 7, 8, and 9 must be taken as a parenthesis of oil." explaining the excellence of the manna which the people despised. The narrative recommences at verse 10. After Onkelos. Amheim gives, " the marrow (best) [Page 174] NUMBERS XL BEHANGALOTECHA. me, saying, Give us flesh, that we may eat. 14 I am not able by myself alone to bear all this people, because it is too heavy for me. 15 And if thou wilt thus deal with me, then slay me, I pray thee, at once, if I have found favour in thy eyes; that I may not see my wretchedness. 16 ¶ And the Lord said unto Moses, Gather unto me seventy men of the elders of Israel, whom thou knowest to be the elders of the people, and its officers ; and take them unto the tabernacle of the congregation, and they shall stand there with thee. 17 And I will come down and speak with thee there : and I will take some of the spirit which is upon thee, and I will put it upon them ;" and they shall bear with thee the bur– den of the people, and thou shalt not bear it by thyself alone. 18 And unto the people shalt thou say. Hold yourselves ready against to–morrow, that ye may eat flesh ; for ye have wept in the ears of the Lord, saying, Who shall give us flesh to eat? for it was better with us in Egypt : thus will the Lord give you flesh, and ye shall eat. 19 Not one day shall ye eat, nor two days, nor five days, nor ten days, nor twenty days ; 20 But up to a full month, until it come out at your nostrils, and it become loathsome unto you ; because that ye have despised the Lord who is in the midst of you, and ye have wept before him, saying. Why did we come forth out of Egypt ? 21 And Moses said, Six hundred thousand men on foot is the people, in the midst of whom I am ; and yet thou hast said. Flesh will I give them, that they may eat a whole month. 22 Shall flocks and herds be slain for them, that they may suffice for them ? or shallall the fish of the sea be gathered together for them, that they may suflice for them? 23 ¶ And the Lord said unto Moses, Should the Lord's hand ])e too short? now shalt thou see whether my word shall come to pass unto thee or not. 24 And Moses went out, and spoke to the people the words of the Lord ; and he assem– a Unto what wasMoses like at that hour ? to a lamp standing upon ii candlestick, by which all light their lamps, while its light is in nowise diminished. — Kasiu. 174 bled seventy men from the elders of the people, and placed them round about the tabernacle. 25 And the Lord came down in a cloud, and spoke unto him ; and he took some of the spirit that was upon him, and put it upon the seventy men, the elders : and it came to pass, that, when the spirit rested upon them, they prophesied, but they did not so any more. 26 And there remained two men in the camp, the name of the one was Eldad, and the name of the other Medad ; and the spirit rested upon them; and they were of those that were written down,*" but they had not gone out unto the tabernacle : and they pro– phesied in the camp. 27 And there ran a young man, and told to Moses, and said, Eldad and Medad are prophesying in the camp. 28 And Joshua the son of Nun, the servant of Moses from his youth, answered and said, My lord Moses, forbid them. 29 And Moses said unto him, Art thou zeal– ous for my sake? And oh that one mi¶it render all the people of the Lord prophets, that the Lord would put his spirit upon them !* 30 And Moses retired back into the camp, he with the elders of Israel. 31 And a wind went forth from the Lord, and drove up quails from the sea, and scat– tered them over the camp, alx)ut a day's jour– ney on this side, and about a day's journey on the other side, round about the camp, and about two cubits high over the face of all the earth. 32 And the people arose all that day, and all that night, and all the following day, and they gathered the quails ; he that had taken the least, had gathered ten chomers: and they spread them out for themselves roiuid about the camp. 33 The flesh was yet between their teeth, it wasnot yet chewed : when the wrath of the Lord was kindled against the i)eoi3le, and the Lord smote among the people a very great plague. 34 And he called the name of that place Kibroth–hattaiivah f because there they bu– ried the people that had 10stfully crwed. b It is probable that seventy–two, sis from each tribe, were first written down, wherefore two were left over. " i. e. " The graves of the desire." [Page 175] NUMBERS XI. XII. XIII. SHELACH LECHA. 35 From Kibroth–hattaiivah the people journeyed unto Chazeroth ; and they remain– ed at Chazeroth. CHAPTER XII. 1 ¶ And Miriam and Aaron spoke against Moses, on account of the Ethiopian woman whom he had married ; for an Ethiopian wo– maii had he married. 2 And they said, Hath then only with" Moses the Lord spoken? hath he not also with us spoken ? And the Lord heard it. 3 (But the man Moses was very meek, more so than any man who was upon the face of the earth.) 4 ¶ And the Lord said suddenly unto Moses, and unto Aaron, and unto Miriam, Go out ye three unto the tabernacle of the congregation ; and these three went out. 5 Ajad the Lord came down in a pillar of cloud, and stood at the door of the taberna– cle ; and he called Aaron and Miriam, and both of them went out. 6 And he said. Hear now my words : If there be a prophet of your kind, I, the Lord, do make myself known unto him in a vision,*" in a dream do I speak with him. 7 Not so is my servant Moses, in all my house is he faithful. 8 Mouth to mouth do I speak –with him, even evidently, and not in dark speeches ; and the similitude of the Lord doth he behold : wherefore then were ye not afraid to speak against my servant, against Moses ? 9 And the anger of the Lord was kindled against them, and he went away. 10 And the cloud departed from off the tabernacle ; and, behold, Miriam became le– prous, (white) as snow; and Aaron turned toward Miriam, and, behold, she was le– prous. 11 Then said Aaron unto Moses, Alas, my lord, do not, I beseech thee, account to us as sin that whei–ein we have done foolishly, and wherein we have smued. a After Onkclos. Others give " through." b Marah, the feminine, denotes the indistinct, dream– like perception, followed as it is by "dream;" march, however, the masculine, expresses the clear perception of Divine things. Arnheim translates, moreover, v. 8, in this manner: "To him I speak from mouth to mouth, and visibly, not in riddles, that he should see only an image of the Eternal," conceiving the word nS "not" to be understood before U'a' ; but the construction is too 12 Let her not be as a dead–bom child, of which half the flesh is consumed, when it Cometh out of its mother's womb. 13 And Moses cried unto the Lord, saying, God! do thou heal her, I beseech thee.* 14 ¶And the Lord said unto Moses, If her father had spit in her face,– would she not be ashamed se¶'en days? let her be shut up seven days outside of the camp, and after that let her be brought in again. 15 And Miriam was shut up outside of the camp seven days; and the people did not set forward till Miriam was brought in again. 10 And afterward the people removed from Chazeroth, and encamped in the –s¶dldemess of Paran. Haphtorah in Zcchariali ii. 14 to iv. 7. SECTION XXXVII. SHELACH LECHA, rhu. 1"' CHAPTER XIII. 1 "¶ And the Lord spoke unto Moses, say– 2 Send thou out some men that they may spy out the land of Canaan, which I give mito the children of Lsrael ; one man each of every tribe of their fathers shall ye send, every one who is a prince among them. 3 And Moses sent them out from the wil– derness of Paran by the order of the Lord : they all were men, (who) were heads of the children of Israel. 4 And these are their names : of the tribe of Reuben, Shammua the son of Zaccur. 5 Of the tribe of Simeon, Shaphat the son of Chori. 6 Of the tribe of Judah, Caleb the son of Yephunneh. 7 Of the tribe of Issachar, Yigal the son of Joseph. 8 Of the tribe of Ephraim, Hoshea, the son of Nun. forced, njinn given in our text, as in Genesis i. 20, with "similitude" or "likeness," refers to the higher conception which Moses had of God's power, and of his government of the world ; and is to be considered merely a continuation of the preceding "and not in dark speeches," which is, the indistinct perception which all prophets had of what they themselves foresaw and foretold, when compared with Moses. (See Daniel xii. 8.) 175 [Page 176] NUMBERS XIII. XIV. SHELACH LECHA. 9 Of the tribe of Benjamin, Palti the son of Raphu. 10 Of the tribe of Zebulun, Gaddiel the son of Sodi. 11 Of the tribe of Joseph, of the tribe of Menasseh, Gaddi the son of Sussi. 12 Of the tribe of Dan, 'Ammiel the son of Geraalli. 13 Of the tribe of Asher, Sethur the son of MichaeL 14 Of the tribe of Naphtali, Nachbi the son of Vophsi. 15 Of the tribe of Gad, Geiiel the son of Machi. 16 These are the names of the men whom Moses sent to spy out the land; and Moses called Hoshea the son of Nun, Jehoshua." 17 And Moses sent them to spy out the land of Canaan, and he said 10ito them, Go you up this way at the south side, and go up into the mountain ; 18 And see the land, what it is; and the people that dwell therein, whether they be strong or weak, whether they be few or many; 19 And what the land is on which they dwell, whether it be good or bad; and what the cities*are in which they dwell, whether in open places, or in strongholds ; 20 And what the land is, whether it be fat or lean, whether there be trees therein, or not; and take ye courage, and take away some of the fruit of the land. Now the time was the season of the first ripening of grapes.––' 21 And they went up, and spied out the land from the wilderness of Zin unto Rechol), on the road to Chamath. 22 And they ascended on the south side, and came unto Hebron ; and there were Achi– mau, Sheshai, and Talmai, the children of 'Anak; (now Hebron had been built seven years before Zoiin in Egypt.) 23 And they came unto the valley of Esh– col, and they cut down from there a branch with one c10ster of grapes, and they bore it upon a barrow between two; and (thoy took some) of the pomegranates and of the figs. a Signifying, "May the Lord aid (thee.)" Some sup– pose that this name was given to Iloslica at the time he entered the service of Moses; others, however, that it was bestowed at the present occasion, and is to be viewed as a prayer: "May the Lord swe thee from the counsel of the spies." 176 24 That place was called the valley of Eshcol,'' on account of the c10ster which the children of Israel cut down from there. 25 And they returned from sp)ing out the land at the end of forty days. 26 And they went and came to Moses, and to Aaron, and to all the congregation of the children of Israel, unto the wilderness of Pa– ran, to Kadesh ; and they brought back word unto them, and unto all the congregation, and showed them the fruit of the land. 27 And they told him, and said. We came unto the land whither thou didst send us, and truly doth it tiow with milk and honey;" and this is its fruit. 28 Nevertheless the people are strong that dwell in the land, and the cities are very strongly walled, and great; and the children of 'Anak also have we seen there. 29 The Amalekites dwell in the southern country; and the Hittites, and the Jebusites, and the Emorites, dwell in the mountains; and the Canaanites dwell by the sea, and by the margin of the Jordan. 30 And Caleb stilled the people toward Moses, and he said. We can easily go up, and take possession of it; for we are well able to overcome it. 31 But the men who had gone up with him said. We are not able to go up against the people; for they are stronger than we. 32 And they brought up an evil report of the land which they had spied out unto the children of Israel, saying, The land through which we have passed to spy it out, is a land that consumeth its inhabitants; and all the people that we saw in it are men of a great stature. 33 And there we saw the giants, the sons of Anak, of the giants' (family :) and we were in our own eyes as grasshoppers, and so were we in their eyes. CHAPTER XIV. 1 And all the congregation lifted up their voice, and cried aloud; and the people wept that night. b Eshcol signifies "c10ster." c To obtain credibility for their evil report, they spoke first in praise of the products of the land; and then they expatiated on the strength of the people, while they werred that the uuhealthincss of the climate caused the death of the Driants even. [Page 177] NUMBERS XIV. SHELACH LECHA. 2 And all the people murmured against Moses and against Aaron; and the whole congregation said unto them, Oli who would grant that we had died in the land of Egypt! or that we might but die in this wilderness ! ;> And wherefore doth the Lord bring us unto yonder land, to fall by the sword? that our wives and our children may become a prey? is it not better for us to return to Egypt? 4 And they said one to another, Let us ap– jioiut a chief, and let us return to Egypt. 5 Then fell Moses and Aaron on their faces before all the assembly of the congregation of the children of Israel. And Joshua, the son of Nun, and Caleb the son of Yephunneh, of those that had spied out the land, rent their garments. 7 And they said unto all the congregation of the children of Israel, as followeth, The land, through which we have passed to spy it out, this land is exceedingly good.* 8 If the Lord have delight in us, then will he 10ring us into this land, and give it to us; a land which is flowing with milk and honey. 9 Only against the Lord do ye not rebel;" and then ye need not fear the people of the land; for they are our bread: their shadow"* is departed from them, while the Lord is with us ; fear them not. 10 But all the congregation said to stone them with stones; when the glory of the Lord appeared in the tabernacle of the con– gregation unto all the children of Israel. 11 ¶ And the Lord said unto Moses, How long yet shall this people provoke" me? and how long j–et will they not believe in me, with all the signs which I have shown in the midst of them ? 12 I will smite them with the pestilence, and root them out, and I will make of thee a nation greater and mightier than they. 13 And Moses said unto the Lord, But when the Egyptians hear, from the midst of a That is to say, It is rebellion only which can make the Canaanites formidable enemies to the sons of Israel ; since, if obedient to God, the conquest will be an easy thing, the people being as readily overcome as bread can be used for food. b "Shadow" means, in Hebrew, "protection," "secu– rity." Rishi therefore explains, "the shadow of God is departed from them ;" upon which then the next clause follows correctly, "while the Ijord is with us." X whom thou hast brought up in thy might this people; — 14 And when they tell to the inhabitants of this land, who"*have heard that thou. Lord, art in the midst of this people, that face" to face thou. Lord, art seen, and that thy cloud standeth over them, and that in a pillar of cloud ¶iou goest before them by day, and in a j)illar of fire by night; — 15 That thou hast killed this i>eople asone man: then will the nations that have heard thy fame, say in this manner, 16 That because the Lord was not able to bring this people into the land which he bad sworn unto them, hath he slain them in the wilderness. 17 And now, I beseech thee, let the greats ness of the power of the Lord be made mani– fest, as thou hast spoken, saying, 18 The Eternal is long–suffering, and.abun– dant in beneficence, forgiving iniquity and transgression; but who will by no means clear the guilty, visiting the inicpiity of the fathers upon the children, upon the third and upon the fourth generation. 19 Pardon, I beseech thee, the iniquity of this people, according to the greatness of thy beneficence, and as thou hast been indul– gent to this people, from Egypt even until hitherto. 20 And the Lord said, I have pardoned ac– cording to thy word 21 But as truly as I live, and asall the earth is filled with the glory of the Lord: — 22 That all the men who have seen my glory, and my signs, which I have displaced in Egypt and in the wilderness, and have tempted me these ten times, and have not hearkened to my voice, 23 Shall surely not see the land which I have sworn unto their fathers, yea all those that have provoked me shall not see it. 24 But my servant Caleb, as a reward that he had another .'jpirit with him, and followed me fully, therefore will I bring him into the c Reject me. — Arnheim. d The word "who" is supplied, according to Onkelos. The connection of the verses I:i–16 is given after Arnheim, and is to be taken in this manner: "When the Egyptians hear, and when the inhabitants of this land (Canaan) are told, that God hath killed the people: then will all of them say, that it wasinability in God to accomplish his promise." e Heb. "Eye in eye," i. e. seeing and seen. 177 [Page 178] NUMBERS XIV. XV. SHELACH LECHA. land whereinto he went; and his seed shall possess it. 25 And the Amalekites and the Canaanites dwell in the valley; to–morrow turn you, and set forward into the wilderness by the way to the Red Sea.* 26 ¶ And the Lord spoke unto Moses and unto Aaron, saying, 27 How long (shall indulgence be given) to this evil congregation, that murmur against me ? the murmurings of the children of Israel, which they murmur against me, have I heard. 28 Say unto them. As truly as I live, saith the Lord, as ye have spoken in my ears, so will I do to you : 29 In this wilderness shall your carcasses fall, and all that were numbered of you, ac– cording to your whole number, from twenty years old and upward; ye who have munnured against me; 30 Truly ye shall not come into the land, concerning which I have lifted up my hand to let you dwell therein; swe Caleb the son of Yepliunnoh, and Joshua the sou of Nun. 31 But your little ones of which ye said, They would become a prey, them will I bring in, and they shall know the land which ye have despised. 32 But as for you, your carcasses shall fall in this wilderness. 33 And your children shall wander about in the wilderness forty years, and bear your backslidings, until your carcasses be spent in the wilderness. 34 After the number of the days in which ye spied out the land, forty days, yea, each "one day for a year, shall ye bear for your ini– quities, forty jcars ; and ye shall experience my withdrawal" (of protection.) 35 I the Lord have spoken it, surely, this will I do unto all this evil congregation that have asseml)lcd against me : in this wilderness shall they be spent, and therein shall they die. 36 And the men whom Moses had sent to spy out the land, and who returned, and caused all the congregation to murmur against him, by bringing up an evil report against the land, a Rashi renders, " And ye shall know that you have withdrawn your heart from me." Onkelos gives more freely, " that ye have murmured against nio." But in the present text, the idea of Mendelssohn, that the word " with– 178 37 Even these men that had brought up the evil report of the land, died*" by the plague before the Lord. 38 But Joshua the son of Nun, and Caleb the son of Yephunneh, remained alive of those men, who had gone to spy out the land. 39 And Moses spoke these words unto all the children of Israel; and the people mourned greatly. 40 And they rose up early in the morning, and went up to the top of the mountain, say– ing, Lo, here we are, and we will go up unto the place of which the Lord hath spoken ; for we have sinned. 41 And Moses said. Wherefore now do ye transgress the order of the Lord ? and it wiU not prosper. 42 Do not go up, for the Lord is not among you ; that ye may not be smitten before your enemies. 43 For the Amalekites and the Canaanites are there before you, and ye will fall by the sword; since, because ye are turned away from the Lord, the Lord also will not be with you. 44 Yet they persisted to go up unto the top of the mountain ; but the ark of the cove– nant of the Lord, and Moses, did not move out of the camp. 45 Then came down the Amalekites, and the Canaanites that dwelt on that mountain, and smote them, and discomfited them, even unto Chormah. CHAPTER XV. 1 ¶ And the Lord spoke unto Moses, say– ing, 2 Speak unto the children of Israel, and say unto them. When ye shall have come into the land of xouv habitations, which I give unto you, 3 And ye will prepare a fire–oflfering unto the Lord, a burnt–offering, or a sacrifice in performing a pronounced vow, or as a free– will–oflering, or on your solemn feasts, to pre– pare a sweet savour unto the Lord, of the herds or of the Hocks : 4 Then shall he that bru16eth his offering unto the Lord, bi–iug as a meat–offering a drawal" refers to an act of God, has been adopted; and it means then, that the people should experience the differ– ence between the Divine protection and wrath. b i. v. A sudden, unnatural death. [Page 179] NUMBERS XV. SHELACH LECHA. tenth' part of fine flour mingled with the fourth of a hin of oil. 5 And Avine for a drink–ofiering, the fourth of a hin, shalt thou prepare with the burnt– offering or sacrifice, for each one sheep. 6 But for a ram, shalt thou prepare as a meat'Offering two tenth parts of fine flour mingled with the third of a hin of oil. 7 And wine for the di'ink–oflt'ring, the third of a liin, shalt thou bring, for a sweet savour unto the Lord.''' 8 And when thou preparest a bullock for a burnt–offering, or for a sacrifice, in performing a pronounced vow, or as a peace–oflering unto the Lord: 9 Then shall he bring with the bullock as a meat–ofiering, three tenth parts of fine flour mingled with half a hin of oil. 10 And wine shalt thou bring for a drink– offering, half a hin, as a fire–oflering of a sweet savour unto the Lord. , 11 Thus shall it be done for each one bul– lock, or for each one ram, or for a lamb, be it of the sheep or of the goats. 12 Accoi'ding to the number that ye may prepare, so shall ye do to every one according to their number. 13 All that are born'' in the country shall do these things after this manner, in offering a fire–offering of a sweet savour unto the Lord. 14 And if a stranger sojourn with you, or whosoever may be among you in your gene– rations, and will make an offering made by fire, of a sweet . savour unto the Lord : as ye do, so shall he do. 15 Congregation ! one statute shall be for you, and for the stranger that sojourneth; a statute for ever in your generations; as ye are, so shall the stranger be before the Lord. 16 One law and one code shall be for you, and for the stranger that sojourneth with you.* 17 ¶And the Lord spoke 10ito Moses, say– iug, a Whenever this term is used, it means "a tenth of an cphah." b In offering a sacrifice, nothing must be omitted which the law requires, in order to make it acceptable on high. c This word is merely to be taken as an address to the entire people, whether native or adopted strangers. 18 Speak unto the children of Israel, and say unto them, When ye come into the land whither I Ijring you, 19 Then shall it be, that, when ye eat of the bread of the land, ye shall set aside a hewe–oflering unto the Lord. 20 As the first**of your doughs shall ye set aside a cake for a hewe–oflering; like the hewe–oflfermg of the thrcshu16–floor, so shall ye set this aside. 21 Of the first of jour doughs shall ye give unto the Lord a hewe–offering, in your gene– rations. 22 ¶ And if ye err," and do not observe all these commandments, which the Lord hath spoken unto Moses, 23 All that the Lord hath commanded you by the hand of Moses, from the day that the Lord commanded (the same) and thencefor– ward, among j–our generations : 24 Then shall it be, if, through inadver– tence of the congregation, it was committed by 16norance, that all the congregation shall prepare one young bullock for a bumt–ofTer– ing, for a sweet savour unto the Lord, with his meat–offering, and his drink–offermg, ac– cording to the prescribed manner, and one he– goat for a sin–offering. 25 And the priest shall make an atonement for all the congregation of the childi'en of Israel, and it shall be forgiven unto them; for it is (a sin of) 16norance: and they have brought their oflering, a sacrifice made by fire unto the Lord, and their sin–offering before the Lord, for their (sin of) 16norance : 26 And it shall be forgiven unto all the congregation of the children of Israel, and unto the stranger that sojourneth among them; for by all the people (was it done) in 16norance.* 27 ¶ And if any person sin through 16no– rance, then shall he bring a she–goat of the first year for a sin–offering. 28 And the priest shall make an atonement for the person that hath erred, in his sinning through 16norance before the Lord; to make d Before ye eat of your dough, you shall offer a por– tion to the Lord." — RAsni. This was given to the priest, and had no fixed proportion by the letter of the law; but the Rabbins state, a twenty–fourth part by a housekeeper, and a forty–eighth by a baker. e This refers to the sin of idolatry, according to our authorities. 179 [Page 180] NUMBERS XV. XVI. KORACH. an atonement for him, that it may be forgiven unto him. 29 For the native bom among the children of Israel, and for the stranger that sojoumeth among them ; — one law shall be for you, for him that acteth through 16norance. 30 But the person that doeth aught with a high hand," be he one born in the land, or a stranger, ¶ae same dishonoureth the Lord; and that person shall be cut off from among his people. 31 Because the word of the Lord hath he despised, and his commandment hath he broken ; that person shall be cut off, his ini– quity is upon him. 32 ¶ And while the children of Israel were in the wilderness, they found a man gather– ing'' sticks upon the sabbath–day. 33 And they that found him gathermg sticks brought him for judgment unto Moses and Aaron, and unto all the congregation. 34 And they put him in ward; because it had not been declared what should be done to him. 35 ¶ And the Lord said unto Moses, The man shall be put to death : all the congrega– tion shall stone him with stones without the camp. 36 And all the congregation brought him forth to without the camp, and they stoned him with stones, and he died; as the Lord had commanded Moses.* 37 ¶ And the Lord said unto Moses, as foUoweth, 38 Speak unto the children of Israel, and say to them, that they shall make themselves fringes'' on the corners of their garments throughout thoir generations, and that they shall put upon the fringe of the comer a thread of blue : 39 And it shall be unto you for a fringe, that ye may look upon it, and remember all the commandments of the Lord, and do them ; and that ye seek not after (the inclination of) your own heart and (the delight of) your a i. e. Wilfully; and for such sin no sacrifice can avail. b Arnheim suggests, that loiam may mean "making small," "chipping," or "splitting wood;" wherefore he committed a direct and well–defined labour on the sab– bath. c Mendelssohn and his successors have rendered nS'S with " schaii/iiilen," literally, "threads to be looked upon." The word " fringes" has been retained here, because there 180 eyes, in pursuit of which ye have been led astray. 40 In order that ye may remember, and do all my commandments, and be holy unto your God. 41 I am the Lord your God, who brought you out of the land of Egypt, to be your God ; I am the Lord your God. Haphtorah in Joshua ii. 1 to 24. SECTION XXXVIII. KORACH, Hip. CHAPTER XVL 1 ¶ Now Korach, the son of Yizhar, the son of Kchath, the son of Levi, was presumj)– tuous,*together with Dathan and Abiram, the sons of Eliab, and On, the son of Pele¶i, sons of Reuben : 2 So that they rose up before Moses, with certain men of the children of Israel, in num– ber two hundred and fifty; (who were) princes of the congregation, called to the assembly, men of renown. 3 And they assembled themselves against Moses, and against Aaron, and said unto them. Ye assume too much ; for the whole of the congregation are all of them holy, and the Lord is among them; whei'efore then will you lift yourselves up above the congregation of the Lord ? 4 And when Moses heard it, he fell upon his face : 5 And he spoke unto Korach and unto all his company, saying, To–morrow, then will the Lord make known who is his, and who is holy, that he may cause them to come near unto him ; and him whom lie shall choose will he cause to come near unto him. 6 This do ye : Take yourselves censers, Korach and all his company ; 7 And put therein fire, and put upon them incense before the Lord, to–morrow ; and it shall be that the man whom the Lord will is no English word nearer to the true meaning, from a root either signifying "a lock of hair" or "something to look on." Israelites are well acquainted with the " corner fringe," which is to be regarded as a memento of the com– mandments, a simple yet cfiieient symbol to call to mind the duty we owe to God. d He presumed to set himself apart from the commu– nity to quaiTcl about the priesthood. — Rashi. [Page 181] NUMBERS XVI. KORACH. choose, he shall be the holy one ; you assume too much, ye sons of Levi. 8 And Moses said unto Korach, Hear, I pray you, ye sons of Levi : 9 Is it too little for you, that the God of Israel hath separated you from the congrega– tion of Israel, to bring you near unto himself, to do the service of the tabernacle of the Lord, and to stand before the congregation to minis– ter for them ? 10 And he hath brought thee near, and all thy brethren the sons of Levi with thee : and now will ye seek the priesthood also ? 11 For which cause (beware),*thou and all thy company that ai'e gathered together against the Lord ; for Aaron, what is he, that ye should murmur against him ? 12 And Moses sent to call Dathan and Abiram, the sons of Eliab; but they said, We will not come up : 13 Is it too little that thou hast brought us up out of a land flowing wi¶x milk and honey, to kill us in the wilderness, that thou wilt assume to make thyself also a prince over us ?''' 14 Moreover thou hast not brought us into a land flowing with milk and honey, and thou hast not*" given us inheritance of fields and vineyards : wilt thou bore out the eyes" of these men ? we will not come up. 15 And this displeased Moses greatly, and he said unto the Lord, have no respect unto their offering : I have not taken away an ass of any one of them, nor have I done wrong to any one of them. 16 And Moses said unto Korach, Thou and all thy company, be ye before the Lord, thou, and they, and Aaron, to–morrow : 17 And take ye every man his censer,*and put incense upon them, and bring ye near before the Lord every man his censer, two hundred and fifty censers; thou also, and Aaron, each his censer. 18 And they took every man his censer. a After Mendelssohn, who renders jdS in the sense it is used in Gen. iv. 15, as a threat. Philippson gives it, b Do you therefore assemhle — against the Lord ?" Arn– heim, "Surely — you assemble against the Lord." But the n in oni'jn favours the version in our text. c After Rashi. Arnheim translates, "so that thou couldst give us," &.c. d i. e. " Wilt thou presume to blind the people to thy assumption of undue power and breach of promise ?" and put fire on them, and laid incense there– upon ; and they stood at the door of the ta– bernacle of the congregation with Moses and Aaron. 19 And Korach assembled against them all the congregation unto the door of the ta– bernacle of the congregation ; and the glory of the Lord then appeared unto all the con– gregation.''' 20 ¶ And the Lord spoke unto Moses and unto Aaron, saying, 21 Separate yourselves from the midst of this congregation, and I will make an end of them in a moment. 22 And they fell upon their faces, and said, God, the God of the spirits of all flesh," this one man doth sin, and with all the congrega– tion wouldest thou be wroth ? 23 ¶ And the Lord spoke unto Moses, say– 24 Speak unto the congregation, saying. Get you away from about the dwelling of Korach, Dathan, and Abiram. 25 And Moses ix)se up and went unto Da– than and Abiram ; and there went after him the elders of Israel. 26 And he spoke unto the congregation, saying, Depart, I pray you, from the tents of these wicked men, and touch nothing which belongeth to them, lest ye be destro¶x'd through all their sins. 27 So they got away from the dwelling of Korach, Da¶ian, and Abiram, on every side : and Dathan and Abiram came out, standing (boldly) at the door of their tents, with their wives, and their sons, and their little ones. 28 And Moses said, Through this shall ye know that the Lord hath sent me to do all these deeds ; that (I have) not done them out of my own heart. 29 If these men die asall men die, and if the visitation of all men be visited on them : then hath the Loud not sent me. d This refers back to verse 5. Moses said there to Korach, that on the following day God would declare who was the holy and chosen servant of the tabernacle. The test now proposed was, that all who claimed the right to act as priests, should come with incense before the sanc– tuary, though it would be at great peril; since it would be destruction to all but the one who was justly chosen. The text tolls the sequel. e Arnheim gives this word elsewhere with "mortals." 181 [Page 182] NUMBERS XVI. XVII. KORACH. 30 But if the Lord do create*a new thing, and the earth open her mouth, and swallow them up, with all that appertaineth unto them, and they go down alive into the pit : then shall ye understand that these men have provoked the Lord. 31 And it came to pass, when he had made an end of speaking all these words, that the ground that was under them was cloven asunder : 32 And the earth opened her mouth, and swallowed them up, and their houses, and all the men that appertained unto Korach, and all their goods. 33 And they went down, they, and all they that appertained to them, alive into the pit; and the earth closed over them, and they disappeared from the midst of the con– gregation. 34 And all Israel that were round about them fled at their cry ; for they said, Perhaps the earth may swallow us up (also). 35 And there came out a fire from the Lord, and consumed the two hundred and fifty men that had offered the incense. CHAPTER XVII. l " ¶ And the Lord spoke unto Moses, say– 2 Speak unto Elazar the sou of Aaron the priest, that he lift up the censers out of the l)urning, and throw out the fire far away ; for they have been hallowed : 3 The censers of these sinners against their own lives; and they shall make of them Ijroad plates for a covering for the altar ; for they brought them near before the Lord, and they have thus become hallowed f and they shall serve for a sign unto the children of Israel. 4 And Elazar the priest took the copper censers, which they that were burnt had brought near ; and they beat them out for a covering unto the altar : 5 As a memorial unto the children of Israel, in order that no stranger, who is not of the seed of A.aron, should come near to burn incense before the Lord ; that he be– a The sudden destruction of the rebels is called a crea– tion, and Moses appealed to such an unheard–of display of power, a.4 a verification of Ws truth. b The English version commences ch. xvii. at verse 16. 182 come not as Korach, and as his company ; as the Lord had sjDoken to him by the hand of Moses. 6 Tf And all the congregation of the chil– dren of Israel murmured against Moses and Aaron, on the morrow, saying. It is you"*who have caused the people of the Lord to die. 7 And it came to pass, when the congrega– tion assembled against Moses and against Aaron, that they looked toward the taberna– cle of the congregation, and, behold, the cloud covered it; and the glory of the Lord ap– peared. 8 And Moses came with Aaron before the tabernacle of the congregation.* 9 ¶ And the Lord spoke unto Moses, say– ing, 10 Remove yourselves from the midst of this congregation, that I may consume them in a moment. And they fell upon their faces. 11 And Moses said unto Aaron, Take the censer, and put therein fire from oft' the altar, and put on incense, and carry (it) quickly unto the congregation, and make an atone– ment for them ; for the wrath is gone forth from the Lord; the plague hath begun. 12 And Aaron took as Moses had com– manded, and he ran into the midst of the as– sembly ; and, tehold, the plague had begun among the people : and he put on the incense, and made an atonement for the people. 13 And he stood between the dead and the living ; and the plague was stayed. 14 And those who died in the plague were fourteen thousand and seven hundred, besides those that had died about the matter of Korach. 15 And Aaron returned unto Moses, to the door of the tabernacle of the congregation, af– ter the plague had been stayed.* 16 ¶f And the Lord spoke unto Moses, say– ing 17 Speak unto the children of Israel, and take from them one staff each for a family division, from all their princes, according to their family divisions, twelve stwes : the name of each man shalt thou write upon his st;iff. 18 And the name of Aaron shalt thou c Although the sacrifice was in sin, still the offering sanctiBcd the instruments used. d They ascribed the death of the elders to the agency of Moses and Aaron. [Page 183] NUMBERS XVII. XVIII. KORACH. write upon the staff of Levi ; for there shall be but one staff for the head of their family division. 19 And thou shalt lay them down in the tabernacle of the congregation before the tes– timony, where I usually meet with you. 20 And it shall come to pass, that the staff of the man whom I shall choose, shall blos– som :*and I will allay from around me the murmurings of the children of Israel, which they murmur against you. 21 And Moses spoke unto the children of Israel, and all their princes gave him each a staff, one for every prince, according to their family divisions, twelve stwes : and the staff of Aaron was among their stwes. 22 And Moses laid down the stwes be– fore the Lord in the tabernacle of the testi– mony. 23 And it came to pass on the morrow, that as Moses went into the tabernacle of the testimony, behold, the staff of Aaron for the house of Levi had budded ;'' and it brought forth buds, and produced blossoms, and yielded ripe almonds. 24 And Moses brought out all the stwes from Ijefore the Lord unto all the children of Israel ; and they looked (at them,) and took away every one his staff.* 25 ¶ And the Lord said unto Moses, Carry back the staff of Aaron before the testimony', to be kept as a token against the children of rebellion, that there may be an end of their murmuiings from around me, and they die not. 26 And Moses did so ; as the Lord had commanded him, so did he. 27 ¶ And the children of Israel said unto Moses, thus, Behold, we perish, we are lost, we are all lost. 28 Every one that cometh near at all unto the tabernacle of the Lord must die : shall we totally perish ? a In the preceding narrative, the selection of Aaron was demonstrated by the punishment of those who contended against him. The present attestation was, however, to be one of peace, to confirm the institution of the priest– hood. b Rashbam comments, that the evident meaning of this is, that when Moses first brought out Aaron's staff to the people it had just budded ; and it was before them that the buds expanded, opened into blossoms, and yielded ripe almouds. Rashi renders yx with " the young fruit" which appears immediately on the blossom's falling. CHAPTER XVIII. 1 ¶ And the Lord said unto Aaron, Thou and thy sons and thy father's house with thee shall bear the inquity'' of the sanctuary ; and thou and thy sons with thee shall bear the iniquity of your priesthood. 2 And also thy brethren, the tribe of Levi, the tribe of thy father, bring thou near with thee, that they may be joined with thee, and minister unto thee ; while thou and thy sons with thee shall be before the tabernacle of the testimony. 3 And they shall keep thy charge, and the charge of all the tabernacle : only unto the vessels of the sanctuary and unto the altar shall they not come near, that they may not die, either they or you. 4 And they shall be joined unto thee, and keep the charge of the tabernacle of the con– gregation, respecting all the service of the ta– bernacle : and a stranger shall not come nigh unto you. 5 And ye shall keep the charge of the sanctuary, and the charge of the altar; that there be not any more wrath upon the chil– dren of Israel. 6 And I, behold, I have taken 3"our bre– thren the Levites from the midst of the chil– dren of Israel ; unto you are they given as a gift for the Lord, to perform the service of the tabernacle of the congregation. 7 And thou and thy sons with thee shall keep your priesthood concerning every mat– ter of the altar, and for that within the vail, where ye shall serve : as a service of gift do I give you your priesthood ; and the stranger that cometh nigh shall 1x5 put to death. 8 ¶ And the Lord spoke unto Aaron, And I, behold, I give thee the charge of my hewe– offerings ; of all the hallowed things of the children of Israel, mito thee have I given c i. e. Since every attempt to approach proves fatal. d "Against the sanctuary ;" " against your priesthood." — Arnheim. "On you I place the punishment of the strangers that may commit sin through the hallowed things which arc intrusted to you (the priests and the sons of Kchath :) — you –shall sit and warn every stranger that approaches, from touching them ; while thou and thy sons the priests shall bear the iniquity of your priesthood, because this is not intrusted to the Levites, and you shall warn these not to interfere in your proper service." — Rashi. 183 [Page 184] NUMBERS XVIII. KORACH. them as an official portion, and to thy sons, as a fixed right for ever. 9 This shall belong to thee of the most holy things, from the fire–(oflferings) :" every oblation of theirs, namely, every meat–ofler– ing of theirs, and every sin–offering of theirs, and every trespass–offering of theirs, which they shall render unto me, shall, as most holy things, belong to thee and to thy sons. 10 In a most holy place shalt thou eat it : every male shall eat it ; holy shall it be unto thee. 11 And this shall be thine, as the hewe– offering of their gift, of all the wwe–offerings of the children of Israel ; unto thee have I given them, and to thy sons and to thy daughters with thee, as a fixed portion for ever: every one that is clean in thy house may eat thereof. 12 All the best of oil, and all the best of wine, and of com, the firstrfruits thereof which they shall offer unto the Lord, to thee have I given them. 13 The first ripe fruit of whatsoever is in their land, which they may bring unto the Lord, shall be thine ; every one that is clean in thy house may eat thereof. 14 Every thing devoted in Israel shall be thine. 15 Whatever openeth the womb of all flesh, which they bring unto the Lord, be it of men or of cattle, shall be thine : neverthe– less thou shalt redeem the first–born of man, and the firs¶ing of the unclean cattle shalt thou redeem. 16 And those that are to be redeemed from a month old shalt thou redeem, according to the usual estimation of five shekels of silver, after the sliekel of the sanctuary, which is twenty geralis. 17 But the firs¶ing of an ox, or the firsts ling of a sheep, or the firs¶ing of a goat, thou shalt not redeem ; they are holy : their blood shalt thou sprinkle upon the altar, and theu* fat shalt thou l¶urn as a iire–offering, for a sweet savour unto*the Loud. a After Aben Ezra; Oukclos, Rashi, and othoi–s, "what is left from the fire," ('. c. after the fat has licen burnt. b That is, " as unvarying and iinitorm as the salt, which never becomes eorrujit or putrid." — After Rasui. c The priests and servants of the Lord should not Lwe political power through extended possessions. d i. e. Wine and oil, which are produced by means of expressing the grajjc and olive ; properly therefore, " with 184 18 And their flesh shall be thine, as the breast that is wwed and as the right shoulder shall it be thine. 19 All the hewe–offerings of the holy things, which the children of Israel set apart unto the Lord, I have given to thee, and to thy sous and to thy daughters with thee, as a fixed portion for ever : it is a covenant of salt**for ever before the Lord for thee and for thy seed with thee. 20 And the Lord said unto Aaron, In their land shalt thou have no inheritance, and any portion shalt thou not have among them : I am thy portion and thy inheritance among the children of Israel.* 21 ¶ And to the children of Levi, behold, I have given every tithe in Israel, for an inhe– ritance, in lieu of their ser\'ice which they r'ender, the service of the tabernacle of the congregation. 22 And the children of Israel shall not henceforth come nigh unto the tabernacle of the congregation, to bear sin, to die thereby. 23 But they of the tribe of Levi themselves shall perform the ser\dce of the tabernacle of the congregation, and they shall bear their iniquity : a statute for ever shall it Ije through– out your generations ; and among the children of Israel shall they not possess any inheritance. 24 But the tithes of the children of Israel, which they ofler as a hewe–oflering unto the Lord, have I given to the Levites for an in– heritance ; thei'efore have I said unto them, Among the children of Israel shall they ob– tain no inheritance. 25 ¶ And the Lord spoke unto Moses, say– 26 And unto the Levites shalt thou speak, and say unto them. When ye take from the children of Israel the tithes which 1 have given you from them for your inheritance : then shall ye separate t herefrom a hewe–oft'er– ing of the Lord, the tenth part of the tithe. 27 And your hewe–oflering shall be reck– oned unto you, like the corn of the threshing– floor, and as the fulness of the wine–press.'' what the wine–press is filled." The verse itself is to bo so under.itood : The Israelites were commanded to give a fiftieth part of their annual product to the priests; this gift was called a hewe–oftoring nonji; and the tithes be– ing the Levites' threshing–floor and wine–press, that is, their means of livelihood, they were ordered to give from their income also a portion to the priests, before they could legally use it for their own purposes. [Page 185] NUMBERS XVIII. XIX. CHUCKATH. 28 Thus shall ye also offer a hewe–offering unto the Lord from all your tithes, which ye may receive from the cliildren of Israel ; and ye shall give thereof the hewe–oftering of the Lord to Aaron the priest. 29 From all your gifts shall ye set apart every hewe–offering of the Lord, from every best part thereof, its hallowed portion there– from. ' 30 And thou shalt say unto them, When ye have separated the best thereof from it : then shall (the remainder) be counted unto the Levites as the produce of the threshing– floor, and as the produce of the wine–press. 31 And ye may eat it in every place, ye and your households; for it is your reward in lieu of your service at the tabernacle of the congregation. 32 And ye shall not bear any sin by rear son of it, when ye have separated its best part from it : and the holy things of the children of Israel shall ye not profane, lest ye die. Haphtorah in 1 Samuel xi. 14 to xii. 22. SECTION XXXIX. CHUCKATH, npn CHAPTER XIX. 1 ¶ And the Lord spoke unto Moses and unto Aaron, saying, 2 This is the statute*of the law which the Lord hath commanded, saying. Speak unto the children of Israel, that they bring unto thee a completely red cow, on which there is no blemish, upon which no yoke hath ever come. 3 And ye shall give her unto Elazar the priest, and he shall lead her forth to wi¶iout the camp, and some one shall slay her before his face: 4 And Elazar the priest shall take some of her blood with his finger ; and he shall sprin– kle in the direction of the front of the taber– nacle of the congregation of her blood seven times. 5 And some one shall burn the cow before his eyes; her skin, and her flesh, and her blood, with her dung, shall he burn. a i. e. An ordinance for which no reason is to be sought further than that it is the will of the Loud, who instituted it as a test of obedience to Israel. b "The stranger" here signifies one that has adopted 6 And the priest shall take cedar–wood, and hyssop, and a scarlet string, and cast it into the midst of the burning of the cow. 7 And the priest shall wash his clothes, and he shall bathe his flesh in water, and afterward may he come into the camp; and the priest shall be unclean until the even– ing. 8 And he that bumeth her shall wash his clothes in water, and bathe his flesh in water; and he shall be unclean until ¶ic evening. 9 And a man ¶iat is clean shall gather up the ashes of the cow, and lay them uj) with– out the camp in a clean place ; and it shall be kept for the congregation of the children of Israel for a water of sprinkling : it is a jjurifi– cation–offering. 10 And he that gathereth the ashes of the cow shall wash his clothes, and be miclean until the evening: and it shall Ikj unto the children of Israel, and unto the stranger'' that sojourneth among them, for a statute for ever. 11 He that toucheth the dead body of any" human person shall be unclean seven daj–s. 12 Such a one shall purify himself with it on the third day and on the seventh day, when he shall be clean ; but if he purify him– self not on the third day and on the seventh day, he shall not te clean. 13 Whosoever toucheth the dead body, the person of any man that is dead, and purifieth himself not, hath defiled the tabernacle of the Lord; and that soul shall be cut oft" from Israel; because the water of sprinkling was not sprinkled upon him, he shall be unclean; his uncleanness is'yet upon him. 14 This is the law, when a man dieth in a tent: Every one ¶iat cometh into the tent, and all that is in the tent, shall be unclean seven days. 15 And every open vessel, on which there is not a closely fitting cover, is unclean. 16 And whosoever toucheth in the open field one that hath been slain with a sword, or a dead body, or a bone of a man, or a grave, shall be unclean seven daj–s. 17 And they shall take for the unclean person some of the ashes of the burnt purifi– the law of Israel. The same is the case whenever this word occurs in reference to observance of rel16ious duties. c Meaning, whether the dead be an Israelite or gen– the. 185 [Page 186] NUMBERS XIX. XX. CHUCKATH. cation–offering, and they shall put thereupon running water in a vessel.* 18 And a clean person shall take hyssop, and dip it in the water, and sprinkle it upon the tent, and upon all the vessels, and upon the persons that have been there, and upon him that hath touched the bone, or the one slain, or the dead, or the grave : 19 And the clean pei–son shall sprinkle upon the unclean on the third day and on the seventh day; and when he hath purified him on the seventh day, then shall he wash his clothes, and bathe himself in Avater, and shall be clean at evening. 20 But a man that is unclean, and doth not purify himself, that soul shall be cut off from among the congregation; because the sanctuary of the Lord hath he defiled; the water of sprinkling hath not been sprinkled upon him; he is unclean. 21 And it shall be unto them for a per– petual statute; and he that sprinkleth*the water of S2;)rinkling shall wash his clothes; and he that toucheth the water of sprinkling shall be unclean until the evening. 22 And whatsoever the unclean person may touch shall be unclean; and the person that toucheth him'' shall be unclean until the evenmg. CHAPTER XX. 1 ¶ And the children of Israel, the whole congregation, came into the desert of Zin in the first month, and the people abode in Ka– desh; and Miriam died there, and was buried there. 2 And there was no water for the congre– gation; and they assembled themselves to– gether against Moses and against Aaron. 3 And the people quarrelled with Moses, and said thus, Oh that we had but perished when our brethren perished before the Lord ! 4 And why have ye brought the congrega– tion of the Loud into this wilderness, to die there, we and our cattle? a The wise men expound this, that he who sprinkles the water of purification shall nut be rendered unclean, ho is merely to wash his garments; while all others engaged in this sacrifice are made unclean thereby, till evening. Hence, in view of these peculiarities, it is pre–eminently a statute, or a positive ordinance of the Louu, given as the will of our Legislator. b i'. r. One defiled by touching a dead body. c "The Scriptures here declare, that had it not been 186 5 And wherefore have ye caused us to come up out of Egypt, to bring us in unto this evil place? it is no place for sowing, or of figs, or of vines, or of pomegranates ; and water even there is none to drink. 6 And Moses and Aaron went from the presence of the assembly unto the door of the tabernacle of the congregation, and they fell upon their faces : and the glory of the Lord appeared unto them.* 7 ¶ And the Lord spoke unto Moses, say– ing, 8 Take the staff, and gather the assembly together, thou, with Aaron thy brother, and ye shall speak unto the rock before their eyes, that it shall give forth its water; and thou shalt bring forth for them water out of the rock, and give drink to the congregation and their cattle. 9 And Moses took the staff from before the Lord, as he had commanded him. 10 And Moses and Aaron assembled the' congregation together before the rock, and he said unto them. Hear now, ye rebels! shall we out of this rock bring forth water for you? 11 And Moses lifted up his hand, and he smote the rock with his staff twice : and there came out much water, and the congregation drank, together with their cattle. 12 ¶ And the Lord spoke unto Moses and Aaron, Because ye have not confided'" in me, to sanctify me in the eyes of the children of Israel : therefore shall ye not bring this con– gregation into the land which I have given to them. 13 These are the waters of Meribah;**where the children of Israel quarrelled with the Lord, and through which" he was sanctified.* 14 ¶ And Moses sent messengers from Ka– desh unto the king of Edom, Thus saith thy brother Israel. Thou knowcst all the hardship that hath befallon us. 15 How our fathers went down into EgA¶it, and we dwelt in Egypt many days; and the Egyptians did evil to us, and to our fathei's : for this sin, they would have entered into the land, that it should not be said of them that they were punished for the transgression of their generation, against whom the decree had been pronounced, that they should not come to Palestine." — Rashi. d Merihah means quarrelling. (Sec also Exodus xvii. 7.) e This refers to "the water," according to Rashi, who adds, "When the Lord executes judgment upon his saints, he becomes feared and sanctified among men." [Page 187] NUMBERS XX. XXI. CHUCKATH. 16 And we cried unto the Lord, and he heard our voice, and he sent a messenger, and caused us to go forth out of Egypt ; and, behold, we are in Kadesh, a city at the out– most end of thy border. 17 Let us pass, we pray thee, through thy country; we will not pass through field, or through vineyard, and we will not drink the water of the wells: by the king's highway will we go, we will not turn to the right hand nor to the left, until we have passed thy border. 18 And Edom said unto him, Thou shalt not pass through my land, lest I come against thee with the sword. 19 And the children of Israel said unto him, We will go by the highway : and if we drink of thy water, I and my cattle, then will I pay its va10e; I will do thee no injury," only on foot will I pass through. 20 And he said. Thou shalt not pass through; and Edom came out against him with much people, and with a strong hand. 21 And as Edom thus refused to permit Israel to pass through his border, Israel turned away from him.* 22 ¶ And they set forward from Kadesh; and the children of Israel, the whole congre– gation,'' came unto mount Hor. 23 And the Lord said unto Moses and Aaron at mount Hor, by the boundary of the land of Edom, as followeth, 24 Aaron shall be gathered unto his peo– ple ; for he shall not enter into the land which I have given unto the children of Israel, be– cause ye rebelled against my order at the waters of Meribah. 25 Take Aaron and Elazar, his son, and cause them to go up unto mount Hor: 26 And cause Aaron to take off his gar– ments, and clothe therewith Elazar his son; and Aaron shall be gathered in, and he shall die there. 27 And Moses did as the Lord had com– manded ; and they went up to mount Hor be– fore the eyes of all the congregation. a After Onkelos. Arnheim, " It is not the least even (I desire)." PLilippson, "It is surely nothing." b All righteous and ready to enter Palestine; there was none left among them of those who had the decree of exc10sion pronounced against them ; for the whole of them had already perished, and of those who then remained, it was said, " And ye who have adhered unto the LoRD your God, are all alive this day." — Basui. 28 And Moses caused Aaron to take off his garments, and he clothed therewith Elazar his son; and Aaron died there on the top of the mount; and Moses and Elazar then came down from the mount. 29 And when all the congregation saw that Aaron was departed, they wept for Aaron thirty days, even all the house of Israel. CHAPTER XXI. 1 ¶ And when the Canaanite, the king of 'Arad, who dwelt in the south, heard ¶iat Israel was coming by the way of the spies :" he made an attack on Israel, and took from them some prisoners. 2 And Israel made a vow unto the Lord, and said. If thou wilt but deliver this people into my hand, then will I devote their cities. 3 And the Lord hearkened to the voice of Israel, and he deliverd up the Canaauites; and they devoted them and their cities : and they called the name of the place Chonnah. 4 ¶ And they set forward from mount Hor by the way to the Red Sea, to go round the land of Edom : and the spirit of the people became impatient because of the way.* 5 And the people spoke against God, and against Moses, Wherefore have 3–e brought us up out of Egypt to die in the wilderness ? for there is no bread, and there is no water ; and our soul loatheth this miserable bread. 6 And the Lord let loose against the people poisonous serpents, and they bit the people; and there died much people of Israel. 7 And the people then came to Moses, and they said. We have sinned, for we have spoken against the Lord, and against thee; pray unto the Lord, that he take away from us the serpents. And Moses prayed for the people. 8 And the Lord said unto Moses, Make thyself a serpent," and set it upon a pole : and it shall come to pass, that whoever is bitten shall look at it, and he shall live. 9 And Moses made a serpent of copper, and c According to the Septuagint, D'lnKH is the name of a place, "Atharim." d Although, as just said, the people had been purified by the death of the fathers, still the sons also murmured when they themselves were yet detained from Palestine. e When they looked upward and subdued their heart to their Father in heaven, they were healed; and if not, they perished. — YoMA. 187 [Page 188] NUMBERS XXI. CHUCKATH. put it upon a pole ; and it came to pass, that, when a serpent had bitten any man, and he looked up to the serpent of copper, he re– mained alive.* 10 And the children of Israel set forward, and encamped in Oboth. 11 And they journeyed from Oboth, and encamped at 'lye–ha'abarim, in the wilder– ness, which is before Moab, toward the rismg of the sun. 12 From there they set forward and en– camped in the valley*of Zared. 13 From there they set forward, and en– camped on the other side of Arnon, which is in the wilderness, and which cometh out of the boundary of the Emorites ;. for Arnon is the border of Moab, between Moab and be– tween the Emorites. 14 Therefore mention is made in the book of the wars of the Lord, of Vaheb in Supha,* and of the brooks of Arnon, 15 And the descent of the brooks, that tunieth toward Shebeth–'Ar, and leaneth upon the border of Moab ; 16 And from there to the well ; this is the well where the Lord said unto Moses, Assemble the people and I will give them water. 17 ¶ Then did Israel sing this song, Come up, well ; sing ye unto it : 18 Well, which the prmces have dug, which the nobles of the people have hollowed out with the sceptre, with their stwes; — and from the Avildemess to Mattauah; 19 And from Mattanah to Nachaliel; and from Nachaliel to Bamoth ; 20 And from Bamoth to the valley, which is in the fields of Moab, to the top of Pis– gah, which looketh toward the desert.''' 21 ¶ And Israel sent messengers unto Si– chon king of the Emorites, saying, 22 Let me pass through thy land ; we will not turn aside into field, or into vineyard; we will not drink the water of a well : by the a The wadys, or deep valleys, in the neighbourhood of I'alcstinc, generally have a stream running through them, which swells greatly in the rainy season. Ilcncc Snj s16– niBes both " valley" and " stream." b These places, and those mentioned farther, are names which occur in the book of the wars of the Lord, and are unknown to us now. Arnon has several branches which form the main stream. The descent next spoken of refers to these rivulets, which unite and flow toward the city of 188 king's highway will we go along, until we have i¶assed thy border. 23 But Sichon would not suffer Israel to pass through his border ; and Sichon assem– bled all his people together, and went out against Israel into the wilderness ; and he came to Yahaz, and fought against Israel. 24 And Israel smote him with the edge of the sword, and took possession of his land from Arnon unto Yabbok, even unto the chil– dren of 'Ammon ; for the border of the chil– dren of 'Ammon was strong." 25 And Israel took all these cities; and Israel dwelt in all the cities of the Emorites, in Cheshbon, and m all the villages thereof. 26 For Cheshbon was the city of Sichon the king of the Emorites ; and he had fought against the former king of Moab, and taken all his land out of his hand, up to the Arnon. 27 Therefore said the poets. Come into Cheshbon, let the city of Sichon be built and established. 28 For a fire is gone out of Cheshbon, a flame from the city of Sichon : it hath con– sumed 'Ar–Moab, the men of the high places of the Arnon. 29 Wo to thee, Moab! thou art lost, people of Kemosh : he hath suflered his sons to become fugitives, and his daughters to go into captivity, unto the king of the Emorites, Sichon. 30 We have thro–¶ni them down; lost is Cheshbon even unto Dibon, and we have laid waste (all) up to Nophach, which reache¶i unto Medeba. 31 Thus Israel dwelt in the land of the Emorites. 32 And Moses sent to spy out Ya'zer, and they captured the villages thereof, and drove out the Emorites that were there. 33 And they turned and wont up liy the way to Bashan; and 'Og. the king of Baslian, went out against them, he, and all his people, to the battle at Edrei.* Ar–Moab, here called Shebeth–'Ar, literally, "dwelling of 'Ar ;" whence the river turned to the well, Beer, which was discovered probably in a country otherwise destitute of good drink water. Onkelos renders, " .\nd thence was the well given them." English version, " And from thence they went to Beer." In this version, Aruheim's translation has been followed. c "And what was its strength ? the prohibition of God, who had told them, ' Attack them not,' " &c. — Rasih [Page 189] NUMBERS XXI. XXII. BALAK. 34 And the Lord said unto Moses, Fear him not; for into thy hand have I delivered him, and all his people, and his land; and thou shalt do unto him as thou hast done unto Sichon, the king of the Emorites, who dwelt at Cheshbon. 35 And they smote him and his sons, and all his people, until there was none left unto him that escaped; and they took possession of his land. CHAPTER XXII. 1 And the children of Israel set forward, and encamped in the plains of Moab, on this side of the Jordan, opposite Jericho. Haphtorah in Judges xi. 1 to 33. SECTION XL. BALAK, pS¶. 2 ¶ And Balak the son of Zippor saw all that Israel had done to the Emorites. 3 And MoJib was greatly afraid of the peo– ple, because it was numerous ; and Moab was distressed because of the children of Israel. 4 And Moab said unto the elders of Midian, Now will this assemblage devour all that is round about us, as the ox devoureth the grass of the field; and Balak the son of Zippor was king of Moab at that time. 5 And he sent messengers unto Bifam" the son of Becir to Pe¶ior, which is by the river, in the land of the children of his people, to have him called; saying. Behold, there is a people come out from Egypt ; behold, it cover– eth the surface of the earth, and it is abiding opposite to me : And now do but come, curse me this people; for it is too mighty for me; perad– venture I may be able to smite it, that I may drive it out of the land ; for I know that he whom thou blessest is blessed, and he whom thou cursest is cursed. 7 And the elders of Moab and the elders of Midian departed with the rewards'" of divi– nation in their hand; and they came unto Bifam, and spoke unto him the words of Balak. a Eng. ver. "Balaam." b According to Midrash Rabba, quoted by Rashi, the translation should be, "with instruments of divination in their hands." c By not stating the reasons for this refusal, the mes– sengers were left in doubt as regards them. Hence they 8 And he said unto them. Remain 3()u here this night, and I will bring you woixl again, as the Lord may sjieak unto me; and the princes of Moab abode with Bifam. 9 And God came unto Bifam, and said. Who are these men with thee? 10 And Bifam said inito God, Balak the son of Zippor, the king of Moab, hath sent unto me, (saying,) 11 Behold, there is the peoi)le that is come out of Egypt, and covereth the face of the earth : now come, denounce it lor me ; perad– ventvu'e I shall be able to fight against it, and drive it away. 12 And God said unto Bifam, Thou shalt not go with them : thou shalt not curse the people; for it is blessed.* 13 And Bifam rose up in the morning, and said unto the princes of Balak, Go lj;ick to your land; for the Lord refuseth to give me leave to go with" you. 14 And the princes of Moab rose up, and they went unto Balak, and said, Bifam refus– eth to come with us. 15 And Balak sent jet again princes, more in number, and more honoural)le than those. 16 And they came to Bifaui, and said to him. Thus saith Balak the son of Zippor, Do not suffer ¶nself, I pray thee, to be prevented from coming unto me; 17 For 1 will honour thee grea¶j–, and whatsoever thou mayest say unto me will I do : and only come, I pray thee, denounce me this people. 18 And Bifam answered and said unto the servants of Balak, If Balak would give me his house full of silver and gold, I could not transgress the order of the Lord my God, to do a small or a great thing. 19 And now, I pray you, tarry ye also here this night, that I may know what the Lord will farther speak with me. 20 And God came unto Bifam at night, and said unto him, If to call thee the men have come, rise up, go with them; but only the word which I shall speak unto thee, that shalt thou do.* and the king thought, perhaps, that it was because the de– putation had not been commensurate with the dignity of the prophet; wherefore Balak despatched a second more numerous and honoured deputation to call him, and then for the first time did Bifam reveal his powerless– [Page 190] NUMBERS XXII. XXIII. BALAK. 21 And Bifam rose up in the morning, and saddled Ids ass, and went with the princes of Mojib. 22 And the anger of God was kindled, be– cause he went; and an angel of the Lord placed himself in the way to be a hindrance to him; and he was riding upon his ass, and his two servants were with him. 23 And the ass saw the angel of the Lord standing in the way, with his sword drawn in his hand ; and the ass turned aside out of the way, and went into the field: and Bifam smote the ass, to make her turn into the way. 24 But the angel of the Lord stepped into a path between the vineyards, (with) a wall on this side, and a wall on that side. 25 And when the ass saw the angel of the Lord, she forced herself against the wall, and pressed Bifam's foot against the –wall : and he smote her again. 26 And the angel of the Lord went yet farther, and stood in a narrow place, where there was no way to turn either to the right or to the left. 27 And when the ass saw the angel of the Lord, she lay do¶\m under Bifam : whereupon Bifam's anger was kindled, and he smote the ass with a stick. 28 And the Lord opened the mouth of the ass, and she said unto Bifam, What have I done unto thee, that thou hast smitten me these three times? 29 And Bifam said unto the ass, Because thou hast mocked me : had I but a sword in my hand, I would assuredly have now killed thee. 30 And the ass said unto Bifam, Am not I thy ass, upon which thou hast ridden from thy commencement*unto this day? was I ever wont to do so mi to thee? and he said, No. 31 Then the Lord opened the eyes of Bifam, and he saw the angel of the Lord standing in the way, with his sword drawn in his hand : and he l¶owed down his head and prostrated himself on his f;ice. 32 And the angel of the Lord said unto a Heb. "From thy first being," which the commentator to Mciidclssohn's translation cxplains, "from the first time thou diiLt ride." b Mendelssohn, after Rashi; and it means that though permission had been given to the gentile prophet to go to 190 him, Wherefore hast thou smitten thy ass these three times? behold, I went out to be a hindrance; because the journey which is odious to me was too quickly begun.'' 33 And the ass saw me, and turned aside before me these three times; if she had not turned aside from me, I would surely now not only have slain thee, but swed her alive. 34 And Bifam said unto the angel of the Lord, I have sinned; for I knew not that thou wast standing against me in the way: but now, if it be evil in thy eyes, I will return home again. 35 And the angel of the Lord said unto Bifam, Go with the men ; however, only the word which I will speak unto thee, that shalt thou speak f and Bifam went with the princes of Balak. 36 And when Balak heard that Bifam was come, he went out to meet him unto 'Ir–Moab, which is on the border of Arnon, which is at the outmost end of the bomidary. 37 And Balak said unto Bilam, Did I not earnestly send unto thee to have thee called? wherefore camest thou not unto me ? in truth, am I not able to honour thee? 38 And Bifam said unto Balak, Lo, I am come unto thee ; have I now any power what¶ ever to speak the least? the word that God may put in my mouth, that alone must I speak.* 39 And Bifam went with Balak, and they came unto Kiryath–chuzoth. 40 And Balak slew oxen and sheep, and sent to Bifam, and to the princes that were with him. 41 And it came to pass in the morning, that Balak took Bifam, and brought him up into the high places of Baal, and he saw thence a portion of the people. CHAPTER XXIII. 1 And Bifam said unto Balak, Build me here seven altars, and prepare me here seven bullocks and seven rams. 2 And Balak did as Bifam had spoken; and Balak and Bifam offered a bullock and a ram on everv altar. Balak, he nevertheless showed too great and culpable an eagerness to attempt cursing the people of God. c Aruheim renders o with "that;" Philippson, with "nevertheless." d Bil'am was evidently anxious to injure Israel. [Page 191] NUMBERS XXIII. BALAK. 3 And Bil'am said unto Balak, Place thy– self by thy bumt–offering ; and I will go, per– adventiire the Lord will come to meet me, and whatsoever he may show me I will tell thee; and he went thoughtfully alone.* 4 And God met Bifam : and he said unto him. The seven altars have I made ready, and I have offered a bullock and a ram upon every altar. 5 And the Lord put a word"" in Bifam's mouth, and said. Return unto Balak, and thus shalt thou speak. 6 And he returned unto him, and, lo, he was standing by his burnt–oflfering, he, and all the princes of Moab. 7 And he took up his parable, and said, From Aram did Balak send for me, the king of Moab, out of the mountains of the east, Come, curse me Jacob, and come, defy Israel. 8 How shall I denounce, whom God hath not denounced? and how shall I defy, whom the Lord hath not defied? 9 For from the top of rocks I see him, and from hills I behold him: lo, it is a people that shall dwell alone, and among the nations it shall not be reckoned. 10 Who can count the dust of Jacob, and number the fourth part of Israel ? May my soul die the death of the righteous, and may my last end be like his ! 11 And Balak said unto Bifam, What hast thou done unto me ? to denounce my enemies did I take thee, and, behold, thou hast even blessed them. 12 And he answered and said. Must I not take heed to speak that only which the Lord may put in my mouth?''' 13 And Balak said unto him, Come, I pray thee, with me unto another place, from where thou canst see them; nevertheless a portion of them only wilt thou see, but the whole of them thou wilt not see : and denounce them for me from there. 14 And he brought liim to the field of the watchmen, on the top of Pisgah, and he built a Mendelssohn renders, "to a mountain–top;" but On– kclos gives n'ri' "alone;" Rashi agrees with this. Arn– heim renders "devoutly." In the present version it has been endeavoured to unite both these ideas. b Mendelssohn, "answer;" Philippson, "speech." c i. e. The people, personified as an individual. d Onkelos refers both "iniquity" and " perverseness" to the worship of idols, and so is it rendered by Amheim. ibo Hi'nn is given after Onkelos. Rashi, Rashbam, and, seven altars, and offered a bullock and a mm on every altar. 15 And he said unto Balak, Place thysclf here by thy burnt–offering, while I will repair to yonder place. 16 And the Lord met Bifam, and put a word in his mouth, and said, Return unto Balak, and ¶ius shalt thou speak. 17 And he came to him, and behold, he was standing by his burnt–offering, and the princes of Moab with him; and Balak said unto him. What hath the Lord spoken? 18 And he took up his parable, and said. Rise up, Balak, and hear; bend hither thy ear unto me, son of Zippor ! 19 God is not a man, that he should lie; nor a son of man, that he should repent; hath he said, and shall he not do it? and hath he spoken, and shall he not fulfil it? 20 Behold, to bless I have received (the word) ; and he hath blessed, and I cannot re– verse it. 21 He hath not beheld iniquity'¶ in Jacob, nor hath he seen perverseness in Israel : the Lord his God is with him, and the glory of the king dwelleth among him. 22 God, who brought them out of Egypt, is to them like the heights" of the reem. 23 For there is no enchantment in Jacol), nor is there any divination in Israel : at the proper time shall it be said to Jacob and to Israel, what God doth work. 24 Behold, it is a people, that shall rise up as a lioness, and as a lion shall it raise itself: it will not lie down until it have eaten the prey, and have drunk the blood of the slain. 25 And Balak said unto Bifam, Neither shalt thou denounce them, nor shalt thou any wise bless them. 26 But Bifam answered and said unto Ba– lak, have I not spoken unto thee, saying, All that the Lord will speak, that must 1 do?* 27 And Balak said unto Bifam, Come, I pray thee, I will take thee unto another after them, Amheim, render it with "love" or "kindness." Philippson, "the joyous shout of the king." e Amheim, after whom this verse is given, thinks that it means "God is to the people a sure refuge, like the Alpine heights are to the reem, which he supposes to be here the chamois, where it is safe against the hunter." On– kelos translates " the strength and height are his," (God's,) meaning that He is mightier than all. 0. does not re– eard therefore DNi as the name of an animal in this verse. ¶ 191 [Page 192] NUMBERS XXIII. XXIV. BALAK. place ; peradventure it may be pleasing in the eyes of God that thou mayest denounce them for me from there. 28 And Balak took Bifam unto the top of Peor. that looketh toward the desert. 29 And Bifam said unto Balak, Build me here seven altars, and prej)are me here seven bullocks and seven rams. 30 And Balak did as Bifam had said, and he offered a bullock and a ram on every altar. CHAPTER XXIV. 1 And when Bifam saw that it was pleas– ing in the eyes of the Lord to bless Israel, he went not, as at other times, to seek for en– chantments, but he set his face toward the wilderness. 2 And Bifam lifted up his eyes, and when he saw Israel encamped according to their tribes, there came upon him the spirit of God. 3 And he took up his parable, and said, Thus saith Bifam the son of Beor, and thus saith the man whose eyes are open ; 4 Thus saith he who heareth the sayings of God, who sce¶i the vision of the Almighty, falling down, with unvailed eyes : 5 How beautiful are thy tents, Jacob, thy dwellings, Israel ! 6 As streams" are they spread forth, as gardens by the river's side, as aloe–trees, which the Lord hath planted, as cedar–trees beside the waters. 7 Water runneth out of his'' buckets, that his seed may be moistened by abundance of water; and exalted above Agag shall be his king, and raised on high shall be his kingdom. 8 God, who brought him forth out of Egypt, is to him like the heights of the reem; he will devour nations, his oppressors, and their bones will he break, and pierce (them) through with his arrows. 9 He couchcth, he lieth down as a lion, and as a lioness: who shall make him rise up? They that bless thee be blessed, and they that curse thee be cursed. 10 And the anger of Balak was kindled a Others, "valleys," b Arnheim refers " IiIh" to God, who is reprcBonted as planting the trees of Israel by flowing streams, the great fertilizers in all countries, particularly in warm climates; the buckets of God, his clouds, then send forth a con– stant supply, that the seed of the trees spoken of may be 1U2 against Bifam, and he struck his hands to– gether : and Balak said unto Bifam, To de– nounce my enemies did I call thee, and, be– hold, thou hast even blessed them these three times. 11 And now flee thou to thy place: I thought to honour thee greatly ; but, lo, the Lord hath kept thee back from honour. 12 And Bifam said unto Balak, Did I not already speak to thy messengers, whom thou sentest unto me, saying, 13 If Balak would give me his house full of silver and gold, I could not transgress the order of the Lord, to do good or evil out of my own heart ; what the Lord will speak, that must I speak ?''¶ 14 And now, behold, I am going unto my people : come, I will advise thee against what this people will do to thy people in the end of days. 15 And he took up his parable and said, Thus saith Bifam the son of Betir, and thus saith the man whose eyes are open ; 16 Thus saith he who heareth the sa¶–ings of God, and knoweth the knowledge of the Most High, who seeth the vision of the Al– mighty, falling down, with unvailed eyes : 17 I see him, but not now; I behold him, but not nigh ; there steppeth forth a star out of Jacob, and there ariseth a sceptre out of Israel, and he pierceth the chiefs'' of Moid), and destroyeth all the children of Sheth. 18 And Edom shall be a conquest, and Se'ir shall be a conquest for his enemies ; and Israel shall do valiantly. 19 And there shall rule the one from Jacob, and he shall destroy whatever escapeth out of the city. 20 And he looked on Amalek, and he took up his parable, and said. The first of nations'" is Amalek ; but his latter end shall be de– struction" for ever. 21 And he looked on the Kenites, and took up his parable, and said. Strong is thy dwelling–place, and placed on the rock is thy nest.' 22 Nevertheless the Kenite shall be wast> blessed by the abundance of the element through which they grow. c After Oukelos. Aruheim and others, "corners." d To war against Israel. — Onkelos. Leadeth to destruction. — Arnheim. f i. e. The mountain–strongholds of the Kenites. [Page 193] NUMBERS XXIV. XXV. XXVI. PINECHAS. ed ; whither'' will Asshur carry thee away captive ? 23 And he took up his parable, and said, Alas, who shall live when God doth appoint this one ?*" 24 But ships will come from the coast of Kittim, and will afflict Asshur, and will afflict 'Eber, and he also will be given to destruction for ever. 25 And Biriim rose up, and went and re– turned to his place ; and Balak also went his way. CHAPTER XXV. 1 ¶ And Israel abode in Shittim, and the people began to commit incest with the daughters of Moab. 2 And they called the people unto the sa– crifices of their gods : and the people did eat, and bowed themselves down to their gods. 3 And Israel joined themselves unto Baal– peiir; and the anger of the Lord was kindled against Israel. 4 And the Lord said unto Moses, Take all the heads of the people, and (cause them to) hang" them up before the Lord, in the face of the sun, that the fierce anger of the Lord may be turned away from Israel. 5 And Moses said unto the judges of Isi'ael, Slay ye every one his men that have been joined unto Baal–peor. 6 And, behold, one of the children of Israel came, and brought unto his brethren a Midi– auitish woman, before the eyes of Moses, and before the eyes of all the congregation of the children of Israel, and these were weeping by the door of the tabernacle of the congregation.* 7 And when Phinehas, the son of Elazar, the son of Aaron the priest, saw it, he rose up from the midst of the congregation, and took a jwelin in his hand; 8 And he went after the man of Israel into the tent, and thrust both of them through, the man of Israel, and the woman through her body ; and the plague was stayed from the children of Israel. a Rashi. How long will it be when Asshur will, &c. — Arnheim. b ( i. e. When God sends Asshur to execute his will. See Isaiah x. 5. — Philippson, "Wo! who might live, if God dispense it !" c And judge and slay those who deserve death. — Onkelos. Z 9 And those that died in the plague were twenty and four thousand. Haphtorah in Micah v. to vi. 8. SECTION XLI. PINECHAS, DnrS. 10 ¶ And the Lord spoke unto Moses, saying, 11 Phinehas, the son of Elazar, the son of Aaron the priest, hath turned away my wrath from the children of Israel, while he was zeal– ous in my stead'' in the midst of them, that I consumed not the children of Israel in my indignation. 12 Therefore say. Behold, I give unto him my covenant of peace ; 13 And it shall be unto him and unto his seed after him a covenant of an everlasting joriesthood; because he was zealous for his God, and made an atonement for the children of Israel. 14 Now the name of the man of Israel that was slain, who was slain wdth the Midianitish woman, was Zimri, the son of Sah10, a prince of a family division among the Simec/nites. 15 And the name of the Midianitish wo– man that was slain was Cozbi, the daughter of Zur ; he was head of tribes, of a family di– vision in Midian. 16 ¶ And the Lord spoke unto Moses, saying, 17 Attack the Midianites and smite them; 18 For they are enemies unto you with their wiles, wherewith they have beguiled you in the matter of Peor, and in the matter of Cozbi, the daughter of a prince of Midian, their sister, who was slain on the day of the plague for the sake of Peor. CHAPTER XXVI. 1 And it came to pass after the plague, ¶ That the Lord spoke unto Moses and unto Elazar the son of Aaron the priest, say– ing, 2 Take ye the sum of all the congregation of the children of Israel, from twenty yeai–s d Heb. " In his wenging my vengeance ;" meaning, that Phinehas executed the judgment which the Lord would otherwise have executed upon the daring Zimri. — The word "indignation" is used here for Tixjp¶, as this expresses the idea of " wrath existed by the exhibition of the apostasy" spoken of in the first verses of this chap– ter, better than "jealousy." 193 [Page 194] NUMBERS XXVI. PINECHAS. old and upward, by the descent from their fathers, all that are able to go forth to war in Israel. 3 And Moses with Elazar the priest spoke with them in the plains of Moab by the Jor– dan opposite Jericho, saying, 4 (Take" the sum of the people,) from twenty years old and upward ; as the Lord commanded Moses and the children of Israel, who went forth out of the land of Egypt.* 5 Reuben, the eldest son of Israel : the children of Reuben, of Chanoch, the family of the Chanochites ; of Pal10, the family of the Pal10ites; 6 Of Chezron, the family of the Chezron– ites ; of Carmi, the family of the Carmites. 7 These are the families of the Reubenites; and those that were numbered of them were forty and three thousand and seven hundred and thirty. 8 And the sons of Pal10 : Eliab. 9 And the sons of Eliab : Nemuel, and Da– than, and Abiram. These are Dathan, and Abiram, men called to the assembly, who (quarrelled against Moses and against Aaron in the company of Korach, at the time they quarrelled against the Lord; 10 when the earth opened her mouth, and swallowed them up together with Korach, while that company died, when the fire de– voui'ed the two hundred and fifty men ; and they became a sign.'' 11 But the sons of Korach did not die. 12 ¶ The sons of Simeon after their fami– lies : of Nemuel, the family of the Nemuelites; of Yamin, the family of the Yaminites; of Yachin, the family of the Yachinites ; 13 Of Zerach, the ftimily of the Zarchites; of Shaul, the family of the Shaulites. 14 These are the families of the Simeon– ites, twenty and two thousand and two hun– dred. 15 ¶ The children of Gad after their fami– lies : of Zephon, the family of the Zephonites; of Chaggi, the family of the Chaggites ; of Shuni, the family of the Shunites ; a The words enclosed in parentheses are not in the He– brew, as is likewise the case with nearly all others marked thus in this version; but they are such as are abso10tely refuireil by the context. b Tho punisliniciit inflicted on the trangressors must always be li)cikod iipim as a moans of guarding others against fnllnwing the sinful course through which the 194 16 Of Ozni, the fixmily of the Oznites ; of 'Eri, the family of the 'Erites ; 17 Of Arod, the fomily of the Arodites; of Areli, the family of the Arelites ; 18 These are the families of the children of Gad according to those that were numbered of them, forty thousand and five hundred. 19 If The sons of Judah were 'Er and Onan ; and 'Er with Onan died in the land of Canaan. 20 .And the sons of Judah after their fami– lies were : of Shelach, the family of the She– lanites ; of Perez, the family of the Parzites ; of Zerach, the family of the Zarchites. 21 And the sons of Perez were : of Chez– ron, the family of the Chezronites; of Char mul, the family of the Chamulites. 22 These are the families of Judah, accord– ing to those that were numbered of them, seventy and six thousand and five hundred. 23 ¶ The sons of Issachar after their fami– lies : of Tola', the family of the Tola'ites ; of Puva, the family of the Punites : 24 Of Yashub, the family of the Yashubites ; of Shimron, the family of the Shimronites. 25 These are the I'amilies of Issachar ac– cording to those that were numbered of them, sixty and four thousand and three hundred. 26 ¶ The sons of Zebulun after their fami– lies : of Sered, the finnily of the Sardites ; of Elou, the lamily of the Elonites ; of Yachleel, the family of the Yachleelites. 27 These are– the families of the Zebulon– ites according to those that were numbered of them, sixty thousand and five hundred. 28 ¶ The sons of Joseph after their fiimi– lies are Menassch and Ephraim. 29 The sous of Menasseh : of Machir, the family of the Machirites ; and Machir begat Gifad ; of Gifad, the family of the Gifadites. 30 These are the sons of Gifad : of I'ezer, the family of the I'ezerites; of Chelek, the family of the Chelkites ; 31 And of Assriel, the family of the Assri– elites; and of Shechem, the family of the Shichmites ; evil was brought upon the sinners ; hence the persons in the text are said to have become a " sign," or, more pro– perly, a " banner," or a signal raised up on high, as a land– mark for those who may pass the road where the banner is plantod. Rashi, therefore, eomnients, "As a sign and uicraoiial, in order that no siraugcr shall in future ap– proach to contend about the priesthood." [Page 195] NUMBERS XXVI. PINECHAS. 32 And of Shemida', the family of the She– niidaites ; and of Chepher, the family of the Chephrites. 33 And Zeloplichad the son of Chepher had no sons, but only daughters; and the names of the daughters of Zeloplichad were Machlah, and No' ah, Choglah, Milcah, and Tirzah. 34 These are the families of Menasseh ; and those that were numbered of them were fifty and two thousand and seven hundred. 35 ¶ These are the sons of Ephraim after their families : of Shuthelach, the family of the Shuthalchites ; of Becher, the family of the Bachrites : of Tachan, the family of the Taehanites. 36 And these are the sons of Shuthelach : of 'Eran, the family of the 'Eranites. 37 These are the families of the sons of Ephraim according to those that were num– bered of them, thirty and two thousand and five himdred; these are the sons of Joseph after their families. 38 ¶ The sons of Benjamin after their famiUes : of Bela', the family of the Bafites ; of Ashbel, the family of the Ashbelites; of Achiram, the family of the Achiramites ; 39 Of Shephupham," the family of the Shuphamites ; of Chupham, the family of the Chuphamites. 40 And the sons of Bela' were Ard and Na'aman : of Ard, the family of the Ardites ; and of Na'aman, the family of the Na'am– ites. 41 These are the sons of Benjamin after their families ; and those that were numbered of them were forty and five thousand and six hundred. 42 ¶ These are the sons of Dan after their families : of Shucham, the family of the Shu– chamites ; these are the families of Dan after their families. 43 All the families of the Shuchamites, according to those that were numbered of them, were sixty and four thousand and four hundred. 44 ¶ The children of Asher after their famiUes : of Yimna, the family of the Yim– a In comparing the names of the families of Israel with those of the fathers who first came into Egypt, there will be found considerable variation in some of them; for in– stance, the name in the text is Shephupham ; in Genesis xlvi. 21, it is Muppim ; so likewise Nemuel is in Genesis nites ; of Yishvi, the family of the Yishvifes ; of Beri'ah, the family of the Bori'itos. 45 Of the sons of Beri'ah : of Cheber, the family of the Chebrites ; of Malkiel, the family of the Makielites. 46 And the name of the daughter of Asher was Serach. 47 These arc the families of the sons of Asher according to those that were numljerod of them, fifty and three thousand and four hundred. 48 ¶ The sons of Naphtali after their fomi– lies : of Yachzeel, the family of the Yachzeel– ites ; of Guni, the familj– of the Gunites : 49 Of Yezer, the family of the Yizrites : of ShUlem, the family of the Shillemites. 50 These are the families of Naphtali ac– cording to their families ; and those that wei'e numbered of them were forty and five thou– sand and four hundred. 51 These were the numbered of the chil– dren of Israel, six hundred thousand, and one thousand, seven hundred and thirty.* 52 ¶ And the Lord spoke unto Moses, say– mo* 53 Unto these shall the land be divided for an inheritance accordu16 to the number of the names. 54 To the large tribe shalt thou give the more inheritance, and to the small shalt thou give the less mheritauce : to each according to those that were numbered thereof shall its in– heritance be given. 55 Nevertheless, through the lot shall the land be divided : according to the names of the tribes of their fathers shall they obtain their inheritance. 56 By the decision of the lot shall the in– heritance of each be divided, according as they are many or few. 57 ¶ And these are those that were num– bered of the Le\ates after their families : ol Gershou, the family of the Gcrshunites; ot Kehath, the family of the Kohathites ; oi Merari, the family of the Merarites. 58 These are the families of Levi : the family of the Libnites, the family of the Che– bronites, the family of the Machlites, the Yemuel ; Zochar there, is Zerach here ; Yob is Yashub, &c. The reason of these changes is not very apparent : perhaps the original founders of the family were known by both names, or these may have become corrupted iu the process of time. [Page 196] NUMBERS XXVI. XXVII. PINECHAS. family of the Musliites, the family of the Korchites ; and Kehath begat 'Amram. 59 And the name of 'Amram's wife was Yochebcd, the dauglitcr of Levi, whom (her mother) bore to Levi in Egypt ; and she bore unto Amram, 'Aaron and Moses, and Miriam their sister. 60 And there were born unto Aaron, Na– dab, and AInhu, Ehizar, and Ithaniar. 61 And Nadab and Abihu died, when they offered a strange fire before the Lord. 62 And those that were numbered of them were twenty and three thousand, all the males from a month old and upward ; for they were numbered among the children of Israel, be– cause there was not given unto them any in– heritance among the children of Israel. 63 These are those that were numbered by Moses and Elazar the priest, who numbered the children of Israel in the plains of Moab by the Jordan, opposite Jericho. 64 And among these there was not one man of those whom Moses and Aaron the priest had numbered, who numbered the children of Israel in the wilderness of Sinai. 65 For the Lord had said of them. They shall surely die in the wilderness ; and there was not leit of them one man, swe Caleb the Bon of Yephuuneh, and Joshua the son of Nun. CHAPTER XXVII. 1 ¶ And there came nigh the daughters of Zelophchad, the son of Chepher, the son of Gif ad, the son of Machir, the son of Menas– Beh, of the families of Menasseh the son of Joseph : and these are the names of his daughters, Machlah, No' ah, and Choglah, and Milcah, and Tirzah. 2 And they stood before Moses, and before Elazar the priest, and' before the princes, and all the congregation, by the door of the taber– nacle of the congregation, saying, 3 Our hither died in the wilderness ; but he was not among the company of those that gathered themselves together against the Lord in the company of Korach ; but in his own sin he died, and sons he had not. 4 Why should the name of our father be done away from the midst of his fjimily, be– a Meaning, that they had omitted to sanctify God. Mendelssohn, therefore, translates freely, " Because you cause he hath no son ? Give unto us a pos– session among the brothers of our father. 5 And Moses bi'ought their cause before the Lord.* 6 ¶ And the Lord spoke unto Moses, say– ing, 7 The daughters of Zelophchad speak rightly : thou shalt indeed give them a pos– session as an inheritance among the brothers of their father; and thou shalt cause the in– heritance of their father to pass unto them. 8 And unto the children of Israel shalt thou speak, sa¶'ing. If a man die, and have no son, then shall ye cause his inheritance to pass unto his daughter. 9 And if he have no daughter, then shall ye give his inheritance unto his brothers. 10 And if he have no brothers, then shall ye give his inheritance unto his father's bro– thers. 11 And if his father have no brothers, then shall ye give his inheritance unto his kinsman that is next to him of his family, and he shall inherit it ; and it shall be unto the children of Israel a statute of justice, as the Lord hath commanded Moses. 12 ¶ And the Lord said unto Moses, Go thou up into this mount of 'Abarim, and see the land which I have given unto the children of Israel. 13 And when thou hast seen it, then shalt thou also be gathered unto thy people as Aaron thy brother hath been gathered. 14 Because ye rebelled against my order in the desert of Zin, at the quarre10ng of the congregation, to sanctify" me through the waters before their eyes ; these are the Avaters of Mei'ibah in Kadesh, in the Avilderncss of Zin. 15 ¶ And Moses spoke unto the Lord, say– 16 Let the Lord, the God of the spirits of all flesh, appoint a man over the congregation, 17 Who may go out Ix'fore them, and who may come in betbrc them, and who may lead them out, and who may l)ring them in; that the congregation of the Lord be not as a flock which have no shepherd. 18 And the Lord said unto Moses, Take to thyself Joshua the son of Nun, a man in should have sanctified me, on the occasion of the water, before their eyes." [Page 197] NUMBERS XXVII. XXVIII. PINECHAS. whom there is a spirit, and thou shalt lay thy hand upon him ; 10 And thou shalt cause him to stand be– fore Elazar the priest, and before all the con– gregation ; and thou shalt give him a charge" before their eyes. 20 And thou shalt put some of thy great– ness upon him ; that all the congregation of the children of Israel may be obedient. 21 And before Elazar the priest shall he stand, and he shall ask of him after the judg– ment of the Urim before the Lord : at his'' di– rection shall they go out, and at his direction shall they come in, he, and all the children of Israel with Mm, and all the congrega– tion. 22 And Moses did, as the Lord had com– manded him ; and he took Joshua, and caused him to stand before Elazar the priest, and be– fore all the congregation ; 23 And he laid his hands upon him, and gave him a charge; as the Lord had com– manded by the hand of Moses.* CHAPTER XXVm. 1 ¶ And the Lord spoke unto Moses, say– ing, 2 Command the children of Israel, and say unto them, My offering, my bread for my sa– crifices consumed by fire, for a sweet savour unto me, shall ye observe to offer unto me in its due season." 3 And thou shalt say unto them. This is the offering made by fire which ye shall offer unto the Lord : Sheep of the first year with– out blemish, two on every day, as a continual burnt–offering. 4 The one sheep shalt thou offer in the morning, and the other sheep shalt thou offer toward evening; 5 And a tenth part of an ephah of fine flour for a meat–offering, mingled with the fourth part of a bin of beaten oil. 6 It is a continual burnt¶offering, as it was prejsared at mount Sinai, for a sweet savour, a sacrifice made by fire unto the Lord. 7 And the drink–offering thereof shall be the fourth part of a bin for the one sheep; in the holy place shalt thou cause the strong a Give him publicly a distinct injunction of the manner in which he is to administer the government, exercise justice, and be a valiant leader in battle. b That is, of Elazar. The priest invested with the wine to be poured out as a drink–offering unto the Lord. 8 And the other sheep shalt thou offer to– ward evening: as the meat–offering of the morning, and as the drink–offering thereof, shalt thou prepare it; an offering made by fire, for a sweet savour unto the Lord. 9 ¶ And on the sabbath–day two sheep of the first year without blemish, and two tenth parts of fine flour for a meat–offering, mingled with oil, and the drink–offering thereof 10 This is the burnt–oflering of the sabbath on every sabbath, laesides the continual burnt– offering, and its drink–ofi'ering. 11 ¶ And on the beginnings of your months shall ye offer as a burnt–oflering unto the Lord, two young bullocks, and one ram, seven sheep of the first year without blemish. 12 And three tenth parts of fine flour for a meat–offering, mingled with oil, for each one bullock ; and two tenth parts of fine flour for a meatrofferiug, mingled with oil, for the one ram; 13 And a tenth part of fine flour mingled with oil for a meat–offering for every one sheep : as a burnt–offering for a sweet savour, a sacrifice made by fire unto the Lord. 14 And their drink–offerings shall be half of a hin of wine for each bullock, and the third part of a hin for the ram, and a fourth part of a hin for every sheep: this is the burnt–offering of the new moon for every month throughout the months of the year. 15 And one he–goat for a sin–oft'oring unto the Lord; besides the continual burnt–offering shall it be prepared with its drink–offering.* 16 ¶ And in the first month, on the foui'– teenth day of the month, the passover–lamb (must be offered) unto the Lord. 17 And on the fifteenth day of this month is the feast; seven days shall unleavened bread be eaten. 18 On the first day is a holy convocation; no manner of servile work shall ye do ; 19 And ye shall offer as a sacrifice made by fire for a burnt–offering unto the Lord, two young bullocks, and one ram, and seven sheep of the first year; without blemish shall they be unto you; knowledge derived from the judgment of the Urim, should impart to the political chief the Divine injunctions for the government of the people. c Whether on sabbath or week–days 197 [Page 198] NUMBERS XXVIII. XXIX. PINECHAS. 20 And their meat–offering shall be of fine flour mingled with oil ; three tenth parts for each bullock, and two tenth parts for the ram shall ye offer; 21 A tenth part each shalt thou offer for every sheep, of the seven sheep; 22 And one goat for a sin–offering, to make an atonement for you. 23 Besides the burnt–offering of the morn– ing, which is for a continual burnt–offering, shall ye offer these. 24 After this manner' shall ye prepare daily, throughout the seven days, the food of the "sacrifice made by fire, for a sweet savour unto the Lord; beside the continual burnt– offering shall it be prepared with its drink– offering. 25 And on the seventh day shall ye have a holy convocation; no servile work shall ye do. 26 ¶ And on the day of the first–fruits,*" when ye bring a new meat–offering unto the Lord, after your weeks are out, shall ye have a holy convocation; no servile work shall ye do. 27 And ye shall bring as a burnt–offering for a sweet savour unto the Lord, two young bullocks, one ram, seven sheep of the first year; 28 And their meat–offering of fine flour mingled with oil, three tenth parts for each one bullock, two tenth parts for the one ram, 29 A tenth part each for every sheep, of the seven sheep; 30 One he–goat to make an atonement for you ; 31 Besides the continual burnt–offeru16 and its meat–ofi'ering shall ye prepare them; with– out lik'niish shall they be unto you together with their driuk–oftcrings. CHAPTER XXIX. 1 ¶f And in the seventh month, on the first day of the month, shall ye have a holy convocation; no servile work shall ye do: a a Heb. "Like these." b the feast of weeks, which is at the end of the seven weeks from ¶ic beginning of the harvest, or the scconJ day of the passover. It is called the day of first–fruits, on account of the two lowes of the first wheat sacri– ficed thereon. c Though the first day of the seventh month is an espe– cial festival, it nevertheless is also a new–moon day; eon– sefjuently the sacrifices ordained above (xxviii. 11–15) 198 day of blowing the comet shall it be unto you. 2 And ye shall prepare as a bimit–offering for a sweet savour unto the Lord, one young bullock, one ram, seven sheep of the first year without blemish ; 3 And their meat–offering of fine flour min– gled with oil, three tenth parts for the bul– lock, and two tenth parts for the ram, 4 And one tenth part for each one sheep, of the seven sheep ; 5 And one he–goat for a sin–offering, to make an atonement for you ; 6 Besides the burnt–offering of the new– moon," and its meat–offering, and the daily burnt–offering, and its meat–offering, and their drmk–ofterings, according unto their prescrib– ed manner; for a sweet savour, a sacrifice made by fire unto the Lord. 7 ¶ And on the tenth day of this seventh month shall ye have a holy convocation ; and ye shall afflict*¶our jiersons; no manner of work shall ye do. 8 And 3–e shall bring as a burnt–offering unto the Lord for a sweet savour, one young bullock, one ram, seven sheep of the first year; without blemish shall they be unto you. 9 And their meat–oflering shall Ix" of fine flour mingled with oil, three tenth parts for the bullock, two tenth parts for the one ram, 10 A tenth part each for every sheep, of the seven sheep; 11 One he–goat for a sin–offering; besides the sin–offering of the atonement," and the continual burnt–oflering. and the meat–oflering thereof, and their drink–offerings.* 12 ¶ And on the fifteenth day of the seventh month shall ye have a holy convoca– tion; no servile work shall ye do; and ye shall keep a feast unto the Lord seven days. 13 And ye shall bring as a bin'ntK)flering, a sacrifice made by fire, for a sweet savour unto the Lord, thirteen young bullocks,' two must be brought, in addition to the festivc–oficring com– manded in this section. d i. e. By fasting. e In addition to the sin–offerings, the blood of which was carried into the holy of holies, the goat for ' A/..izel, and the ram for a burnt–ofTering, mentioned in Leviticus xvi., shall those sacrifices bo made. f As the whole scheme of sacrifices is merely an autho– ritative enactment of the Lord, it would be needless to [Page 199] NUMBERS XXIX. XXX. PINECHAS. rams, and fourteen sheep of the first year; without blemish shall they be. 14 And their meat–offering shall be of fine Hour mmgled with oil, three tenth parts for each one bullock of the thirteen bullocks, two tenth parts for each one ram of the two rams, 15 And a tenth part each for every sheep of the fourteen sheep. 10 And one he–goat for a sin–oflfering; be– sides the continual burnt–offering, its meat– offering, and its drink–offering. 17 ¶ And on the second day, twelve young bullocks, two rams, fourteen sheep of the first year without blemish; 18 And their meat–ofiering and their drink– oflerings for the bullocks, for the rams, and for the sheep, shall be according to their num– ber, after the prescribed manner; 19 And one he–goat for a sin–offering; be– sides the continual burntroffering, and the meat–oflfering thereof, and their drink–offer– ings. 20 ¶ And on the third day eleven bul– locks, two rams, fourteen sheep of the first year without blemish; 21 And their meat–offering and their drink– offerings for the bullocks, for the rams, and for the sheep, shall be according to their num– ber, after the prescribed manner; 22 And one goat for a sin–offering; besides the continual burnt–oflering, and its meat– oflering, and its drink–offermg. 23 ¶\ And on the fourth day ten bullocks, two rams, fourteen sheep of the first year without blemish; 24 Their meat–offering and their drmk– offeriugs for the bullocks, for the rams, and for the sheep, shall be according to their num– ber, after the prescribed manner; 25 And one he–goat for a sin–offering; be– sides the continual burnt–offering, its meat– offering, and its drink–oflering. 26 ¶And on the fifth day nine bullocks, two rams, fourteen sheep of the first year without blemish; 27 And their meat–offering and their drink– offerings for the bullocks, for the rams, and for the sheep, shall be according to their num– ber, after the prescribed manner; seek for any particular reason for the diversity in the va– rious festivals. Only when offered as ordained, were burnt and other offerings acceptable, as acts of obedience and submission to the supreme will of Israefs Ruler and King. 28 And one goat for a sin–offering; besides the continual burnt–offering, and its meat– ofiering, and its drink–offering. 29 ¶] And on the sixth day eight bullocks, two rams, fourteen sheep of the first year without blemish ; 30 And their meat–offering and their drink– offerings for the bullocks, for the rams, and for the sheep, shall be according to their num– ber, after the prescribed manner; 31 And one goat for a sin–offering; besides the continual burnt–ofiering, its meat–ofiering, and its drink–ofierings. 32 ¶ And on the seventh day seven bul– locks, two rams, fourteen sheep of the first year without blemish ; 33 And their meat–ofiering and their drink– offerings for the bullocks, for the rams, and for the sheep, shall be according to their num– ber, after their prescribed manner; 34 And one goat for a sin–offering; besides the continual burnt–offering, its meat–offering, and its drink–offering.'"' 35 ¶ On the eighth day shall ye have a solemn assembly ;" no servile work shall ye do. 36 And ye shall bring as a burnt–oflering, a sacrifice made by fire, for a sweet savour unto the Lord, one bullock, one ram, seven sheep of the first year without blemish. 37 Their meat–offering and their drink– offerings for the bullock, for the ram, and for the sheep, shall be according to their number, after, the prescribed manner ; 38 And one goat for a sin–offering; besides the continual burnt–oflering, and its meat– offering, and its drink–oflei'ing. 39 These shall ye prepai'e unto the Lord on your appointed festivals ; besides your vows, and your freewill–oflerings, consistmg of your burnt–offerings, and of your meat–offerings, and of your drink–offerings, and of your peace– offerings. CHAPTER XXX. l*" And Moses said to the children of Israel according to all that the Lord had command– ed Moses. Haphtorah in 1 Kings xviii. 46 to xix. 21 ; but if it bo after the 17th of Tamuz, in Jeremiah i. 1 to ii. 3. Hence, also, it is useless to seek for an exact so10tion of the various ceremonies atteudiup; them. a "A conc10sion feast."– — Puilippson. b The English version commences ch. xxx. at ver. 2. 199 [Page 200] NUMBERS XXX. XXXI. MATTOTH. SECTION XLII. MATTOTH, mtOO. 2 Tf And Moses spoke unto the heads of the tribes of the children of Israel, saving, This is the thing which the Lord hath com– manded. 3 If a man make a vow unto the Lord, or he swear an oath to bind his soul with an obl16ation :" he shall not profane his word ; according to all that proceedeth out of his mouth shall he do. 4 And if a woman make a vow unto the Lord, and bind herself by an obl16ation, be– ing in her father's house in her youth ; 5 And her father hear her vow, and her obligation wherewith she hath bound her soul, and her father be silent to her: then shall all her vows stand, and every obl16ation wherewith she hath bound her soul shall stand. 6 But if her father disallow her on the day that he heareth it: all her vows or her obl16ations, wherewith she hath bound her soul, shall not stand; and the Lord will for– give her, because her father hath disallowed her. 7 And if she be given to a man, and have vows upon her, or what she may have uttered with her lips, wherewith she hath bound her soul ; 8 And her husband hear it, and be silent to her on the day that he heareth it: then shall her vows stand, and her obl16ations, wherewith she hath bound her soul, shall stand. 9 But if on the day of her husband's hear– ing it, he disallow her: then doth he annul her vow which is uj)on her, and that which she hath uttered with her lips, wherewith she hath bound her soul ; and the Lord will for– give her. 10 But regarding the vow of a widow, or of her that is divorced, all, wherewith she hath bound her soul, shall stand for her. 11 And if she had vowed in her husband's a That is, to prohibit oneself something which other– wise is pcrmittcJ to liim, whereas a vow uiuy refer to do Boiiiething which otherwise would not ho obl16atory. In either ca.–ie, wliether it was by an oath or siniiile declara– tion, we are warned not to violate our word, called in the text to profane it. b Verse 8 refers evidently to oaths made before the en– gagement of the fenmlo to lidr husband, al¶much a second– 200 house,'' or had bound her soul by an obl16a– tion with an oath; 12 And her husband heard it, and was silent to her, and disallowed her not : then all her vows shall stand, and every obl16ation, wherewith she hath bound her sOul, shall stand. 13 But if her husband hath annulled them on the day he heard them : then whatsoever proceeded out of her lips, concerning her vows, or concerning the obl16ation of her soul, shall not stand ; her husband hath annulled them ; and the Lord will forgive her. 14 Every vow, and every binding oath to afflict the person, her husband may confirm it, or her husband may annul it. 15 But if her hu.'¶band should be silent to her from day to day : then hath he confirmed all her vows, or all her obl16ations, which are upon her; he hath confirmed them, because he was silent to her on the day that he heard them. 16 But if he should annul them after (the day) that he hath heard them : then shall he bear her iniquity. 17 These are the statutes, which the Lord commanded Moses, between a man and his wife, between the father and his daughter, being yet in her youth, in her father's house.* CHAPTER XXXI. 1 ¶ And the Lord spoke unto Moses, saj – 2 Execute the vengeance of the children of Israel on the Midianites, after which thou shalt be gathered unto thy people. 3 And Moses spoke unto the people, say– ing. Arm yourselves some men for the army, and let them go against the Midianites, to execute the vengeance of the Lord on Mi– dian. 4 A thousand each for every tribe, of all the tribes of Israel, shall ye send to the army. 5 And there were levied out of the thou– ary rule concerning the vows of a minor, who is betroth– ed, is also drawn from it; whereas the present addresses itself to those wade after marriage, while the wife is in her husband's house. It is also inferred from this that, if a woman, during her husband's life, has made a vow, to take effect after a certain time, and he dis;ilIow it, though he should die before the time, still the vow is an– nulled. [Page 201] NUMBERS XXXI. MATTOTH. sands of Israel, a thousand of every tribe, twelve thousand armed for the army. 6 And Moses sent them, a thousand of every tribe, to the army; them and Phinehas the son of Elazar the priest, to the army, with the holy vessels, and the trumpets for blowing the alarm in his hand. 7 And they marched out against the Mi– dianites, as the Lord had commanded Moses; and they slew every male. 8 And the kings of Midian they slew, be– sides the rest of their men that were slain; namely, Evi, and Rekem, and Zur, and Chur, and Reba', the five kings of Midian; and Bifam the son of Beor they slew with the sword. 9 And the children of Israel took captives the women of Midian, and their little ones; and all their cattle, and all their flocks, and all their goods, they took as si)oil. 10 And all their cities wherein they dwelt, and all their castles they burnt with tire. 11 And they took all the spoil, and all the booty, both of men and of cattle. 12 And they brought unto Moses, and to Elazar the priest, and unto the congregation of the children of Israel, the captives,*and the booty, and the spoil, unto the camp, to the plains of Moab, which are by the Jordan opposite Jericho.* 13 ¶ And Moses, and Elazar the priest, and all the princes of the congregation, went forth to meet them, to without the camp. 14 And Moses was wroth with the officers of the host, the captains over the thousands, and the captains over the hundreds, who had come from the war–campa16n.– 15 And Moses said unto them, have ye allowed all the females to live? 16 Behold, these cliiefly were the cause unto the children of Israel, through the coun– sel of Bifam, to commit the gross trespass against the Lord in the matter of Peor; through which there was the plague among the congregation of the Lord. 17 And now kill ye every male among the a The word "captives" '32¶ refers to human beings; "spoil" hhiy to inanimate things, "booty" nipS:¶ to the cattle. But when they are not all enumerated together, both SSiy and nipSo refer to all things taken in war, as the English word sjmil. b In obedience to the injunction contained in chap, xix., by which every one touching a dead body is rendered un– 2A little ones, and every woman that hath knoAA'n man by Iying with him shall ye kill. 18 But all among the Avomen–children, that have not known a man by lying with him, keep alive for yourselves. 19 But ye, — you must abide without the camp seven days : all ye who have killed any person, and all who have touched any one slain, shall purify yourselves on the third day, and on the seventh day;*" both you and your captiA'es. 20 And every garment, and whatever is made of skins, and every Avork of goats' hair, and every vessel made of Avood, shall ye purify unto yourselves. 21 ¶ And Elazar the priest said unto the men of the army who had gone to the battle. This is the ordinance of the law which the Lord hath commanded Moses : 22 Nevertheless" the gold, and the silver, the copper, the iron, the tin, and the lead, 23 Every thing that cometh into the fire shall ye make go through the fire, and it shall be clean; only it shall be purified with the waters of sprinkling: and whatsoever doth not come into the fire shall ye cause to go through the water. 24 And ye shall wash your clothes on the seventh day, and ye shall be clean, and after that may ye come into the camp.* 25 ¶ And the Lord said unto Moses, as followeth, 26 Take the sum of the booty of the cap– tives, both of man and of cattle, thou, AAdth Elazar the priest, and the chiefs of the fami– lies of the congregatioii : 27 And thou shalt divide the booty, be– tween those that carried on the war, who went out to the army, and between all the congregation ; 28 And thou shalt levy a tribute unto the Lord from the men of Avar who went out to the army, one individual fi'om cA–ery fn–c hun– dred, of the persons, and of the oxen, and of the asses, and of the sheep ; 29 From their half shall ye take it; and clean, and remains so, till sprinkled with the ashes of the red cow. c " Although Moses only instructed you respecting the law of uncleanness, you are now to be instructed, in addi– tion, concerning the purification of vessels used for forbid– den food. 'Only' means an exception: you are not to use such articles even after they have been cleansed from 201 [Page 202] NUMBERS XXXI. XXXII. MATTOTH. thou shalt give it unto Elazar the priest, for a heave–offering of the Lord. 30 And from the half of the children of Israel, shalt thou take one individual, as it may come," from any tifty, of the persons, of beef–cattle, of the asses, and of the Hocks, of all manner of cattle, and give the same unto the Levitcs, who keep the charge of the taber– nacle of the Lord. 31 And Moses with Elazar the priest did, as the Lord had commanded Moses. 32 And the booty, being the rest of the spoil which the men of the army had taken, was of sheep and goats, six hundred thousand and seventy thousand and five thousand, 33 And of beef–cattle, seventy and two thousand, 34 And of asses, sixty and one thousand, 35 And of human persons, of women that had not known man Ijy lying with him, in all thirty and two thousand. 36 And the half, the portion of those who had gone out in the army, was, in the number of sheep and goats, three hundred thousand and seven and thirty thousand and five hun– dred. 37 And the tribute unto the Lord of the Hocks was six hundred and seventy and five. 38 And the beef–cattle were thirty and six thousand; and the tribute thereof unto the Lord was seventy and two. 39 And the asses were thirty thousand and five hundred; and the tribute thereof unto the Lord was sixty and one. 40 And the human persons were sixteen thousand; and the tribute thereof unto the Lord was thirty and two persons. 41 And Moses gave the tribute, the Lord's hewe–oifering, unto Elazar the priest, as the Lord had commanded Moses.* 42 And from the half of the children of Is– rael, which Moses divided off from the men that had goiu¶ forth in the army, — 43 (Now the half of the congregation was, of sheep and goats three hundred thousand and thirty thousand, seven thousand and five hundred, 44 And beef–cattle, thirty and six thou– sand, 45 And asses thirty thousand five hundred, 46 And human persons sixteen thousand;) 47 And Moses took from this half of the children of Israel, as it came, one from every fifty, of man and of cattle, and gave the same unto the Levites, who kept the charge of the tabernacle of the Lord; as the Lord had com– manded Moses. 48 And there came near unto Moses the officers who had been over the thousands of the anny, the captains of the thousands, and the captains of the hundreds, 49 And they said unto Moses, Thy ser– vants have taken the sum of the men of war who have been under our command, and there lacketh not one man of us. 50 We have therefore brought an oblation unto the Lord, each what he hath gotten of vessels of gold, chains, and bracelets, finger– rings, ear–rings, and tablets, to make an atone– ment'' for our souls before the Lord. 51 And Moses with Elazar the priest took the gold from them, all kinds of wrought articles. 52 And all the gold of the offering that they offered up to the Lord, was sixteen thou– sand seven hundred and fifty shekels, from the captains of the thousands, and from the captains of the hundreds. 53 The men of the army had taken spoil, every man for himself. 54 And Moses and Elazar the priest took the gold from the captains of the thousands and of the hundreds, and they brought it into the tabernacle of the congregation, as a memo– rial for the children of Israel before the Lord.* CHAPTER XXXII. 1 ¶ Now the children of Reuben and the children of Gad had a very great multitude of cattle ; and they saw the land of Ya'zer, the unclcanness of the dead, till they have been treated after the manner prescribed in this section. — After Rashi. a inx means " to seize ;" the participle here employed means, therefore, "just as it came," or "as it was seized hold of," that is, no particular care being employed in making the selectiim. b By referring to Exodus xxx. 12, it will 1)0 found that 202 when numbering the people, it was ordained that every one should offer half a shekel asan atonement, that "there might he no plague among the children of Israel." It was no doubt this commandment, at the taking of the general census, which induced the captains of the army to offer a similar gift as an atonement for the numbering of the men intrusted to their command, at the partial census which thev had instituted. [Page 203] NUMBERS XXXII. MATTOTH. and the land of Gifad, that, behold, the place was a place for cattle. 2 And the chikh'en of Gad and the chil– dren of Reuben came, and said unto Moses, and unto Elazar the priest, and unto the 2)rinces of the congregation, as followeth, 3 'Ataroth, and Dibon, and Ya'zer, and Nimrah, and Cheshbon, and Efaleh, and Se– bam, and Nebo, and Be'on, 4 The country which the Lord hath smit– ten before the congregation of Israel, is a land for cattle ; and thy servants have cattle. 5 ¶ And they said. If we have found grace in thy eyes, let this land be given unto thy servants for a possession; do not compel us to go over the Jordan. 6 And Moses said unto the children of Gad, and to the children of Reuben, Shall your brethren go to the war, and will ye" sit here ? 7 And wherefore will you turn aside the heart of the children of Israel from going over into the land which the Lord hath given them? 8 Thus did your fathers, when I sent them from Kadesh–barnea' to see the land. 9 For they went up as far as the valley of Eshcol, and "they saw the land, and then they turned aside the heart of the childi–en of Israel, so that they would not go into the land which the Lord had given them. 10 And the anger of the Lord was kindled on that day, and he swore, saying, 11 Surely none of the men that came up out of Egypt, from twenty years old and ui> ward, shall see the land which I swore unto Abraham, unto Isaac, and unto Jacob; be– cause they have not wholly followed me :'' 12 Swe Caleb the son of Yephunneh the Kenizzite, and Joshua the sou of Nun; for they have wholly followed the Lord. 13 And the anger of the Lord was thus kindled against Israel, and he made them wander about in the wilderness forty years. a Moses thought, probably, that it was an unwillingness on the part of the petitioners to enter Palestine, which caused them to prefer the eastern side of Jordan; and that their refusal to participate in the conquest of the western part might perhaps induce the other tribes to re– bel, which again would c¶iuse the wandering in the desert to be continued for an indefinite length of time. Hence his remonstrances, and their assurance that it was simply because the land was suited for the pasture of their cattle that their request was made. until all the generation was spent, that had done the evil in the eyes of the Lord. 14 And now, behold, ye are risen up in your fathers' stead, a new race of sinful men, to augment yet more the fierce anger of the Lord toward Israel. 15 For if ye turn away from after him, he will yet longer leave them in the wilderness ; and ye will thus be destruction to all this people. 16 ¶ And they came near unto him, and said, Sheepfolds will we build for our cattle here, and cities for our little ones ; 17 But we ourselves will go ready armed before the childi'cn of Israel, until that we have brought them unto their place ; and our Ut¶e ones shall dwell in the fortified cities, because of the inhabitants of the land. 18 We will not return unto our houses, until the children of Israel have acquired for themselves every man his inheritance. 19 For we will not take possession with them on the other side of the Jordan, and farther on ; when" our inheritance hath come to us on this side of the Jordan eastward.* 20 ¶ And Moses said unto them. If ye will do this thing, if ye will arm yourselves before the Lord for the war; 21 And every armed man of you will go over the Jordan before the Lord, until he have dri¶en out his enemies from Ijefore him ; 22 And when, only after the land hath been subdued before the Lord, ye will return, and ye be thus guil¶ess*before the Lord, and before Israel: then shall this land be yours for a possession before the Lord. 23 But if ye will not do so, behold, ye have sinned against the Lord; and ye shall experience the punishment" of your sin which will overtake you. 24 Build yourselves cities for your little ones, and folds for your flocks; and that which hath proceeded out of your mouth shall ye do. b Heb. "They have not filled after me;" meaning, that they had not rendered their hearts fully willing to follow the Lord. c Oukelos and others, "because." d Arnheim renders D'pj Dn"ni with "ye have discharged the duty." — We can derive from this a lesson, that it is not enough for us to act justly before God, but we should also strive to avoid suspicion from man. e nson properly signifies "the sin," and then also the punishment which follows on the same. 203 [Page 204] NUMBERS XXXII. XXXIII. MASSAY. 25 And the children of Gad and the children of Reuben said unto Moses, as followeth, Thy servants will do as my lord commandeth. 26 Our little ones, our wives, our flocks, and all our cattle, shall remain there in the cities of Girad; 27 But thy servants will pass over, every one that is armed for the army, before the Lord, to the war, as my lord speaketh. 28 And Moses commanded concerning them Elazar the priest, and Joshua the son of Nun, and the chiefs of the families of the tribes of the children of Israel ; 29 And Moses said unto them, If the chil– dren of Gad and the children of Reuben do pass with you over the Jordan, every one that is armed for the war, before the Lord, and the land shall be subdued before you: then shall ye give to them the land of Gif ad for a possession ; 30 But if they should not pass over armed with you, they shall take possessions among you in the land of Canaan.* 31 And the children of Gad and the chil– dren of Reuben answered, sayu16. That which the Lord hath said unto thy servants, even so will we do. 32 we will indeed pass over armed befoi–e the Lord into the land of Canaan, Avhile ours remaineth the possession of our inheritance on this side of the Jordan. 33 And Moses gave unto them, the chil– dren of Gad, and to the children of Reuben, and to half the tribe of Menasseh the sou of Joseph, the kingdom of Sichon, the king of the Emorites, and the kingdom of 'Og, the king of Bashan, the land, with its cities –with– in the boundaries, the cities of the country round about. 34 And the children of Gad built Dibon, and 'Ataroth, and 'Aro'er, 35 And 'Atroth–shophan, and Ya'zer, and Yogbehah, 36 And Beth–nimrah, and Beth–haran, forti– fied cities, and folds for flocks, a As each tribe bad to secure its possession by couqucst, (see Judges i.,) it was a proper denunciation of punish– ment for the lleiibcnites and their associates to be com– pelled to ae(uifc new territory, if they forfeited the land already eoiKiuered, by their breach of this covenant. b The commentator to Mendelssohn's translation sup– poses that Sichon, in conquering the part of the country of Moab mentioned above, xxi. 26, had given new names to 204 37 And the children of Reuben built Chesh– bon, and Efaleh, and Kiryathayim, 38 And Nebo, and Ba'al–me'on, (their names being changed,) and Sibmah ; and they gave the former names'' unto the cities which they built. 39 And the children of Machir the son of Menasseh went to Gifad, and conquered it, and dispossessed the Emorites who were m it.* 40 And Moses gave Gilad unto Machir the son of Menasseh ; and he dwelt therein. 41 And Yair the son of Menasseh went and conquered the small to¶\ais thereof, and called them Chavoth–¶a'ir. 42 And Nobach went and conquered Ke– nath, and the villages thereof, and called it Nobach, after his own name. Haphtorah in Jeremiah i. 1 to ii. 3. SECTION XLIII. MASSAY, 'VDD. CHAPTER XXXIII. 1 ¶ These are the journeys of the children of Israel, who went forth out of the land of Egypt according to their armies under the guidance of Moses and Aaron. 2 And Moses wrote their departures ac– cordmg to their journeys by the order of the Lord ; and these are their journeys according to their departures. 3 And they set forward from Ra'meses in the first month ; on the fifteenth day of the first month, on the morrow after the pass– over–sacrifice" the children of Israel went out with a high hand before the eyes of all the Egyptians. 4 And the Egyptians were biu–ying all the first–born, whom the Lord had smitten among them ; and upon their gods also did the Lord execute judgments. 5 And the children of Israel i–emo\–ed from Ra'meses, and encamped in Succoth. 6 And they removed from Succoth, and en– the cities; and that the Reubenites adopted again the Mo'abitc names, except Nebo and Ua'al–Me'on, which they changed. But Arnheim renders, " And they called by various names the cities which they built;" meaning, that they applied new names to the towns erected by them in their country. c i. e. The day after the sacrifice of the passover–lamb. See note above, to Leviticus xsiii. 5. [Page 205] NUMBERS XXXIII. MASSAY. camped iu Etham, –which is on the edge of the wilderness. 7 And they removed from Etham, and re– turned unto Pi–hachiroth, which is before Ba– "al–zephon : and they encamped before M16dol. 8 And they removed from before Pi–liachi– roth, and passed through the midst of the sea into the wilderness; and they went a three days' journey in the wilderness of Etham, and encamped in Marah. 9 And they removed from Marah, and came unto Elim ; and in Elim there were twelve springs of water, and seventy palm– trees ; and they encamped there. 10 And they removed from Elim, and en– camped by the Red Sea.* 11 And they removed from the Red Sea, and encamped in the wilderness of Sin. 12 And they removed from the wilderness of Sin, and encamjjed in Dophkah. 13 And they removed from Dophkah and encamped in A10sh. 14 And they removed from A10sh, and en– camped at Rephidim, and there was no water for the people to drink. 15 And they removed from Rephidim, and encamped in the wilderness of Sinai. 16 And they removed from the desert of Sinai, and encamped at Kibroth–hattaavah. 17 And they removed from Kibroth–hat– taavah, and encamped at Chazeroth. 18 And they removed from Chazeroth, and encamped in Rithmah. 19 And they removed from Rithmah, and encamped at Rimmou–perez. 20 And they removed from Rimmon–perez, and encamped in Libnah. 21 And they removed from Libnah, and encamped at Rissah. 22 And they removed from Rissah, and encamped in Kehelathah. 23 And they removed from Kehelathah, and encamped in mount Shapher. 24 And they removed from mount Shapher, and encamjied in Charadah. 25 And they removed from Charadah, and encamped in Makheloth. 26 And they removed from Makheloth, and encamped at Tachath. 27 And they removed from Tachath, and encamped at Tarach. 28 And they removed from Tarach, and encamped in Mithkah. 29 And they removed from Mithkah, and encamped in Chashmonah. 30 And they removed from Chashmonah, and encamped at Mosseroth. 31 And they removed from Mosseroth, and encamped in Bene–ya'akan. 32 And they i–emoved from Bene–}a'akan, and encamped at Chor–hagidgad. 33 And they removed from Chor–hagidgad, and encamped in Yotbathah. 34 And they removed from Yotbathah, and encamjied at 'Abronah. 35 And they removed from 'Abronah, and encamped at 'Ezj–on–geber. 36 And they removed from 'Ezyon–geber, and encamped in the wilderness of Zin, which is Kadesh. 37 And they removed from Kadesh, and encamped at mount Ilor, on the edge of the land of Edom. 38 And Aaron the priest went up on mount Hor by the order of the Lord, and died there, in the fortieth year after the going out of the children of Israel from the land of Egypt, in the fifth month, on the first of the month. 39 And Aaron was a hundred and twenty and three years old when he died on mount Hor. 40 ¶ And the Canaanite, king of 'Arad, who dwelt on the south side in the land of Canaan, heard of the coming of the children of Israel. 41 And they removed from mount Hor, and encamped in Zalmonah. 42 And they removed from Zalmonah, and encamped in Punon. 43 And they removed from Punon, and en– camped in Oboth. 44 And they removed from Oboth, and en– camped in 'lye–ha'abarim, on the .border of Moab. 45 And they removed from lyim, and en– camped in Dibon–gad. 46 And they removed from Dibon–gad, and encamped in 'Almon–diblathaymah. 47 And they removed from 'Almon–diblar thaymah, and encamped on the mountains of 'Abarim, before Nebo. 48 And they removed from the mountains of 'Abarim, and encamped in the plains of Moab by the Jordan opposite Jericho. 49 And they encamped by the Jordan, 205 [Page 206] NUMBERS XXXIII. XXXIV. MASSAY. from Beth–hayeshimoth even unto Abel–ha– shittim ill the plains of Moab.* 50 ¶ And the Lord spoke unto Moses in the plains of Moab by the Jordan opposite Jericho, saying, 51 Speak unto the children of Israel, and say unto them, When ye pass over the Jordan into the land of Canaan : 52 Then shall ye drive out all the inhar bitants of the land from before you, and ye shall destroy all their statues, and all their molten images shall ye destroy, and devastate all their high places. 53 And ye shall drive out (the inhabitants of) the land, and ye shall dwell therein ; for unto you have I given the land to possess it. 54; And ye shall divide the land by lot for an inheritance among your families; to the numerous shall ye give the more inheritance, and to the small in number shall ye give the less inheritance : there, where the lot des16– nateth it for him, shall every one's possessions be; according to the tribes of your fathers shall ye divide it among yourselves. 55 But if ye will not drive out the inhabit– ants of the land from before you : then shall it come to pass, that those whom ye will let remain of them shall be as thorns in your eyes, and as stings in your sides, and they shall trouble you in the land wherein ye dwell. 56 And it shall come to pass, that as I l)urposed to do unto them, will I do unto you. CHAPTER XXXIV. 1 ¶ And the Lord spoke unto Moses, say– in?, 2 Command the children of Israel, and say unto them, When ye come into the land of Canaan, shall ¶iis be the land that shall fall unto you for an inheritance : the land of Ca– naan according to its boundaries. 3 And the southern side shall be unto you from the wilderness of Zin along by the boundary of Edom, and your southern border shall commence at the outmost edge of the Salt Sea on its east side. 4 And the border shall turn for you from a A different mount from the one where Aaron died; the one here being a headland on the north–west, now call– 206 the south of the ascent of 'Akrabbim, and pass on to Zin ; and its terminating points shall be to the south of Kadesh–barneif, and shall go on to Qhazar–addar, and pass on to 'Azmon ; 5 And the border shall turn from 'Azmon unto the river of Egypt, and its terminating points shall be at the sea. 6 And as the western border, shall ye have the Great Sea for a border : this shall be your western border. 7 And this shall be unto you the northern border : from the Great Sea shall ye mark out for you (the boundaiy to) mount Hor;" 8 From mount Hor shall ye mark out (the boundary) unto the entrance of Chamath ; and the terminations of the border shall be toward Zedad ; 9 And the border shall go on to Ziphron, and its terminations shall Ijc at Chazar–'enan ; this shall be unto you the northern border. 10 And ye shall turn 3–ourselves to the eastern border, from Chazar–'enan to Shepham ; 11 And the boundary shall go down from Shepham to Riblah, to the eastward of 'Ayin; and the boundary shall descend, and shall touch upon the coast of the sea of Kinnereth, eastward ; 12 And the border shall go down to the Jordan, and its terminations'" shall l)e at the Salt Sea : this shall be your land after its boundaries round about. 13 And Moses commanded the children of Israel, sajang, This is the land which ye shall divide among yourselves by lot, which the Lord hath commanded to give unto the nine tribes, and to the half tribe. 14 For the tribe of the childi'en of Reuben according to their family divisions, and the tribe of the children of Gad according to their foniily divisions, have received, — and the half of the tribe of Menasseh ha\–c received their inheritance ; 15 The two tribes and the half tribe have received their inheritance on this side of Jor– don opposite Jericho eastward, toward the rising of the sun.* 16 ¶ And the Lord spoke unto Moses, say– ed Eas–al–shaka, between Beirut and Trablos (Tripoli ;) whereas the other is at the sonth–c.–ust. b i. e. The farthest pointsofthe boundary in thatdirection. [Page 207] NUMBERS XXXIV. XXXV. MASSAY. 17 These are the names of the men who shall parcel out unto you the land : Elazar the priest, and Joshua the son of Nun. 18 And one prince each from every tribe shall ye take to parcel out the land. 19 And these are the names of the men : Of the tribe of Judah, Caleb the son of Ye– phunneh ; 20 And of the tribe of the children of Si– meon, Shemuel the son of 'Ammihud ; 21 Of the tribe of Benjamin, Elidad the son of Kisslon ; 22 And of the tribe of the children of Dan the prince, Bukki the son of Yogli ; 23 Of the children of Joseph, for the tribe of the children of Menasseh the prince, Chan– niel the son of Ephod ; 24 And of the tribe of the children of Ephraim the prince, Kemuel the son of Shiphtan ; 25 And of the tribe of the children of Zebulun the prince, Elizaphan the son of Parnach ; 26 And of the tribe of the children of Issa– char the prince, Paltiel the son of 'Azzan ; 27 And of the tribe of the children of Asher the prince, Achihud the son of She– lomi ; 28 And of the tribe of the children of Naphtali the prince, Pedahel the son of 'Am– mihud. 29 These are they whom the Lord hath commanded to divide out the inheritance unto the children of Israel in the land of Ca– naan.* CHAPTER XXXV. 1 ¶" And the Lord spoke unto Moses in the plains of Moab by the Jordan opposite Jericho, saying, 2 Command the children of Israel, that they give unto the Levites from the inheri– tance of their jDossession cities to dwell in; and an ojDen space for the cities round about them shall ye give (also) unto the Levites. a "And afterward he mentions two thousand. How is this ? He gives them two thousand cubits all round, and of these the inner thousand are for the open space, and the outer thousand for fields and vineyards." — Rashi and Rashbam. But Philippson conceives that the whole should form a square of two thousand cubits, in the centre of which the city should be situated, which would make the line one thousand cubits only from each side of the 3 And the cities shall serve them to dwell in ; and their open spaces shall be for their cattle, and for their goods, and ibr all their requirements. 4 And the open spaces of the cities, which ye shall give unto the Levites, shall reach from the wall of the city and outward a thousand" cubits round about. 5 And ye shall measure from wi¶iout the city on the east side two thousand cubits, and on the south side two thousand cubits, and on the west side two thousand cubits, and on the north side two thousand cubits, with the city in the midst : this shall be to them the open spaces of the cities. 6 And the cities which ye shall give unto the Levites shall be the six cities of refuge, which ye shall appoint that the manslayer may flee thither; and in addition to them shall ye give forty and two cities. 7 All the (other) cities which ye shall give to the Levites shall be forty and eight cities, they with their open spaces. 8 And the cities which ¶e shall give of the possession of the children of Israel, from the tribe that hath many shall ¶e give many; but from the one that hath few shall ye give few : every one according to its inheritance which it may inherit shall give of its cities unto the Levites.* 9 ¶ And the Lord spoke unto Moses, say– ing, 10 Speak unto the children of Israel, and say unto them, When ye have passed over the Jordan into the land of Canaan : 11 Then ye shall appoint unto yourselves proper cities, that they be cities of refuge for you ; and thither shall flee the manslayer who killeth any person at unawares. 12 And these cities shall be unto you for a refuge from the wenger ; that the manslayer die not, until he have stood before the congre– gation for trial.*" 13 And the cities which ye shall give, shall be six cities of refuge unto you ; city wall. But Rashi's opinion seems preferable, cspe– ciaUy if we consider that the space of one thousand cubits was to be for pasture, &c., and they would have thus had nothing for fields and vineyards. b DDWoh, to be judged and inquired into whether the deed was murder or accidental homicide, or whether it happened at all. — This also shows us that even open mur– der had to be tried by the public courts. 207 [Page 208] NUMBERS XXXV. XXXVI. MASSAY. 14 Throo of these cities shall ye give on this side of the Jordan, and the three other cities shall ye give in the land of Canaan; cities of refuge shall they be. 15 For the children of Israel, and for the stranger, and for the sojourner among them, shall these six cities be for a refuge: that every one" may flee thither that killeth any person at unawares. 16 And if he have smitten him with an instrument of iron, so that he die, he is a murderer : the murderer shall surely be put to death. 17 And if he have smitten him with a stone which one can take in the hand,**where– with he may die, and he die, he is a murder– er : the murderer shall surely be put to death. 18 Or if he have smitten him with an arti– cle of wood, which one can take in the hand, wherewith he may die, and he die, he is a murderer : the murderer shall surely be put to death. 19 The wenger of the blood himself shall slay the murderer; when he meeteth him, shall he slay him. 20 And if he push" against him out of hatred, or he have hurled at him (any thing) by lying in wait, that he die ; 21 Or if in enmity he have smitten him with his hand, that he died, he that smote him shall surely be put to death ; (for) he is a murderer: the wenger of the blood shall slay the murderei", when he meeteth with him. 22 But if he have pushed against him ac– cidentally without enmity, or have cast upon him any thing without lying in wait, 23 Or with any stone wherewith a man may die, without seeing him, and he have let it fall upon him, that he died; whereas he was not his enemy, and did not seek his harm : 24 Then shall the congregation judge l¶e– tween the slayer and the wenger of the blood according to these institutions; a Another injunction to treat the stranf¶cr well. b That is, as Rashi says, a stone that fills the hand, and is large enough to produce death ; so also with wood. A small piece of iron, however, can produce death; no size, therefore, is mentioneil. Jfcndelssohn renders, " If he take a stone, with which one can be slain, in the hand, and smite some one," &c. But the evident intention of the law is to provide that the stone or wood must be of a size likely to produce death, and to exc10de from wilful mur– der when the article was of that kind as to prco10dc a 208 25 And the congregation shall deliver the manslayer out of the hand of the wenger of the blood, and the congregation shall restore him to the city of his refuge, whither he had fled ; and he shall abide in it until the death of the high–priest, who hath been anointed with the holy oil. 26 But if the manslayer should at any time jDass the boundary of the city of his refuge, whither he may have fled ; 27 And the wenger of the blood should find him beyond the boundary of the city of his refuge, and the wenger of the blood should kill the manslayer: he shall not be guilty of blood ; 28 Because in the city of his refuge shall he remain until the death of the high–priest; but after the death of the high–priest the man– slaj–er may return vmto the land of his pos– session. "¶ 29 And these things shall be unto you for a statute of justice throughout your genera– tions in all your dwellings. 30 Whoever it be that killeth a person, according to the testimony of witnesses shall the mvu'derer be put to death ; but one witness shall not testify against any person to cause him to die. 31 Moreover ye shall take no redemption money for the person of a murderer," who is guilty of death ; but he shall surely be put to death. 32 And ye shall take no redemption money for him that hath tied to the city of his i–efuge, that he should come again to dwell in the land, until the death of the priest. 33 And 3e shall not defile the land wherein ye are ; for the blood it is which defileth the land : and no atonement can l)e made unto the land for the blood which hath been shed therein, except through the blood of him that hath shed it. 34 And ye shall not render unclean the murderous intent, though death should have accidentally ensued. c "Push him down from a high place." — AnK.v Kzu.v. d At this return he is free from civil punishment ; con– sequently, to kill him would be a punishable murder. e This prohibition, not to take money to redeem a mur– derer ft–om his punishment, permits by implication that it is permitted to assess a fine for inflicting a wound on ano– ther, and not to take actually eye for eye or tooth for tooth. This also was the practice of Jewish courts. [Page 209] NUMBERS XXXVI. MASSAY. land which ye inhabit, in the midst of which I dwell ; for I the Lord dwell in the midst of the children of Israel.* CHAPTER XXXVI. 1 ¶ And there came near the chiefs of the divisions of the family of the children of Gil– 'ad, the son of Machir, the son of Menasseh, of the families of the sons of Joseph ; and they spoke before Moses, and before the princes, the chiefs of the divisions of the children of Israel ; 2 And they said, The Lord hath command– ed my lord to give the land for an inherit– ance by lot to the children of Israel ; and my lord hath been commanded by the Lord to give the inheritance of Zelophchad our brother unto his daughters. 3 And if they become the wives of any of the sons of the (other) tribes of the children of Israel ; then will their inheritance be taken from the inheritance of our fathers, and be added to the inheritance of the tribe where– among they may be married;" and from the lot of our inheritance vdll it be taken away. 4 And whenever the jubilee shall be to the children of Israel, then will their inherit– ance be added unto the inheritance of the tribe whereamong they may be married ; and from the inheritance of the tribe of our fathers will their inheritance be taken away. 5 And Moses commanded the children of Israel by the order of the Lord, saying, The tribe of the sons of Joseph have spoken well. 6 This is the thing which the Lord hath commanded'' concerning the daughters of Ze– a D'wh is here again understood; hence the word "mar– ried" has been supplied. b It is probable that the restriction now made known was a part of the law of inheritance communicated to Moses lophchad, saying. To those who are pleasing in their eyes may they become wives; however only to the fimiily of the tribe of their father shall they become wives. 7 And the inheritance of the children of Israel shall not pass from tribe to tribe ; but the children of Israel shall adhere every one to the inheritance of the tribe of his fathers. 8 And every daughter that inheriteth any possession out of any tribe of the children of Israel, shall become the wife unto one of the family of the tribe of her father ; in order that the children of Israel may inherit every one the inheritance of his fathers. 9 And no inheritance shall pass from one tribe to another tribe ; but the tribes of the chidren of Israel shall adhere, every one, to his own inheritance.* 10 Even as the Lord had commanded Moses, so did the daughters of Zelophchad ; 11 And Machlah, Tirzah, and Choglah, and Milcah, and No'ah, the daughters of Ze– lophchad became the wives of the sons of their uncles. 12 (To persons) of the families of the sons of Menasseh the son of Joseph did they be– come wives, and their inheritance remained in the tribe of the family of their llvther. 13 These are the commandments and the ordinances, which the Lord commanded by the hand of Moses unto the children of Israel, in the plains of Moab by the Jordan opposite Jericho. Haphtorah in Jeremiah ii. 4 to 28 ; to which the Germans add iii. 4; and the Portuguese, iv. 1 and 2. with the other clauses above, xxvii. 7 toll, but was with– held until the elders most interested came to inquire, as might have been at once expected, so as to give the matter greater sanction and force. 2B [Page 210] THE BOOK OF DEUTERONOMY, DEBARIM, DHD"!. CONTAININ6 A RECAPITULATION OF THE HISTORY OF THE ISRAELITES IN THE DESERT, AND OF SEVERAL LAWS; EMBRACIN6 ALSO SOME NEW ENACTMENTS, AND AN ACCOUNT OF THE LAST DAYS OF MOSES. SECTION XLIV. DEBARIM, Dnm. CHAPTER I. 1 ¶ These are the words which Moses spoke unto all Israel on this side of the Jor– dan" in the wilderness, in the plain opjjosite Suph, between Paran, and Tophel, and La– ban, and Chazeroth, and Di–zahab. 2 It is a journey of eleven days from Ho– reb by the way of mount Seir unto Kadesh– barneii'. 3 And it came to pass in the fortieth'' year¶ in the eleventh month, on the first day of the month, that Moses spoke unto the children of Israel, according to all that the Lord had commanded him concerning them ; 4 After he had smitten Sichon the king of the Emorites, who dwelt in Cheshbon, and 'Og the king of Bashan, who dwelt at 'Ashta– roth in Edre'i. On this side of the Jordan, in the land of Moab, began Moses to explain this law, saying, () The Lord our God siwke unto us in IIo– reb, saying. Ye have tariied long enough at this mount; 7 Turn you, and take your journey, and go to the mountain of the Emorites, and unto all its neighbouring places, in the plain, in the mountain, and in the vale, and in the southern country, and by the coast of the sea, to the land of the Canaanites, and unto the Lebanon, up to the great river, the river Euphrates. 8 Behold I have given up the land before a Properly "Yardcn." b i. e. After the going out from Egypt, which is always the era mentioned in the Bible up to the Babylonian eaptivity. c This verse is a parenthesis: Moses says in the pre– ceding one that he was not able to bear all the labour of the great multitude; and adds, nevertheless, may it be 210 you : go in and take possession of the land which the Lord hath sworn unto your fathers, to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob, to give it unto them and to their seed after them. 9 And I said unto you at that time, as fol– loweth, I am not able alone to bear 3–ou ; 10 The Lord your God hath multiplied you, and, behold, ye are this day as the stars of heaven for multitude. 11 May'' the Lord the God of your fathers make you a thousand times as many more as ye are; and bless you, as he hath spoken unto you.* 12 How can I by myself alone bear your cumbrance, and your burden, and your strife ? 13 Furnish for yourselves wise and under– standing men, and those known among your tribes,'' and I will place them as chiefs over you. 14 And ye answered me, and said. The thing which thou hast spoken is good to do. 15 And I took the chiefs of your tribes, wise and known men, and I set them as heads over you, captains over thousands, and cap– tains over hundreds, and captains over fifties, and captains over tens, and as officers lor your tribes. 16 And I commanded your judges at that time, saying. Hear the causes between jour brethren, and judge righteously, between a man and his brother, and between his stran– ger." 17 Ye shall not respect persons in judg– ment; the small as well as the great shall ye the will of God to add to them a thousand–fold as many; and then contiuucs with the narrative. d According to the Massorah, "and those well known, according to your tribes." e The law knows of no distinction between the Israelite and the foreigner ; all are alike before the Supreme Judge of the world. [Page 211] DEUTERONOMY I. DEBARIM. hear ; ye shall not be afraid of any man ; for the judgment belongeth to God: and the cause that is too hard for you shall ye bring unto me, and I will hear it. 18 And I commanded you at that time all the things which ye should do. 19 And we departed from Horeb, and we went through all that great and terrible wil– derness, which ye have seen, by the way of the mountain of the Emorites, as the Lord our God had commanded us; and we came as far as Kadesh–barnea'. 20 And I said unto you. Ye are come unto the mountain of the Emorites, which the Lord our God doth give unto us. 21 Behold, the Lord thy God hath given up'' the land before thee : go up and take pos– session of it, as the Lord the God of thy fathers hath spoken unto thee; do not fear, and be not discouraged.* 22 And ye alP came near unto me and said. Let us send out men before us, that they may search out for us the land, and bring us word again concerning the way by which we must go up, and the cities to which we shall come. 23 And the thing was pleasing in my eyes; and I took of you twelve men, one man for every tribe : 24 And they turned and went up into the mountain, and came unto the valley of Eshcol, and spied it out. 25 And they took in their hand some of the fruit of the land, and brought it down itnto us ; and they brought us word again, and said, The land which the Lord our God doth give us is good. 26 But you would not go up, and ye re– belled against the order of the Lord your God; 27 And ye murmured in your tents, and said. On account of the hatred of the Lord toward us, hath he brought us forth out of the land of Eg\'pt, to deliver us into the hand of the Emorites, to destroy us. a Meaning, "surrendered, yielded up;" elsewhere called "to give into the hands." b "Confusedly; and elsewhere (v. 19) it is said, 'The chiefs of your tribes and elders,' &c.; that approaching was a worthy one, the young men honoured the elders by letting them go in advance; and so did the elders to the chiefs; but in this case you all came in confusion, young men pushing aside the elders, and the elders the chiefs." — Rashi. 28 Whither shall we go up? our brethren have made faint our heart, saying. The peo– ple is greater and taller than we; the cities are great and fortified up to liewen ; and moreover the sons of the 'Anakim have we seen there. 29 And I said unto you. have no dread, nor be ye afraid of them. 30 The Lord your God who goeth before you, he it is who will fight for you all ; just as he did for you in Egypt before your eyes ; 31 And in the wilderness which" thou hast seen, where the Lord thy God bore thee, as a man doth bear his son, on all the way that ye have gone, until ye came unto this place. 32 Yet in this thing do ye not believe in the Lord your God, 33 Who goeth before you on the way to seek out for you a place for your encamping, in fire by night, to cause you to see on the way in which ye are to go, and in a cloud by day. 34 And the Lord heard the voice of your words; and he was wroth, and swore, say– in o* 35 Surely there shall not one of these men of this evil generation see that good land, which I have sworn to give unto your fathers ; 36 Swe Caleb the son of Yephunneh, he shall see it, and to him will I give the land upon which he hath trodden, and to his chil– dren; because he hath wholly followed the Lord. 37 Also with me was the Lord angry for your sakes, saying, Also thou shalt not go in thither. 38 Joshua the son of Nun, who standeth before thee, he shall go in thither: him en– courage; for he shall cause Israel to inhe– rit it.* 39 And your little ones, of whom ye said, They will become a prey, and your children who know not this day either good or evil, these shall go in thither; and unto them will I give it, and they shall possess it. e According to Rashi, this ought to read, "Where thou hast seen that the Lord, &c." But in either way the sense is the same. f As Moses was relating the doom of " the generation of the desert," as they are called by our writers, he inc10des also the decree which was pronounced upon him, since he too did not pass over the Jordan. "For your sakes" means only that the disobedience of the people caused his own transgression. 211 [Page 212] DEUTERONOMY I. II. DEBARIM. 40 But as for you, turn you, and take your journev into the wilderness by the way of the Red Sea. 41 And ye answered and said unto me, We have sinned against the Lord; we indeed will go uj) and we will fight, according to all that the Lord our God hath commanded us; and ye girded on every man his weapons of war, and ye insisted to go up into the moun– tain. 42 And the Lord said unto me, Say unto them, Go not up, and do not fight; for I am not among you; lest ye be smitten before your enemies. 43 And I spoke unto you; but ye would not hear; and ye rebelled against the order of the Lord, and you were presumptuous, and went up into the mountain. 44 And the Emorites, who dwelt in that mountain, came out against you, and they pursued you, as the bees do, and they over– threw you in Se'ir, as far as Chormah. 45 And ye returned and wept before the Lord; but the Lord hearkened not to your voice, nor gave ear unto you. 46 And ye tarried in Kadesh many days, according unto the days that ye tarried there. CHAPTER IL 1 Then we turned, and took our journey into the wilderness by the way of the Red Sea, as the Lord had spoke unto me : and we trwelled around mount Seir many days.* 2 ¶ And the Lord said unto me, as fol– loweth, 3 Ye have trwelled long enough around this mountain; turn yourselves northward. 4 And the people command thou, saying, Ye are passing l)y the liorder of your brethren the children of Esau, who dwell in Se'ir; and they will be afraid of you ; therefore take ye good heed unto yourselves : 5 Do not contend with them; for I will not give inito you of their land, even so much as a foot's breadth ; because unto Esau have I given mount Seir for an inheritance. 6 Food shall ye buy of them for money, that ye may eat ; and water also shall ye buy of them for money, that ye may drink. a Meaning, that they could have no excuse for asking favours of men, since their wealth, abundant as it was, had been supplied by the liberal hand of their God. b Heb. yT, "he hath known;" a knowledge of a per– 7 For the Lord thy God hath blessed thee in all the works of thy hand ; he hath pro– vided for*" thy wandering through this great wildeniess: these forty years the Lord thy God hath been with thee; thou hast lacked nothing. 8 And we passed away from our brethren the children of Esau, who dwell in Seir, from the way through the plam, from Elath, and from 'Ezyon–gaber. ¶ And we turned and passed the way of the wilderness of Moab. 9 And the Lord said unto me, Do not at– tack the MoJibites, nor contend with them in battle; for I will not give thee from their land any inheritance; because unto the chil– dren of Lot have I given 'Ar for an inherit– ance. 10 The Emim in times past dwelt therein, a people great, and numerous, and tall as the 'Anakim; 11 As Rephaim" were also they accounted, ecMially with the 'Anakim; and the Moabites called the Emim. 12 And ill Seir dwelt the Chorim in times past; but the children of Esau drove them out, and they di¶strnyed them from before them, and dwelt in their stead ; as Israel hath done unto the land of his inheritance, which the Lord hath given unto them. 13 Now rise up, and get you over the brook Zered; and we passed over the brook Zered. 14 And the time which we came from Ka– desh–barnea', until we had passed over the brook Zered, was thirty and eight years ; until all the generation of the men of war were spent from out the midst of the camp, as the Lord had sworn unto them. 15 And also the hand of the Lord was against them, to destroy them from the midst of the camp; until they were spent. 16 So it came to pass, when all the men of war were spent by dying from the midst of the people, 17 ¶f That the Lord spoke unto me, say– ing, 18 Thou art passing this day by the bor– der of Moab, by ' Ar, son's wants being requisite, before his benefactor can fur– nish hiui with the needful. c "mighty ones." — Onkelos. "Giants." — English [Page 213] DEUTERONOMY II. III. DEBARIM. 19 And thou comest nigh opposite the chil– dren of 'Amnion : do not attack them, nor contend with them; for I will not give unto thee of the land of the children of 'Ammon any mheritance; because unto the children of Lot have I given it for an inheritance. 20 As a land" of Repha'im was it also ac– counted : Repha'im dwelt therein in times past; and the 'Ammonites called them Zam– zummim : 21 A people great, and numerous, and tall, as the 'Anakim ; but the Lord destroyed them before them ; and they drove them out, and dwelt in their stead : 22 As he hath done te the children of Esau, who dwell in Se'ir, from before whom he destroyed the Chorim; and thoy drove them out and dwelt in their stead, even unto this day. 23 And the 'Avvim, who dwelt in open tovsTis,"' as far as unto 'Azzah, — the Caphtor– im, who came forth out of Caphtor, destroyed them, and dwelt in their steaiL 24 Ripo ye im, set forwnrrl, and pass over the brook Arnon; behold I have given into thy hand Sichon king of Choshbou, the Emo– rite, and his land: he¶'r: to drive him out, and contend with him in battle. 25 This day will I begin to put the dread of thee and the fear of thee upon the nations that are under the whole heaven; whoever will hear the report of thee, shall tremble, and shall quake because of thee. 26 And I sent messengers out of the Avil– demess of Kedemoth unto Sichon, the king of Cheshbon, with words of peace, saying, 27 Let me pass through thy land: ahvays by the highway will I go along; I will not turn unto the right hand or unto the left. 28 Food shalt thou sell me for money, that I may eat; and water for money shalt thou give me, that I may drink : only let me pass through on foot; 29 (As the children of Esau who dwell in a Not only the land of 'Og, the king of Bashan, was the one at times called the "giant country," Eretz Re– pha'im; since the people of Moab and 'Ammon also had taken possession of two districts belonging to the same general tribe of men. b Rabbi Joseph Scliwarz, in his Geography of Palestine, renders this with "the towns called Chazer," or "Chaze– rim;" as there were several in the southern district hav– ing this as a general name. c This must not be understood as if the Israelites had Seir, and the Moabites" who dwell in 'Ar, have done unto me;) until that I shall pass over the Jordan into the land which the Lord our God giveth us. 30 But Sichon, the king of Cheshbon, would not suffer our passing by him; for the Lord thy God had hardened his spirit, and had made obstinate his heart, that he might de– liver him into thy hand, as (hath happened) this day.* 31 ¶ And the Lord said unto me, Behold, I have begun to give up Sichon and his land before thee : begin to drive him out, that thou mayest inherit his land. 32 And Sichon came out against us, he and all his people, to the battle at Yahaz. 33 And the Lord our God gave him up be– fore us ; and we smote him, and his sons, and all his people. 34: And we conquered all his cities at that time, and devoted every inhabited city, and the women, and the little ones ; we left none tiitvt escaped. 35 Only the cattle we took as booty unto ourselves, and the spoil of the cities which we had captured. 36 From 'Aro'er, which is by the bank of the brook of Arnon, and the city that is in the brook, even unto Gifad, there was not one city which was too strong for us; the whole did the Lord our God. give up before us. 37 Only unto the land of the children of 'Amnion didst thou not come nigh, unto the whole margin of the brook Yabbok, and the cities in the mountains, and unto whatsoever the Lord our God had forbidden us. CHAPTER III. 1 And we turned, and went up the way to Bashan; and 'Og the king of Bashan came out against us, he and all his people, to the battle at Edre'i. 2 And the Lord said unto me. Fear him not; for into thy hand have I given him, and been permitted to pass through the countries of Moab and Edom : Moses's request was twofold, to pass through the country and to purchase provisions. We can therefore infer that the Edumeans and Moabites sold provisions to the Israelites, while Sichon alone prepared to attack them. But as the Moabites were relatives of Israel, their sordid– ness in refusing to meet them with bread and water, wait– ing till money was offered, and their hiring Bifam to curse the people, caused them afterward to be prohibited the right of becoming proselytes. (Deut. zxiii. 4.) 213 [Page 214] DEUTERONOMY III. VAETCHANNAN. all his people, and his land; and thou shalt do unto him as thou hast done unto Sichon, the king of the Emorites, who dwelt at Chesh– bon. 3 And the Lord our God gave into our hands also 'Og the king of Bashan, and all his people; and we smote him until none was left to him who escaped. 4 And we conquei–ed all his cities at that time, there was not a city" which we took not from them, sixty cities, all the region of Ar– gob, the kingdom of 'Og in Bashan. 5 All these were fortified cities, with high walls, gates, and bars; besides the unwalled towns, which were a great many. 6 And we devoted them, as we had done unto Sichon king of Cheshbon, devoting every inhabited'' city, the women, and the little ones. 7 But all the cattle, and the spoil of the cities, we took as booty to ourselves. 8 And we took ,at that time out of the hand of the two kings of the Emorites the land which is on this side of the Jordan, from the river of Anion unto mount Chennon ; 9 (The Sidonians call Chermon Siryon; and the Emorites call it Senir;) 10 All the cities of the plain, and all Gif ad, and all Bashan, mito Salchah and Edre'i, the cities of the kingdom of Og in Bashan. 11 For only 'Og king of Bashan had been left of the remnant of the Rephaim ; behold, his bedstead was a bedstead of iron ; lo ! it is in Rabbah of the children of 'Ammon : nine cubits is its length, and four cubits its breadth, after the arm" of a man. 12 And of this land, of which we took pos– session at that time, from 'Aro'er, which is by the river Anion, and half mount Gifad, and the cities thereof, I gave unto the Reubenites and to the Gadites. 13 And the rest of Gifad, and all Bashan, the kingdom of 'Og, I gave unto the half tribe of Menasseh ; all the region of Argob, with all Bashan, this is called the land of Rephaim. a "Fortified place." — Arnheim — who thus distin– guishes between n'lp and vy "fortress" and "simple city." I'crhaps n'lp is derived from TO "walls," "a town fenced in by a wall." b Fiit. " (¶ity of men;" and this means again, "The nieu who lived therein." c "The cubit of a man." Mendelssohn however ren– ders " Vorderarm," or, " the forepart of the arm," which 14 Yair the son of Menasseh took all the region of Argob up to the border of the Ge– shurites and the Ma'achathites ; and he called them the (land of) Bashan, after his own name, the villages of Yair,"' unto this day.''–¶ 15 And unto Machir I gave Gifad. 16 And unto the Reubenites and unto the Gadites I gave from Gifad even unto the brook Arnon, the land within" the river and that adjoining, even unto the brook Yabbok, the border of the childi'en of 'Amnion ; 17 The plain also, and the Jordan, and the adjoining land, from Kinnereth even unto the sea of the plain, the Salt Sea, under the de– clivities of Pisgah, eastward. 18 And I commanded you at that time, saying. The Lord your God hath given you this land to possess it: armed shall ye pass over before your brethren the children of Israel, all that are fit to bear arms. 19 But your wives, and your little ones, and your cattle, (I know that ye have much cattle,) shall abide in your cities which I have given you ;* 20 Until that the Lord have given rest unto your brethren, as well as unto you. and they also have taken possession of the land which the Lord your God giveth them beyond the Jordan : then shall ye return every man unto his possession which I have given you. 21 And Joshua also I commanded at that time, saying. Thy own eyes have seen all that the Lord your God hath done unto these two kings ; thus will the Lord do unto all the kingdoms Avhither thou passest. 22 Ye shall not fear them ; for the Lord your God it is who fighteth for you. Haphtorah in Isaiah i. 1 to 27. SECT. XLV. VAETCHANNAN, pnnxi. 23 ¶ And I besought the Lord at that time, saying. 24 Lord Eterxal, thou hast begun to show thy servant thy greatness, and thy is certainly not the usual length of the cubit, which is the entire arm. d Chavvoth–jM'ir. e This is rendered according to Onkclo.i, who hsis been followed by Arnheim. 1in is in this sense a noun, signify– ing " that within ;" and means then the land comprised within the bed of the river ; and the banks on both sides are comprised by the word 'jaji, as Rashi explains. [Page 215] DEUTERONOMY III. IV. VAETCHANNAN. mighty hand ; for what god is there in heaven or on earth, that can do aught like thy Avorks, and like thy mighty deeds ? 25 Let me go over, I pray thee, that I may see the good land which is on the other side of the Jordan, this goodly mountain, and the Lebanon. 26 But the Lord was wroth with me for j–our sakes, and he would not hear me : and the Lord said unto me. Let it suffice thee; do not continue to speak unto me any more of this matter. 27 Get thee up unto the toj) of Pisgah, and lift up thy eyes, westward, and northward, and southward, and eastward, and behold it with thy eyes; for thou shalt not pass over this Jordan. 28 And do thou charge Joshua, and strength– en him, and encourage him; for he shall go over before this people, and he shall divide out to them the land which thou shalt see. 29 And we abode*in the valley opposite Beth–peor. CHAPTER IV. 1 ¶ And now, Israel, hearken unto the star tutes and unto the ordinances which I teach you to do ; in order that ye may live, and go in and take jDossession of the land which the Lord, the God of your fathers, giveth unto you. 2 Ye shall not add unto the word which I command you, nor shall ye diminish aught from it ; that ye may keep the commandments of the Lord your God which I command you. 3 Your own eyes have seen that which the Lord hath done because of Baal–peor; for every man that followed Baal–peor, "" him the Lord thy God hath destroyed from the midst of thee. 4 But ye that did cleave unto the Lord your God, are alive, every one of you, this day.* 5 See, I have taught you statutes and oi'di– nances, just as the Lord my God commanded me; that ye may do so in the midst of the land whither ye go to take possession of it. a Here must be supplied, "at the time that this occurred." b As idolatry was the prevailing sin among all ancient nations, Moses commences by calling the attention of the people pre–eminently to the consequences of their relapse in the country of Mo'ab ; how that so many that trans– gressed died, while those firm in the service of God re– mained alive. c Others render, " in all things." d For your souls' sake." — Arnheim. 6 Keep therefore and do them ; for this is your wisdom and your undenstanding before the eyes of the nations, that shall hear all these statutes, and they will say. Nothing but a wise and understanding people is this great nation. 7 For what great nation is there that hath gods so nigh unto it, as is the Lord our God at all times'' that we call upon him ? 8 And what great nation is there that hath statutes and ordinances so righteous as is all this law, which I lay befoi–e you this day?* 9 Only take heed to thyself, and guard thy soul dil16ently, that thou do not forget the things which thy eyes have seen, and that they depart not frona thy heart all the days of thy life ; but thou shalt make them known unto thy sons, and unto thy sons' sons ; 10 The day that thou stoodest before the Lord thy God at Horeb, when the Lord said unto me. Assemble for me the people, and I will cause them to hear my words, Avliich they shall learn, to fear me all the days that they shall li\'e upon the earth, and which they shall teach their children. 11 And ye came near and stood at the foot of the mountain ; and the mountain was burning with fire unto the midst of the heaven, (from amidst) darkness, clouds, and thick darkness. 12 And the Lord spoke unto you out of the midst of the fire ; the sound of words ye heard, but any similitude ye saw not; there was nothing but a sound. 13 And he told unto you his coA¶enaut, which he commanded you to perform, the ten commandments; and he Avrote them upon two tables of stone. 14 And me the Lord commanded at that time to teach you statutes and ordinances, that ye might do them in the land Avhither ye go over to possess it. 15 Take ye therefore good heed of your souls f for ye saw no manner of similitude" on " The great King of Israel did not make himself mani– fest under any bodily shape. All on the mountain wa,s darkness and cloud. A loud voice was heard, audible words reached the ear of all at once, one impression was made upon all alike. Hence the energetic prohibition against the folly of representing the Invisible and Incom– prehensible under any outward shape, even the most beautiful and strong. All will fail of reaching him ; con– sequently all are odious to the Deity. 215 [Page 216] DEUTERONOMY IV. VAETCHANNAN. the day that the Lord spoke unto you at Horeb out of the midst of the fire : 16 That ye become not corrupt, and make youi'selvcs a graven image, the similitude of an>– idol–f16ure, the likeness of a male or of a female, 17 The likeness of any beast that is on the earth, the likeness of any winged fowl that flie¶i in the air of heaven, 18 The likeness of any thing that creepeth on the ground, the likeness of any fish that is in the waters beneath the earth ; 19 And that thou lift not up thy eyes unto the heavens, and thou see the sun, and the moon, and the stars, all the host of heaven, and be misled to bow down to them, and to serve them, those which the Lord thy God hath assigned" unto all nations under the whole heaven. 20 But you did the Lord take, and he brought you forth out of the iron furnace, out of Egypt, to be unto him a people of inheritance, as ye are this day. 21 Farthermore the Lord was angry with me for your sakes, and he swore that I should not go over the Jordan, and that I should not go in unto that good land, which the Lord thy God giveth unto thee for an inheritance : 22 For 1 must die in this land ; I shall not go over the Jordan ; but ye will go over and take possession of this good land. 23 Take heed unto yourselves, that ye do not forget the covenant of the Lord your God, which he hath made with you, and make yovu'selves a graven image, the likeness of any thing, which the Lord thy God hath forbid– den thee. 24 For the Lord thy God is a consuming fire, yea, a watchful God. 25 ¶ When thou begettest children, and children's children, and ye shall have re– mained long in the land, and ye become cor– rupt, and make a graven image, the like– a "To give them light." — Talmud MEniLi.Aii, fol. 9. "But the text evidently means that the Lord had not in– terfered with the nations in their false worship. with Israel, however, he acted otherwise, taking them from slwery to be his people." — Uashbam. b As the verse stands, it means that under the oppres– sions of the times, many will fall ofiF to idolatry and false worship. This prediction has come to pass, during the many persecutions which have occurred. Onkelos, how– ever, paraphrases, "And ye shall serve there nations, 2ir, ness of any thing, and do the evil in the eyes of the Lord thy God, to provoke him to anger : 20 I call this day the heavens and the earth to witness aginst you, that ye shall soon perish from oft' the land whereunto ye go over the Jordan to possess it; ye shall not remam many days upon it, but ye shall surely Ije de– stroyed. 27 And the Lord will scatter you among the nations, and ye will be left few in number among the nations, whither the Lord will lead you. 28 And ye will serve'' there gods, the work of man's hands, Avood and stone, which neither can see, nor hear, nor eat, nor smell. 29 But thou wilt seek from there the Lord thy God, and wilt find him, if thou apply to him with all thy heart and with all thy soul. 30 When thou art in tribulation, and all these things have overtaken thee, in the lat– ter end of days, then wilt thou return to the Lord thy God, and be obedient unto his voice. 31 For a merciful God is the Lord thy God; he will not forsake thee, nor destroy thee ; and he will not forget the covenant of thy fathers which he hath sworn unto them. 32 For do but ask of former days, which were before thee, since the day that God cre– ated man upon the earth, and from the one end of the heavens unto the other end of the heavens, whether there hath been the like of this great thing, or whether the like hath been heard? 33 Hath ever a people heard the voice of a god, speaking out of the midst of the fire, as thou hast heard, and remained alive ? 34 Or hath a god assayed to go to take to himself a nation from the midst of a nation, by proofs, by signs, and by wonders, and by Avar, and by a mighty hand, and by an out– stretched arm, and by great terrors, like all worshipping error, (idolatry,) the work of the hands of men," conceiving, probably, as the commentator to Men– delssohn observes, that to worship idols is a sin, not a punishment. c Meaning, the gods of any other nation ; did such ever speak to their followers? and so also in the succeeding verse. But Onkelos, Jonathan, Aben Ezra, and others refer God to the Supreme, and the text then says that the mercy which Israel witnessed was imparted to no other people 216 [Page 217] DEUTERONOMY IV. V. VAETCHANNAN. that which the Lord your God hath done for you in Egjpt before thy eyes? 35 Unto thee it was shown, that thou mightest know, that the Eternal is the God; there is none else besides him. 36 Out of the heavens he caused thee to hear his voice, to correct thee : and upon the earth he caused thee to see his great fire ; and his words didst thou liear out of the midst of the fire. 37 And therefore, because he loved thy fathers, he chose their seed after them, and brought thee out in his presence*with his mighty power out of Egypt; 38 To drive out nations greater and mightier than thou art, from before thee, to bring thee in, to give unto thee their land for an inheritr ance, as it is this day. 39 Know therefore this day, and reflect in thy heart, that the Eternal is the God in the heavens above, and upon the earth be– neath: there is none else. 40 And thou shalt keep his statutes, and his commandments, which I command thee this day, that it may go well with thee, and with thy children after thee; and that thou mayest live many days upon the land which the Lord thy God giveth thee, for all times.* 41 ¶ Then Moses set aside three cities on this side of the Jordan, toward the rismg of the sun; 42 That thither might flee the "manslayer, who should kill his neighbour unawares, when he had not been an enemy to him in times past; and that he should flee unto one of these cities and live. 43 Bezer in the wilderness, in the plain country, for the Reubenites ; and Ramoth in Gifad for the Gadites ; and Golan in Bashan for the Menassites. 44 And this is the law which Moses set before the children of Israel : 45 These are the testimonies, and the star tutes, and the ordinances, which Moses spoke a "In his own person." — Arnheim. "With his own word." — Onkelos ; who, by the by, frequently renders the holy Name with "memcra" NlO'D prefixed, as in Gen. iii. 8, vi. 6, xv. 6, &c.; perhaps the idea of ¶oyo5, com– mon in his time, as the mysterious creative power of the Deity. b Others render this word with " springs ;" others with " the foot ;" others with " heights ;" but it probably means the direction which streams take in quitting a mountain, 2C unto the children of Israel, when they came forth out of Egypt, 46 On this side of the Jordan, in the valley opposite to Beth–petir, in the land of Sichon the king of the Emorites, who dwelt at Chesh– bon, whom Moses and the children of Israel smote, after they were come forth out of Egypt ; 47 And they took possession of his land, and of the land of 'Og the king of Bashan, the two kings of the Emorites, who were on this side of the Jordan toward the rising of the sun; 48 From 'Aro'er, which is on the bank of the river Arnon, even unto Mount Sion, which is Chermon, 49 And all the plain on this side of the Jordan eastward, even unto the sea of the plain, under the declivities'" of Pisgah.* CHAPTER V. 1 ¶ And Moses called all Israel, and said mito them, Hear, Israel, the statutes and the ordinances which I speak in your ears this day, that ye may learn them, and that ye may observe to do them. 2 The Lord our God made a covenant with us in Horeb. 3 Not with our fathers did the Lord make this covenant, but with us, we who are here all of us alive this dayi 4 Face" to face did the Lord speak with you, on the mount out of the midst of the fire, 5 (P was standing between the Lord and be– tween you at that time, to announce to you the word of the Lord ; for ye were afraid by reason of the fire, and ye went not up into the mount;) saying, 6 ¶ I am the Lord thy God, who have brought thee out of the land of Egypt, from the house of slavery. 7 Thou shalt have no other gods before me. 8 Thou shalt not make unto thyself any graven image, any likeness of any thing that or the slope; here, therefore, the points where the slopes of the Pisgah commence. (See Num. xxi. 15.) c i. e. Without a mediator. — Abe.n Ezr.\. d This is a parenthesis, explaining the reason why the people would not themselves receive the commandments, and of the appointment of Moses as the messenger between God and the people; the word "saying" is to be understood as though it followed immediately upon the words " of the fire," in verse 4. 217 [Page 218] DEUTERONOMY V. VAETCHANNAN. is in the heavens above, or that is on the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth : 9 Thou shalt not bow thyself down unto them, nor serve them; for I the Lord thy God am a jealous God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children, and upon the third and upon the fourth generation of them that hate me, 10 And shoAving mercy unto the thousandth generation of them that love me, and keep my commandments. 11 ¶ Thou shalt not take the name of the Lord thy God in vain ; for the Lord will not hold him guil¶ess that taketh his name in vain. 12 ¶ Keep the sabbath–day to sanctify it, as the Lord thy God hath commanded" thee. 13 Six days shalt thou labour, and do all thy work; 14 But the seventh day is the sabbath in honour of the Lord thy God ; on it thou shalt not do any work, neither thou, nor thy son, nor thy daughter, nor thy mau–sjervant, nor thy maid–servant, nor thy ox, nor thy ass, nor any of thy cattle, nor thy stranger that is within thy gates; in order that thy man–ser– vant and thy maid–servant may rest as well as thou. 15 And thou shalt remember that thou hast been a servant in the land of Egypt, and that the Lord thy God brought thee out from there by a mighty hand and by an out– stretched arm ; therefore hath the Lord thy God commanded thee to observe the sabbath– day. 16 ¶ Honour thy father and thy mother, as the Loud thy God hath commanded thee ; that thy days may be prolonged, and that it may go well with thee, in the land which the Lord thy God give¶i thee. 17 ¶Thou shalt not kill. ¶ Neither'' shalt thou commit adultery. ¶ Neither shalt thou steal. a " As the Lord thy God commanded thcc in Marah, before the giving of the law." — Rashi. Otherwise the phrase is merely general, referring to the institution of the sabbath as a divine thing, and is an expression of Moses in his address to the people, calling their attention to the necessity of obedience, because it is the will of God. Hence the introduction of the exodus from Egypt in verse 15. See also verse 16, where the same phrase oc– curs again. 218 ¶ Neither shalt thou bear false witness against thy neighbour. 18 ¶ Neither shalt thou covet thy neigh– bour's wife. ¶ Neither shalt thou desire" thy neighbour's house, nor his field, nor his man–servant, nor his maid–servant, nor his ox, nor his ass, nor any thing that is thy neighbour's.* 19 ¶ These words did the Lord speak unto all your assembly on the mount out of the midst of the fire, of the cloud, and of the thick darkness, with a great voice, but he did so no more f and he wrote them on two tables of stone, and he gave them unto me. 20 And it came to pass, when ye heard the voice out of the midst of the darkness, while the mountain was burning with fire, that ye came near unto me, even all the heads of your tribes, and your elders ; 21 And ye said. Behold, the Lord our God hath caused us to see his glory and his great– ness, and his voice have we heard out of the midst of the fire ; this day have we seen that God can speak with man, who nevertheless may live. 22 But now why#8211; should we die? for this great fire may consume us; if we continue to hear the voice of the Lord our God any more, then shall we die. 23 For where is there any flesh, that hath heard the voice of the liking God speaking– out of the midst of the fire, like us, and hath remained alive ? 24 Do thou approach, and hear all that the Lord our God may say ; and thou shalt speak unto us all that the Lord our God may speak unto thee; and we will hear and do it. 25 And the Lord heard the voice of your words, Avhile ye were speaking unto me ; and the Lord said unto me, I haA–e heard the A–oice of the words of this people, which they have spoken unto thee; they have done well in all that they have spoken. b the English version makes separate verses of all the comm.andments ; so also in Exodus xs. c If we consider that the repetition of the Decalogue was only to recall the general tenor thereof to the people, the variations from the text in Exodus xi. will readily ex– plain themselves ; it is there the very word of God ; here Moses teaches what had been confided to him. d Meaning, that this was the only time that God spoke to the people without a mediator, as Moses himself was. [Page 219] DEUTERONOMY V. VI. VAETCHANNAN. 26 Who would grant" that this their heart might remain in them, to fear me, and to keep all my commandments at all times; in order that it might be well with them, and with their children for ever! 27 Go, say to them, Return you into your tents. 28 But as for thee, remain thou here by me, and I will speak mito thee all the com– mandments, and the statutes, and the ordi– nances, which thou shalt teach them, that they may do them in the land which I give them to possess it. 29 Observe ye then to do as the Lord your God hath commanded you ; ye shall not turn aside to the right or to the left. 30 Altogether in the way, which the Lord your God hath commanded you, shall ye walk ; in order that ye may live, and that it may be well with you, and that ye may re– main many days in the land which ye will possess. CHAPTER VI. 1 And this is the commandment, with the statutes, and the ordinances, which the Lord your God hath commanded to teach you, to do them in the land whither ye are passing over to possess it : 2 In order that thou mayest fear the Lord thy God, to keep all his statutes and his com– mandments, which I command thee, thou and thy son, and thy son's son, all the days of thy life ; and in order that thy days may be pro– longed. 3 Hear, therefore, Israel, and observe to do them ; that it may be well with thee, and that ye may increase greatly, as the Lord the God of thy fathers hath spoken to thee, (in) the land flowing with milk and honey.* 4 ¶ Hear, Israel ! The Lord, our God, is the 0>iE Eternal Being.'' a God is represented as speaking in the fashion of man. Piety is here shown to be vo10ntary ; as no Divine force is spoken of as compelling to obedience. Hence the mira– cles, however astonishing they were, were nevertheless evanescent, and left human nature unchanged. Hence the wish that the will then expressed might last for ever. b Philippson translates, "Hear, Israel, the Eternal, our God, the Eternal is One." But every attempt to convey in another language the simplicity of the Hebrew must fail. Here we have the third revelation of God's being; in Genesis ivii. he is revealed as the Almighty; 5 And thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy might. 6 And these words which I command thee this day, shall l)e in thy heart : 7 And thou shalt teach them dil16ently unto thy cliildren, and thou shalt speak of them when thou sittest in thy house, and when thou walkest by the way, and when thou liest down, and when thou risest up. 8 And thou shalt bind them for a sign upon thy hand, and they shall be as fron¶ets between thy eyes. 9 And thou shalt write them upon the door–posts of thy house, and upon thy gates. 10 ¶ And it shall be, when the Lord thy God shall bring thee into the land which he hath sworn unto thy fathers, to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacol), to give unto thee," great and goodly cities, which thou didst not build, 11 And houses full of all good things, which thou didst not fill, and wells hewed out which thou didst not hew, vineyards and olive–trees, which thou didst not plant; and thou hast eaten and art satisfied : 12 Then beware that thou do not forget the Lord, who hath brought thee forth out of the land of Egypt, from the house of slwery. 13 The Lord thy God shalt thou fear, and him shalt thou serve, and hy his name shalt thou swear. 14 Ye**shall not go after other gods, of the gods of the nations which are round about you; 15 For the Lord thy God is a watchfuf God among you; so that the anger of the Lord thy God may not be kindled against thee, and he destroy thee from ofl" the face of the earth. 16 ¶ Ye shall not tempt the Lord ¶–our God, as ye tempted him in Massah. 17 Ye shall dil16ently keep the command– in Exodus vi. as the Eternal ; and now as the one, un– ecmpound, indi¶nsible, and not liable to change or increase. We have thus the complete idea of the Godhead, as the highest Power, Eternity, Unity. — After Philippson. c Here we must understand " replete with." d As Moses addresses all the people of Israel, he occa– sionally employs the singular, they being but one body in his eyes; and again the p10ral, as they are composed of in– dividuals. Hence the frequent changes observable in the text. e One who sees iniquity and is ever ready to recom– pense it with retribution. 219 [Page 220] DEUTERONOMY VI. VII. AYKEB. ments of the Lord your God, and his testimo– nies, and his statutes, which he hath com– manded theo. 18 And ¶iou shalt do that which is right and good in the eyes of the Lord; in order that it may be well with thee, and that thou mayest go in and take possession of the good land with the Lord hath sworn unto thy fathers, 19 To cast out all thy enemies from before thee; as the Lord hath spoken. 20 ¶ When thy son should ask thee in time" to come, saying, What mean the testi– monies, and the statutes, and the ordinances, which the Lord our God hath commanded you ? 21 Then shalt thou say unto thy son, We were bond–men unto Pharaoh in Egypt; and the Lord brought us out of Egypt with a mighty hand ; 22 And the Lord let come signs and won– ders, great and sore, on Egypt, on Pharaoh, and on all his household, before our eyes; 23 And us he brought out from there; in order to bring us in, to give us the land which he had sworn unto our fathers. 24 And the Lord commanded us to do all these statutes, to fear the Lord our God ; that it might be well with us at all times, and¶ that he might preserve us alive, as it is at this day. 25 And it shall be accounted righteousness unto us, if we observe to do all this command– ment before the Lord our God, as he hath commanded us. CHAPTER VII. 1 ¶ When the Lord thy God shall bring thee into the land whither thou goest to pos– sess it, and cast out many nations befoi'e thee, the Hittites, and the Girgashites, and the Emorites, and the Canaanites, and the Periz– zites, and the Ilivites, and the Jebusites, seven nations, greater in number and mightier than thou; 2 And when the Lord thy God shall give them up before thee, and thou dost smite them: thou shalt utterly destroy them; thou shalt not make any covenant with them, nor show mercy unto them. a Heb. ina "to–morrow," any time after to–day. b " Son" stands here for the entire people ; therefore it is properly followed by the p10ral in the next phrase. c i. e. The one who is in truth God the Creator, while 220 3 Neither shalt thou make marriages with them ; thy daughter shalt thou not give unto his son, and his daughter shalt thou not take unto thy son. 4 For he would turn away thy son'' from following me, so that they might serve other gods; and the anger of the Lord would be kindled against you, and he would destroy thee speedily. 5 But thus shall ye do unto them : their altars shall ye pull down, and their statues shall ye break, and their groves shall ye cut down, and their graven images shall ye bum with fire. 6 For thou art an holy people unto the Lord thy God; of thee the Lord thy God hath made choice to be unto himself a special people, above all the nations that are upon the face of the earth. 7 Not because ye are more in number than all the nations, did the Lord desire you and make choice of you ; for ye are the fewest of all the nations; 8 But on account of the love of the Lord for you, and because he kcepeth the oath which he hath sworn unto your fathers, hath the Lord brought you out with a mighty hand, and redeemed you out of the house of bond–men, out of the hand of Pharaoh the king of Egypt.* 9 Know then that the Eternal thy God, is the"" God, the faithful God, who keepeth the covenant and the mercy with those that love him and with those that keep his command– ments to the thousandth generation; 10 And repayeth those that hate him to their face,'¶ to destroy them ; he will not de– lay to him that hate¶i him, he will repay him to his face. 11 Therefore shalt thou keep the command– ment, and the statutes, and the ordinances, which I command thee this day, to do them. Haphtorah in Isaiah il. 1 to 20. SECTION XLVI. AYKEB, apr. 12 ¶ And it shall come to pass in reward for that ye will hearken to these ordinances, the other deities are false, powerless, imaginary beings, therefore not God. In this sense must the definite article in this and other instances be understood. d i. e. At once, promptly, (Arnheim, "in their life– [Page 221] DEUTERONOMY VII. VIII. AYKEB. and keep, and do them, that the Lord thy God will keep unto thee the. covenant and the kindness which he hath sworn unto thy lathers : 1 3 And he will love thee, and bless thee, and multiply thee; and he will bless the fruit of *thy womb, and the fruit of thy land, thy corn, and thy wine, and thy oil, the in– crease of thy cattle, and the young of thy Hocks, in the land which he hath sworn unto thy fathers to give unto thee. 14 Blessed shalt thou be above all the na– tions; there shall not be a barren male or female among thee, nor among thy cattle. 15 And the Lord avIU take away from thee all sickness, and all the evil diseases of Egypt, which thou knowest, will he not put upon thee; but he will lay them upon all those that hate thee. 16 And thou shalt consume all the nations which the Lord thy God give¶i unto thee; thy eye shall not look with pity upon them : and thou shalt not serve their gods; for that would be a snare unto thee. 17 ¶ If thou shouldest say in thy heart. These nations are more numerous than I; how shall I be able to dispossess them? 18 Thou shalt not be afraid of them; (but) thou shalt well remember what the Lord thy God did unto Pharaoh, and unto all Egypt; 19 The great proofs" which thy eyes have seen, and the signs, and the wonders, and the mighty hand, and the outstretched ann, whereby the Lord thy God brought thee out : in this wise will the Lord thy God do unto all the people of whom thou art afraid. 20 Moreover the hornet will the Lord thy God send out against them, until they that are left, and hide themselves from thee, be destroyed. 21 Thou shalt not be affrighted at them; for the Lord thy God is in the midst of thee, a mighty and terrible God. 22 And the Lord thy God will chase out these nations before thee, little by little ; thou shalt not be able to make an end of them time,") so that the guilt be expiated in the fourth genera– tion, while the righteousness of the fathers is remembered to the thousandth of their descendants. iNjiyS means "every one of those who hate him." a Onkelos renders "wonders;" Rashi and Mendelssohn, "temptations;" but it appears to be as above, iv. 34, to denote the positive exhibitions of God's power, or wonders speedily, lest the beasts of the field increase upon thee. 23 And the Lord thy God– will give them up before thee, and he will bring among them a mighty confusion, until they be de– stroyed. 24 And he will give their kings into thy hand, and thou shalt destroy their name from under the heavens : no man shall, be able to stand up before thee, until thou have de– stroyed them. 25 The graven images of their gods shall ye burn with fire; thou shalt not covet the silver or gold that is on them, so that thou wouldest take it unto thyself, lest thou be ensnared thereby; for it is an abomination to the Lord thy God. 26 And thou shalt not bring an abominan tion into thy house, lest thou liecome accursed like it : thou shalt utterly detest it, and thou shalt utterly abhor it; for it is accursed. CHAPTER VIIL 1 ¶ All the commandment which I com– mand thee this day shall ye observe to do ; in order that ye may live, and m¶tiply, and go in and take possession of the land which the Lord hath sworn unto your fathers. 2 And thou shalt remember all the way which the Lord thy God hath led thee these forty years in the wilderness, in order to afflict thee, to prove thee, to know what is in thy heart, whether thou wouldest keep his com– mandments, or not. 3 And he afflicted thee, and suffered thee to hunger, and he gave thee manna to eat, which thou knewest not, and which thy fathers had not known; in order that he might make thee know that not by bread alone man doth live, but by every thing that proceedeth out of the mouth'' of the Lord doth man live. 4 Thy garment did not fall worn out from thee," and thy foot did not swell,*these forty years. 5 And thou shalt consider in thy heart, sent as proofs of the truth of the prophetic mission of Moses. b i. e. Whatever is produced by the will of God. God's word creates; hence every thing proceeds out of his mouth. c After Arnheim. d i. e. From walking barefoot in the sand. [Page 222] DEUTERONOMY VIII. IX. AYKEB. that, as a man chasteneth his son so doth the Lord thy God chasten thee. 6 And thou shalt keep the commandments of the Lord) thy God, to walk in his ways, and to fear him. 7 For the Lord thy God bringeth thee into a good land, a land of brooks of water, of fountains and depths'" that spring out of val– leys and hills; 8 A land of wheat, and barley, and of the vine, and the f16–tree, and the pomegranate; a land of the oil–olive, and of honey; 9 A land wherein thou shalt cat bread without scarceness, wherein thou shalt not lack any thing; a land the stones whereof are iron, and out of whose hills thou canst hew copper. 10 And when thou hast eaten and art satisfied, then shalt thou bless the Lord thy God for the good land which he hath given thee.* 11 Take" heed ma to thyself that thou for– get not the Lord thy God, so as not to keep his commandments, and his ordinances, and his statutes, which I command thee this day; 12 That when thou hast eaten and art satisfied, and hast built goodly houses, and dwelt therein; 13 And when thy herds and thy flocks multiply, and thy silver and thy gold are multiplied, and all that thou hast is multi– plied : 14 Thy heart be then not lifted up, and thou forget the Lord thy God, who hath brought thee forth out of the land of Egypt, from the house of slavery; 15 Who hath led thee through the great and terrible wilderness, wherein are snakes, poisonous serpents, and scorpions, and drought, where there is no water; who hath brought forth for thee water out of the flinty rock ; 16 Who hath fed thee in the wilderness with manna, which thy fiithers knew not; in order to alllict thee, and in order to prove thee, to do thee good at thy latter end; a The father punishes the son to correct him of some evil habit or propensity; in the same manner did the Lord punish the Israelites to cure them of their sinful– ness. b "Lakes." — Arnheim. c All from this verse to v. 17 inc10sive is one sentence, and must be so understood : Moses warns the people not to imagine, after all the dangers should be passed, that it 17 And thou say in thy heart, My power and the strength of thy hand have gotten me this wealth. 18 But thou shalt remember the Lord thy God; for it is he that giveth thee power to get wealth ; in order that he might fulfil his covenant which he hath sworn ulito thy fathers, as it is this day. 19 ¶And it sh.all come to pass, that if thou shouldst forget the Lord thy God, and walk after other gods, and serve them, and bow thyself down to them, I testify against you this day that ye shall surely perish ; 20 Like the nations which the Lord de– stroyeth l¶efore you, so shall ye iierish ; in recompense of that ye would not hearken unto the voice of the Lord your God. CHAPTER IX. 1 ¶ Hear, O Israel : Thou art to pass this day over the Jordan, to go in to drive out nations greater and mightier than thou, (to conquer) cities great and fortified up to heaven, 2 A people great and tall, the children of the 'Anakim, whom thou knowest, and of whom thou hast heard say. Who can stand before the children of 'Anak ! 3 Understand therefore this day, that the Lord thy God it is who goeth over before thee, he is a consuming fire ; he will destroy them, and he will subdue them before thy face; and thou wilt drive them out, and de– stroy them quickly,"*as the Lord hath spoken unto thee."'' 4 Thou must not say in thy heart, when the Lord thy God doth cast them out from before thee, as foUoweth, For my righteous– ness hath the Lord brought me in to possess this land; and that for the wickedness of these nations the Lord doth drive them out from before thee. 5 Not for thy righteousness, nor for the uprightness of thy heart, dost thou go in to possess their land; but for the wickedness of these nations doth the Lord thy God drive was their strength which had accomplished all, but to look upon their acquisitions as the gift of God; man indeed must labour, but God alone can grant success. d This is no contradiction to vii. 22 ; for there it merely says that the conquest shall be gradual ; here that, though it take place in this way, it would still be in less time than the Israelites, from their unprepared state to cope with their enemies, could rationally expect. [Page 223] DEUTERONOMY IX. AYKEB. them out from before thee, and in order that he may fulfil the word which the Lord hath sworn unto thy fathers, to Al¶raliam, to Isaac, and to Jacob. 6 And thou shalt know, that not for thy righteousness doth the Lord thy God give unto thee this good land to possess it; for thou art. a stiff–necked people. 7 Remember," do not forget, how thou didst provoke the Lord thy God to wrath in the wilderness : from the day that thou went– est out of the land of Egypt, until ye came unto this place, have ye been rebellious against the Lord. 8 Also at Horeb ye provoked the Lord to wrath, so that the Lord was angry with you to destroy you. 9 When I was gone up into the mount to receive the tables of stone, the tables of the covenant which the Lord had made with you, and I abode on the mount forty days and forty nights, bread did I not eat, and water did I not drink. 10 And the Lord gave unto me the two tables of stone inscribed by the finger of God ; and on them (was written) according to all the words, which the Lord had spoken with you on the mount out of the midst of the fire on the day of the assembly. 11 And it came to pass at the end of forty days and forty nights, that the Lord gave unto me the two tables of stone, the tables of the covenant. 12 And the Lord said unto me, Arise, get thee down quickly from here; for thy people which thou hast brought forth out of Egypt have become corrupted; they have quickly turned aside out of the way which I have commanded them; they have made them– selves a molten image. 13 And the Lord said unto me, thus, I have seen this people, and, behold, it is a stiff– necked people : 14 Let me alone, and I will destroy them, and blot out their name from under the heavens; and I will make of thee a nation mightier and more numerous than they. 15 And I turned and came down from the a Since men are so apt to imagine all they receive as justly their due, the prophet here impresses upon the people, that they had deserved punishment, not the great mercy which was and would be shown them. b Although Moses had already spoken of the rebellion mount, and the mount was burning with fire ; and the two tables of the covenant were upon my two hands. 16 And I looked, and, behold, ye had sin– ned against the Lord your God, ye had made yourselves a molten calf; ye had turned aside quickly out of the way which the Lord had commanded you. 17 And I took hold of the two tables, and cast them out of my two hands, and I broke them before your eyes. 18 And I threw myself dovm. before the Lord, as at the first, forty days and forty nights; bread did I not eat, and water did I not drink ; on account of all your sins which ye had committed, in doing what is evil in the eyes of the Lord, to provoke him to anger. 19 For I was afraid of the anger and the indignation, wherewith the Lord was wroth against you to destroy you; but the Lord hearkened unto me also at that time. . 20 And with Aaron was the Lord very angry to destroy him; and I prayed also for Aaron at the same time. 21 And your work of sin, which ye had made, the calf, I took and burnt it in fire, and stamped it, grinding it very small, until it was as fine as dust : and I cast the dust thereof into the brook that descendeth from the mount. 22 And at Taberah, and at Massah and at Kibroth–hattaiivah, have ye been provoking the Lord to wrath. 23 And when the Lord sent you from Ka– desh–barneii','' saying, Go up and take posses– sion of the land which I have given you : then rebelled ye against the order of the Lord your God, and ye believed not in him, and ye hearkened not to his voice. 24 Rebellious have ye been against the Lord, from the day that I have known you. 25 And I threw myself down before the Lord those forty days and forty nights, which I threw myself down ; because the Lord had said that he would destroy you. 20 And I prayed unto the Lord, and said," Lord Eternal, destroy not thy people and upon the occasion of the spies, he sums up here this event also as a connected portion of their series of obdurate sin– ning. c As was said above with the ten commandments, so it is here : Moses gives merely the substance of what oc– 223 [Page 224] DEUTERONOMY IX. X. AYKEB. thy heritage, which thou hast redeemed through thy greatness, which thou hast brought forth out of Egypt with a mighty hand. 27 Think of thy servants, of Abraham, of Isaac, and of Jacob; turn not unto the stub– bornness of this people, nor to its wickedness, nor to its sin : 28 Lest (the inhabitants of) the land whence thou hast brought us out say, Out of want of ability in the Lord to bring them into the land which he had promised them, and out of his hatred to them, hath he bi'ought them out to slay them in the wilder– ness. 29 Whereas they are thy people and thy heritage, whom thou hast brought out by thy mighty power and by thy outstretched arm.* CHAPTER X. 1 ¶ At that time the Lord said unto me, Hew for thyself two tables of stone like unto the first, and come up unto me into the mount; and make thyself an ark of wood. 2 And I will write on the tables the words that were on the first tables which thou hast broken; and thou shalt put them in the ark. 3 And I made an ark of shittim–wood, and hewed two tables of stone like unto the first ; and I went up into the mount, with the two tables in my hand. 4 And he wrote on the tables, like the first writing, the ten commandments, which the Lord had spoken unto you on the mount out of the midst of the fire on the day of the as– sembly; and the Lord gave them unto me. 5 And I turned myself and came down from the mount, and I put the tables in the ark which I had made; and they have re– mained there, as the Lord hath commanded me. 6 And the children of Israel took their journey from the wells of the children of Ya'iv kan to Mossera : there" Aaron died, and he curred, and confines himself not to the exact words which were spoken. His object is to condense, aild occasionally to add some particulars not before dwelt upon. a This verse is thus explained by Aben Ezra: "Above it is said that Moses prayed also for Aaron ; and he did not die then, but at the end of forty years." The places mentioned here are either divisions of Mount Ilor, or neighbouring places thereto. The former opinion is pro– bably the most correct. 224 was buried there ; and Elazar his son became priest in his stead. 7 From there they journeyed unto Gudgo– dah ; and from Gudgodah to Yotbatha, a land of brooks of waters. 8 At that time'' did the Lord separate the tribe of Levi, to bear the ark of the covenant of the Lord, to stand before the Lord to minister unto him, and to bless in his name, unto this day. 9 Therefore was not assigned unto Levi any portion or inheritance with his brethren ; the Lord is his inheritance, as the Lord thy God hath spoken to him. 10 And I stayed on the mount, like the first da¶s, forty days and forty nights; and the Lord hearkened unto me also at that time, the Lord would not destroy thee. 11 And the Lord said unto me. Arise, go on the journey before the ]x?ople, that they may go in and take possession of the land, which I have sworn unto their fathers to give unto them.* 12 ] And now, Israel, what doth the Lord thy God require of thee, but to fear the Lord thy God, to walk in all his ways, and to love him, and to serve the Lord thy God with all thy heart and with all thy soul, 13 To keep the commandments of the Lord, and his statutes, which I command thee this day, for thy own good ? 14 Behold, to the Lord thy God belong the heavens and the heavens of heavens, and the earth with all that is thereon ; 15 Yet only in thy fathers had the Lord delight, to love them ; he chose, therefore, their seed after them, namely 3–ou, from all the nations, as it is this day. 16 Remove" therefore the obduracy of your heart, and be no more stifl–necked.¶ 17 For the Lord your God is the God of gods, and the Lord of lords, the great, the mighty, and the terrible God, who hath no re– gard to persons, and taketh no bribe; b At the time first mentioned, when the golden calf was made. c The phrase employed in the Hebrew is so peculiarly idiomatic, that it has been freely rendered, more so than any other hitherto in this version. Whatever is odious among the Israelites is called "uncircumcised ;" hence, to convert the heart, to be no longer disobedient, is called " circumcising the heart." d Lit. "And cause not your neck to bo stiff any more." [Page 225] DEUTERONOMY X. XI. AYKEB. 18 Who executeth justice for the fatherless and the widow, and loveth the stranger, to give him food and raiment. 19 Love ye then the stranger ; for you have been strangers in the hand of Egypt. 20 The Lord thy God shalt thou fear; him shalt thou serve, and to him shalt thou cleave, and by his name shalt thou swear. 21 He is thy praise, and he is thy God, who hath done lor thee these great and fear– ful things, which thy own eyes have seen. 22 With seventy persons did thy fathers go down into Egypt ; and now the Lord thy God hath made thee hke the stars of heaven in multitude. CHAPTER XL 1 Thou shalt therefore love the Lord thy God, and keep his charge, and his statutes, and his ordinances, and his commandments, all the days. 2 And ye shall know this day, that (I speak) not with your children who have not known, and who have not seen the chastise– ment of the Lord your God, his greatness, his strong hand, and his outstretched arm ; 3 And his signs, and his acts, which he displayed in the midst of Egypt, unto Pharaoh the king of Egypt, and unto all his land; 4 And what he did unto the army of Egypt, unto its horses, and to its chariots; over whom he caused the water of the Red Sea to flow, as they pursued after you, and whom the Lord destroyed unto" this day; 5 And what he did unto you in the wilder– ness, until ye came unto this place; 6 And what he did unto Dathan and Abi– ram, the sons of Eliab, the son of Reuben; how the earth opened her mouth, and swal– lowed them up, and their households, and their tents, and all the livmg substance that followed them, in the midst of all Israel ; 7 But*" it is your own eyes which have seen all the great acts of the Lord which he hath done. 8 Ye shall therefore keep all the command– a Mendelssohn renders freely: "And the Lord des– troyed them to such a degree, that none of them is to be seen any more." It appears, however, that the phrase is merely the strong affirmative frequently used by Moses. b With this verse ends the sentence commenced with verse 2. c " In Egypt it was necessary to bring water from the ment which I command you this day, that ye may be strong, and go in and take possession of the land, whither ye go over to possess it; 9 And in order that ye may live many days in the land, which the Lord hath sworn unto your fathers to give unto them and to their seed, a land flowing with milk and honey.* 10 ¶ For the land, whither thou goest in to possess it, is not like the land of Egypt, from where ye came out, where thou sowest thy seed, and waterest it with thy foot," as a gar– den of herbs ; 11 But the land, whither ye go over to jjossess it, is a land of mountains and valleys, from the rain of heaven doth it drink water: 12 A land which the Lord thy God careth for ; always are the eyes of the Lord thy God upon it, from the beginning of the year even unto the end of the year. 13 ¶ And it shall come to pass, if ye will hearken dil16ently unto my commandments which I command you this day, to love the Lord your God, and to serve him with all your heart and with all your soul, 14 That I will send rain for jour land in its due season, the first rain and the latter rain, that thou mayest gather in thy corn, and thy wine, and thy oil. 15 And I will give grass in thy field for thy cattle ; and thou shalt eat and be satisfied, 16 Take heed to yourselves, that your heart be not deceived, and ye turn aside, and serve other gods, and worship them ; 17 (For) then the Lord's wrath will be kindled against you, and he will shut up the heavens that there be no rain, and the land will not yield her products; and ye shall perish quickly from off the good land which the Lord giveth unto you. 18 Therefore shall ye lay up these my words in your heart and in your soul ; and ye shall bind them for a sign upon your hand, and they shall be as fron¶ets between your eyes. 19 And ye shall teach them to your chil– Nile on foot," (hence the expression in the verse,) " and to water it, like the vegetable garden, which has not enough from the rain of heaven." — Rashi. It however probably al10des to the water–wheels used in the East for purposes of irr16ation, which are worked by treading upon them, in the manner of a tread–mill ; in this view, the foot actually does the watering. 225 [Page 226] DEUTERONOMY XI. XII. REAY. dren, to speak of them when thou sittest in thy house, and when thou walkest by the way, and when thou liest down, and when thou risest up. 20 And thou shalt write them upon the door–posts of thy house, and upon thy gates. 21 In order that your days may be multi– plied, and the days of your children, in the land which the Lord swore unto your fathers to give unto them, as the days of the heavens over the earth .'–" 22 ¶For if ye will dil16ently keep all this commandment which I command you, in order to do it, to love the Lord your God, to walk in all his ways, and to cleave unto him : 23 Then will the Lord drive out all these nations from before you, and ye shall supplant nations greater and mightier than yourselves. 24 Every place whereon the sole of your foot may tread shall be yours : from the wil– derness and the Lebanon, from the river, the river Euphrates, even unto the Western Sea'' shall be your boundary. 25 There shall be no man able to stand up before you ; the fear of you and the dread of you will the Lord your God lay upon all the land which ye may tread upon, as he hath spoken unto you. Haphtorah in Isaiah slix. 14 to li. 3. SECTION XLVII. REAY, nxn. 26 ¶ Behold, I lay before you this day a blessing and a curse : 27 The blessing, if ye will hearken unto the commandments of the Lord your God, which I command you this day; 28 And the curse, if ye will not hearken unto the commandments of the Lord 3–our God, and ye turn aside out of the way which I command you this day, to go after other gods, which ye know not. 29 ¶ And it shall come to pass, when the Lord thy God shall have brought thee in a i. e. While the sky is visible over the earth, or always. b i. e. The Mediterranean Sea, which is at the west of Palestine; so called in reference to the Sea of Kinnereth, which is at the cast, innx is in this sense opposed to imp, "west" and "east," not "last" and "first." — After Arnhkim. c The manner of doing this will be found farther es– they had but one God ; they needed no mediator, so they plained in chap, xivii. unto the land whither thou goest to possess it, that thou shalt put the blessing" upon mount Gerizzim, and the curse upon mount 'Ebal. 30 Behold, they are on the other side of the Jordan, far away in the direction of the going down of the sun, in the land of the Ca– naanitcs, who dwell in the 2)lain, opposite Gilgal, near the grove of Moreh. 31 For ye are about to i:)ass over the Jor– dan to go in to take possession of the land which the Lord your God giveth you ; and ye will possess it, and dwell therein. 32 And ye shall then observe to do all the statutes and ordinances which I set before you this day. CHAPTER XII. 1 These are the statutes and ordinances, which ye shall observe to do, in the land which the Lord, the God of thy fathers, giveth unto thee to possess it, all the da¶s that ye live upon the earth. 2 Ye shall utterly destroy all the places whereon the nations which ye are about to drive out served their gods, upon the high mountains, and upon the hills, and under every green tree; 3 And ye shall overthrow their altars, and break their pillars, and their groves shall ye burn with fire ; and the graven images of their gods shall 3–e hew down, and ye shall destroy their name out of the same place. 4 Ye shall not do so**unto the Lord your God; 5 But unto the place which the Lord j–our God may choose out of all your tribes to put his name there, even unto his habitation shall ye repair, and thither shalt thou come ; 6 And ye shall bring thither yoin– burnt– offerings, and your sacrifices, and your tithes, and the hea\'e–oft'erings of your hand, and your vows, and your freewill–ofierings, and the first–born of your herds and of jour flocks ; d "Ye shall not saerificc unto Hewen in every place," &c. — R.\sill. This is another energetic prohibition against following the heathen practices. On every promontory, [Page 227] DEUTERONOMY XII. REAY. 7 And ye shall eat there before the Lord your God, and ye shall rejoice with all the acquisition of your hand, ye and your house– holds, wherewith the Lord thy God may have blessed thee. 8 Ye shall not do after all the manner that we do here this day, every one whatsoever is right in his own eyes. 9 For ye are not as yet come to the rest and to the inheritance, which the Lord thy God giveth thee. 10 But ye will go over the Jordan, and dwell in the land which the Lord j–our God causeth you to inherit, and he will give you rest from all your enemies round about, so that ye may dwell in safety'–' 11 And then shall it be, that the place which the Lord your God will choose to cause his name to dwell there, — (even) thither shall ye bring all that I command you ; your burnt–offerings, and your sacrifices, your tithes, and the hewe–offering of your hand, and all your choice vows which ye may vow unto the Lord; 12 And ye shall rejoice before the Lord your God, ye, and your sons, and your daugh– ters, and your men–servants, and your maid– servants, and the Levite who is within your gates; because he hath not any portion nor inheritance with you. 13 Take heed to thyself that thou offer not thy burnt¶offerings in every place which thou mayest see ; 14 But in the place which the Lord will choose in one of thy tribes, there shalt thou offer thy bunit–offei–ings, and*there shalt thou do all that I command thee. 15 Notwithstanding, according to all the longing of thy soul, mayest thou kill and eat flesh, according to the blessuag of the Lord thy God Avhicli he hath given thee, in all thy gates: the unclean and the clean may eat thereof, as of the roebuck, and as of the hart. 16 Only the blood shall ye not eat; upon the earth shall ye pour it out as water. 17 Thou mayest not eat within thy gates the tithe of thy corn, or of thy wine, or of thy oil, nor the first–born of thy herds or of thy flocks, nor any of thy vows which thou mayest a In this and in v. 14, permission is granted to kOl ani– mals for food, beyond the precincts of the temple, prohi– bited during the journey on the desert. (Lev. xxvii. 3, 4.) vow, nor thy freewill–offerings, and the heav– offering of thy hand ; 18 But before the Lord thy God must thou eat them in the place which the Lord thy God may choose, thou, and thy son, and thy daughter, and thy man–servant, and thy maid– servant, and the Levite who is within thy gates; and thou shalt rejoice before the Lord thy God with all the acquisition of thy hand. 19 Take heed to thyself that thou forsake not the Levite as long as thou livest upon thy land. 20 ¶ When the Lord thy God will enlarge thy border, as he hath spoken unto thee, and thou dost say, I wish to eat flesh, because thy soul longeth to eat flesh: then mayest thou, according to all the longing of thy soul, eat flesh. ,21 K the place which the Lord thy God may choose to put his name there be too far for thee : then mayest thou kill of thy herds" and of thy flocks, which the Lord hath given thee, as I have commanded thee; and thou shalt eat in thy gates according to all the longing of thy soul. 22 But as the roebuck and the hart are eaten, so shalt thou eat the same : the unclean and the clean may eat thereof together. 23 Only be firm so as not to eat the blood ; for the blood is the life; and thou shalt not eat the life with the flesh. 24 Thou shalt not eat it; upon the earth shalt thou pour it out like water. 25 Thou shalt not eat it ; in order that it may go well with thee, and with thy children after thee, when thou wilt do what is right in the eyes of the Lord. 26 Nevertheless thy holy things which thou mayest have, and thy Vows, shalt thou take, and go unto the place which the Lord may choose : 27 And thou shalt offer thy burnt–offerings, the flesh and the blood, upon the altar of the Lord thy God ; and the blood of thy sacrifices shall be poured out upon the altar of the Lord thy God, and the flesh shalt thou eat. 28 Observe and hear all these words which I command thee ; in order that it may go well with thee, and with thy children after thee Of such killing, the clean and unclean may eat together. Verse 26 again enjoins that whatever has been sanctified, must nevertheless be brought to the altar. 227 [Page 228] DEUTERONOMY XII. XIII. REAY. for ever, when thou wilt do what is good and right in the eyes of the Lord thy God.* 29 ¶ When the Lord thy God will cut oflf the nations, whither thou goest to drive them out from before thee, and thou succeedest them, and dwellest in their land : 30 Then take heed to thyself that thou be not snared by following them, after they have teen destroyed from before thee; and that thou inquire not after their gods, saying. How did these nations serve their gods? even so will I do likewise. 31 Thou shalt not do so unto the Lord thy God; for every abomination" to the Lord, which he hateth, have they done unto their gods; for even their sons and their daughters have they burnt in the fire to their gods. CHAPTER Xm. 1 What thing soever I command you, even that shall ye observe to do : thou shalt not add thereto, and thou shalt not diminish there– from.'' 2 ¶ If there arise in the midst of thee a prophet, or a dreamer of dreams, and he giv– eth thee a sign or a token, 3 And the sign or the token come to pass, whereof he spoke unto thee, saying. Let us go after other gods, which thou dost not– know, and let us serve them: 4 Then shalt thou not hearken unto the words of that prophet, or unto that dreamer of dreams; for the Lord your God proveth you, to know whether ye indeed love" the Lord your God with all your heart and with all your soul. 5 After the Lord your God shall ye walk, and him shall ye feai", and his commandments shall ye keep, and his voice shall ye obey, and him shall ye serve, and unto him shall ye cleave. 6 And that prophet, or that dreamer of dreams, shall be put to death; because he hath spoken revolt against the Lord your God, who hath brought you out of the land a Inasmuch as the worship of the heathens presented so many abominations, the Israelites are here prohibited from copying any of their customs in this respect; only that which (lod commanded could be lawfully considered Divine worship, and no addition, however elegant, could be tolerated. The next verse, therefore, follows properly a.i a farther exposition. b The English version commences chap. xiii. at verse 2. 228 of Egypt, and who hath redeemed you out of the house of l)ond–men, to mislead thee from the way which the Lord thy God commanded thee to walk therein ; and thou shalt put the CAal away from the midst of thee. 7 ¶ If thy brother, the son of thy mother, or thy son, or thy daughter, or the wife of thy bosom, or thy friend, who is (dear to thee) as thy own soul, should entice thee, in secret, saying, Let us go and serve other gods, which thou dost not know, either thou, or thy fathers ; 8 Some of the gods of the nations which are round about you, that are nigh unto thee, or that are far off from thee, from one end of the earth even unto the other end of the earth : 9 Then shalt thou not consent unto him, nor shalt thou hearken unto him ; nor shall thy eye look with pity on him, nor shalt thou spare, nor shalt thou conceal it for him ; 10 But thou shalt surely kill him ; thy hand shall be the first upon him to put him to death, and the hand of all the people afterward. 11 And thou shalt stone him with stones, that he die; because he sought to mislead thee from the Lord thy God, who hath brought thee out of the land of Egypt, from the house of bond–men. 12 And all Israel shall hear it, and they shall be afraid, and they shall not do any more such a wicked deed as this is in the midst of thee. 13 ¶ If thou shouldest hear concerning one of thy cities, which the Lord thy God hath given thee to dwell there, saying, 14 There have gone forth men, children of worthlessness,**from the midst of thee, and have misled the inhabitants of their city, say– ing; Let us go and serve other gods, which ye have not known : 15 Then shalt thou inquire, and make search, and ask dil16ently ; and, behold, if it is true, the thing is certain, such abomination hath been wrought in the midst of thee : c The Divine legislation is the standard of truth ; conse– quently no miracle, should such be wrought, can bo con– sidered as an evidence of Divine mission, if it contradict the law. The will of God is expressed in his revelation, and he is no man, that he should change. d hty 'Sa " without yoke, who have thrown oiF the yoke of Hewen." — Rashi. "Sons of Belial" has no mean– ing. [Page 229] DEUTERONOMY XIII. XIV. REAY. 16 Then shalt thou smite the inhabitants of that city with the edge of the sword, de– voting it utterly, and all that is therein, and the cattle thereof, to the edge of the sword. 17 And all its spoil shalt thou gather into the midst of the market–place thereof, and thou shalt bum with fire the city, and all its spoil entirely, unto the Lord thy God; and it shall be a ruinous heap for ever; it shall not be built again. 18 And there shall not cleave to thy hand aught of the devoted things; in order that the Lord may turn from the fierceness of his anger, and grant thee mercy, and have mercy upon thee, and multiply thee, as he hath sworn unto thy fathers ; 19 When thou wilt hearken to the voice of the Lord thy God, to keep all his com– mandments which I command thee this day, to do what is right in the eyes of the Lord thy God.* CHAPTER XIV. 1 ¶ Ye are the children of the Lord your God : ye shall not cut yourselves, nor make any baldness between your eyes for the dead. 2 For a holy people art thou unto the Lord thy God, and the Lord hath made choice of thee to be unto himself a peculiar nation above all the nations that are upon the fiice of the earth. 3 ¶ Thou shalt not eat any abominable thing. 4 These are the beasts which ye may eat : the ox, the sheep, and the goat, 5 The hart, and the roebuck, and the fal– low–deer, and the chamois, and the gazelle, and the wild ox, and the antelope. 6 And every beast that hath parted hoofs, and whose feet are cleft into two claws, and cheweth the cud among the beasts — that alone may ye eat. 7 Nevertheless these shall ye not eat of those that chew the cud, and of those that possess the divided cloven hoof: the camel. and the hare, and the coney; for they chew the cud, but divide not the hoof; unclean are they unto you; 8 And the swine, because it divideth the hoof, yet cheweth not the cud, it is unclean unto you ; of their flesh shall ye not eat, and their dead carcass shall ye not touch. 9 ¶ This may ye eat of all that is in the waters : all that hath fins and scales may ye eat; 10 And whatsoever hath not fms and scales shall ye not eat; it is unclean unto you. 11 ¶ Every clean bird may ye eat. 12 But these are they which ye shall not eat of them : the eagle, and the ossifrage, and the osprey, 13 And the glede, and the kite, and the vulture after his kind, 14 And every rwen after his kind, 15 And the ostrich, and the night–hawk, and the cuckoo, and the hawk after his kind, 16 The little owl, and the great owl, and the swan," 17 And the pelican, and the gier–eagle, and the cormorant, 18 And the stork, and the heron after his kind, and the lapwing, and the bat." 19 And every winged insect is unclean unto you : it shall not be eaten. 20 All clean fowls may ye eat. 21 Ye shall not eat any thing that dieth of itself: unto the stranger'' that is in thy gates canst thou give it, that he may eat it; or thou mayest sell it unto an alien ; for thou art a holy people unto the Lord thy God; thou shalt not seethe a kid in its mother's milk.* 22 ¶ Thou shalt truly tithe all the pro– duce of thy seed, which the field bringeth forth year by year. 23 And thou shalt eat before the Lord thy God, in the place which he will choose to cause his name to dwell there, the tithe of thy corn, of thy wine, and of thy oil, and the first–born of thy herds and of thy flocks ; in a "The bat," according to Rashi and Mendelssohn. Al– though this word has been left unchanged from the Eng– lish version, it is not probable that the rendering "swan" is correct; the word nnB'jn being also applied among the creeping animals as synonymous with "mole," conse– quently used here most probably to denote the flying species, "the bat." b "The swallow." — Mendelssohn; who, singularly enough, doub¶ess by an oversight in transcribing, renders this word in Lev. xi. 19, with¶¶" Wicihhojif," English "pewet" or "lapwing," "hoopoe." c These things not being interdicted for their unhealthi– ness, but because God chose to forbid them to Israel, they may be eaten by others, if they will. [Page 230] DEUTERONOMY XIV. XV. REAY. order that thou may learn to fear the Lord thy God all the days. 24 And if the way be too long for thee, so that thou art not able to carry it; because the place is too far from thee, which the Lord thy God will choose to set his name there, because the Lord thy God will bless thee : 25 Then shalt thou turn it into money, and bind up the money in thy hand, and thou shalt go unto the place which the Lord thy God will choose; 26 And thou shalt lay out that money for whatsoever thy soul longeth after, for oxen, or for sheep, or for wine, or for strong drink, or for whatsoever thy soul asketh of thee; and thou shalt eat it there before the Lord thy God. and thou shalt rejoice, thou, and thy household. 27 And the Levite, who is within thy gates, him shalt thou not forsake; for he hath no portion nor inheritance with thee. 28 ¶ At the end of three years shalt thou bring forth" all the tithe of thy produce in the. same year, and thou shalt lay it down within thy gates: 29 And then shall come the Levite, be– cause he hath no portion nor inheritance with thee, with the stranger, and the fatherless, and the widow, that are within thy gates, and they shall eat and be satisfied ; in order that the Lord thy God may bless thee in all the work of thy hand which thou doest.* CHAPTER XV. 1 ¶f At the end of (every) seven years shalt thou make a release. 2 And this is the manner of the release: Every creditor shall release the loan which he hath lent to his neighbour; he shall not exact it of his neighbour, or of his brother; because the release year in honour of the Lord hath been proclaimed. 8 Of a foreigner thou ma>est exact (pay– ment) ; but that which is thine with thy l)rother shall thy hand release. 4 Although'' indeed there should l)e no needy man among thee; for the Lord will greatly bless thee in the land which the Lord a i. e. Out of the house Every third year the tithe which at other times was eateu at Jerusalem, was reserved for the poor in all cities. 230 thy God giveth thee for an inheritance to possess it: 5 Yet only if thou wilt carefully hearken unto the voice of the Lord thy God, to ob– serve to do all this commandment which I command thee this day. 6 For the Lord thy God blesseth thee, as he hath spoken unto thee; and thou shalt lend unto many nations, but thou shalt not borrow; and thou shalt rule over many na– tions, but over thee shall they not rule. 7 ¶ If there be among thee a needy man of one of thy brethren within any of thy gates in thy land which the Lord thy God giveth thee : thou shalt not harden thy heart, nor shut thy hand from thy needy brother. 8 But thou shalt open wide thy hand unto him, and thou shalt surely lend him sufficient for his need, which his want requireth. 9 Beware that there be not a wicked thought in thy heart, saying. The seventh year, the year of release, is at hand ; and thy eye be thus evil against thy needy l)rother, so that thou wouldest give him nought; and if he cry concerning thee unto the Lord, it will be sin in thee; 10 Thou shalt surely give him, and thy heart shall not be grieved when thou givest unto him ; for because of this thing the Lord thy God will bless thee in all thy work, and in all the acquisition of thy hand. 11 For the needy will not cease out of the land; therefore do I command thee, saying. Thou shalt open wide thy hand unto thy brother, to thy poor, and to thy needy, in thy land. 12 ¶ If thy brother, the Hebrew, or a He– brew woman, be sold unto thee, he shall serve thee six years ; and in the seventh year shalt thou let him go free from thee. 13 And when thou lettest him go out free from thee, thou shalt not let him go away empty : 14 Thou shalt furnish him liberally out of thy flocks, and out of thy threshing–floor, and out of thy wine–prcss; wherewith the Lord thy God hath blessed thee, that shalt thou give unto him. 15 And thou shalt remember that thou b This verse has been rendered according to Mendels– sohn; but it evidently means that the poor should be very few ; hence to relieve them will be no difficult duty. [Page 231] DEUTERONOMY XV. XVI. REAY. hast been a bond–man in the land of Egypt, and that the Lord thy God hath redeemed thee ; therefore do I command thee this thing to–day. 16 And it shall be, if he say unto thee, I will not go away from thee ; because he loveth thee and thy house, because he is well with thee : 17 Then shalt thou take an awl, and thrust it through his ear unto the door, and he shall be unto thee a servant for ever;'' and also unto thy maid–servant shalt thou do like– wise. 18 It shall not seem hard unto thee, when thou sendest him away free from thee, that for double the wages of a hired labourer hath he served thee six years; and the Lord thy God will bless thee in all that thou doest.''' 19 ¶ All the firstrborn males that come of thy herds and of thy flocks shalt thou sanctify unto the Lord thy God; thou shalt do no work with the first–born of thy bullock, and not shear the first–born of thy sheep. 20 Before the Lord thy God shalt thou eat it year by year, in the place which the Lord will choose, thou with thy household. 21 And if there be any blemish thereon, if it be lame, or blind, or have any (other) ill blemish, thou shalt not sacrifice it unto the Lord thy God. 22 Within thy gates shalt thou eat it; the unclean and the clean together, as the roebuck, and as the hart. 23 Only the blood thereof shalt thou not eat ; upon the ground shalt thou pour it out as water. CHAPTER XVI. 1 ¶ Observe the month of Abib,**and pre– pare the passover–sacrifice unto the Lord thy God ; for in the month of Abib did the Lord thy God bring thee forth out of Egypt by night. 2 And thou shalt sacrifice the passover– offering unto the Lord thy God of sheep and oxen, in the place which the Lord will choose to let his name dwell there. 3 Thou shalt not eat therewith any leaven– ed bread; seven days shalt thou eat there– with unleavened bread, the bread of affliction ; a i. e. Till the jubilee, when all servitude terminates. b i. e. The ripening of the grain. for in haste didst thou go forth out of the land of Egypt; in order that thou mayest I'e– member the day of thy going forth out of the land of Egypt all the days of thy life. 4 And there shall not be seen with thee any leaven in all thy borders seven days; neither shall there any of the flesh, which thou sacrificedst in the evening, on the first day, remain all night until the morning. 5 Thou mayest not slay the passover with in any of thy gates, which the Lord thy God giveth thee; 6 But at the place which the Lord thy God will choose to let his name dwell in, there shalt thou slay the passover at even– ing, at the going down of the sun, at the season that thou camest forth out of Egypt. 7 And thou shalt roast" and eat it in the place which the Lord thy God M'ill choose; and thou shalt turn in the morning, and go unto thy tents. 8 Six days shalt thou eat unleavened bread; and on the seventh day shall be a solemn assembly to the Lord thy God : thou shalt do no work. 9 ¶ Seven weeks shalt thou number unto thyself: fi–om the time thou beginnest to put the sickle to the corn, shalt thou begin to number seven weeks. 10 And thou shalt keep the feast of weeks unto the Lord thy God with a tribute of a freewill–offering of thy hand, which thou shalt give; according as the Lord thy God shall have blessed thee. 11 And thou shalt rejoice bcfox'e the Lord thy God, thou, and thy son, and thy daugh– ter, and thy man–servant, and thy maid–ser– vant, and the Levite that is within thy gates, and the stranger, and the fatherless, and the widow, that are in the midst of thee, in the place which the Lord thy God will choose to let his name dwell there. 12 And thou shalt remember that thou hast been a bond–man in